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4G Wireless Systems Full Seminar Report Download
Post: #26
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Post: #31
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Post: #32
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Post: #34
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Post: #35
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4G Wireless Systems Full Seminar Report
Post: #37
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Post: #38
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Post: #39
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Post: #41
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Post: #47
The Evolution of TDMA to 3G & 4G Wireless Systems
AT&T Wireless Services

AT&T serves over 14 million subscribers with digital TDMA technology and some remaining analog technology,and provides packet data service with CDPD technology
– European GSM over 250 million
– North American TDMA ~ 50 million
– Japanese PDC ~ 50 million
– North American CDMA ~ 60 million (including S. Korea)
• Other TDMA operators
• - Rogers AT&T
• - Cingular (SBC & BellSouth)
• - throughout Mexico, Central & South America
Cellular Telephony Handsets
TDMA parameters

• 30 KHz channels (like analog & CDPD)
• 20 msec speech frames
• 24.3 kbaud symbol rate
• 3 time-slots/users
• 7.4 kbps ACELP speech coding
• 1/2-rate channel coding on important bits interleaved over 2 bursts in 40 msec
• Differential pi/4-QPSK modulation
TDMA Capacity Roadmap
• Operation at 800 or 1900 MHz. Calls can be set up on either frequency band and handed between them to manage traffic
• Additional spectrum at 1900 MHz adds directly to capacity of cell
• Smart Antennas
u Base station antennas systems that use digital signal processing to cancel interference

4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wirelesscommunications. A 4G
system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and
at higher data rates than previous generations.
As the second generation was a total replacement of the first generation networks and handsets; and the third generation was a total replacement of second
generation networks and handsets; so too the fourth generation cannot be an incremental evolution of current 3G technologies, but rather the total replacement of the current 3G networks and handsets. The international telecommunications regulatory and standardization bodies are working for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2012-2015 time scale. There is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives that are projected for 4G. These objectives include, that 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security.
The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels.
The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wirelessaccess communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems, have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word-Integration.The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks, andapplications to satisfy increasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobile services, and applications. An estimate of 1 billion users by the end of 2003 justifies the study and research for 4G systems.
The history and evolution of mobile service from the 1G (first generation) to fourth generation are discussed in this section. Table 1 presents a short history of mobile telephone technologies. This process began with the designs in the 1970s that have become known as 1G. The earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. Many fundamental problems were solved by these early systems. Numerous incompatible analog systems were placed in service around the world during the 1980s.The 2G (second generation) systems designed in the 1980s were still used mainly for voice applications but were based on digital technology, including digital signal processing techniques. These 2G systems provided circuit-switched data communication services at a low speed. The competitive rush to design and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and incompatible standards such as GSM (global system mobile), mainly in Europe; TDMA (time division multiple access) (IS-54/IS-136) in the U.S.; PDC (personal digital cellular) in Japan; and CDMA (code division multiple access) (IS-95), another U.S. system. These systems operate nationwide or internationally and are today's mainstream systems, although the data rate for users in these system is very limited. During the 1990s, two organizations worked to define the next, or 3G, mobile system, which would eliminate previous incompatibilities and become a truly global system.
The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data capabilities, up to 2 Mbps. Unfortunately, the two groups could not reconcile their differences, and this decade will see the introduction of two mobile standards for 3G. In addition, China is on the verge of implementing a third 3G system. An interim step is being taken between 2G and 3G, the 2.5G. It is basically an enhancement of the two major 2G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 2G RF (radio frequency) channels and to introduce higher throughput for data service, up to 384 kbps. A very important aspect of 2.5G is that the data channels are optimized for packet data, which introduces access to the Internet from mobile devices, whether telephone, PDA (personal digital assistant), or laptop. However, the demand for higher access speed multimedia communication in today's society, which greatly depends on computer communication in digital format, seems unlimited. According to the historical indication of a generation revolution occurring once a decade, the present appears to be the right time to begin the research on a 4G mobile communication system.
This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems, perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures.
The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. Based on the developing trends of mobile communication, 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users.
These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference of different users and support the users' traffic, air interfaces, radio environment, and quality of service. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telephone, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication, high-speed information services ,and entertainment broadcast services.
Figure 1 illustrates elements and techniques to support the adaptability of the 4G domain. The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks, public to private; operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc networks. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. This allencompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate, from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN(wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network),all with IP as the integrating mechanism. With 4G, a range of new services and models will be available. These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate the key elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks.
Some of the key technologies required for 4G are briefly described below:
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not only provides clear advantages for physical layer performance, but also a framework for improving layer 2 performance by proposing an additional degree of free- dom. Using ODFM, it is possible to exploit the time domain, the space domain, the frequency domain and even the code domain to optimize radio channel usage. It ensures very robust transmission in multi-path environments with reduced receiver complexity.
OFDM also provides a frequency diversity gain, improving the physical layer performance .It is also compatible with other enhancement Technologies, such as smart antennas and MIMO.OFDM modulation can also be employed as a multiple access technology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access; OFDMA). In this case, each OFDM symbol can transmit information to/from several users using a different set of sub carriers (sub channels). This not only provides additional flexibility for resource allocation (increasing the capacity), but also enables cross-layer optimization of radio link usage.
Software Defined Radio (SDR) benefits from today’s high processing power to develop multi-band, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although in future the terminals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology, at present this is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. For example, to increase network capacity at a specific time (e.g. during a sports event),an operator will reconfigure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconfiguration easy. In the context of 4G systems, SDR will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. For a manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard, multi-band equipment with reduced development effort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel processing.
MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas. Processing of the received signals may deliver several performance improvements:range, quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency. In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. The performance in cellular deployments is still subject to research and simulations.However, it is generally admitted that the gain in spectrum efficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennas in the link.
Handover technologies based on mobileIP technology have been considered for data and voice. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical methods (hierarchical, fast mobile IP).
These methods are applicable to data and probably also voice. In single-frequency networks, it is necessary to reconsider the handover methods. Several techniques can be used when the carrier to interference ratio is negative (e.g. VSFOFDM,bit repetition), but the drawback of these techniques is capacity. In OFDM, the same alternative exists as in CDMA, which is to use macro-diversity. In the case of OFDM, MIMO allows macro-diversity processing with performance gains. However, the implementation of macro-diversity implies that MIMO processing is centralized and transmissions are synchronous. This is not as complex as in CDMA, but such a technique should only be used in situations where spectrum is very scarce.
_ Traffic generated by the different services will not only increase traffic loads on the networks, but will also require different quality of service (QoS) requirements (e.g., cell loss rate, delay, and jitter) for different streams (e.g., video, voice, data).
Post: #48
I m Adil Khan a computer science engineering student
and i want to this report for 4g topic for my presntation in my college.
so plz. send this report my email id afridi021[at]
Post: #49
presented by:

Key Business Trends

1. Global Telecom Spending Patterns Realigning
o Early growth in international capex, US capex lag
2. Rise in Mobile Data Revenues Internationally
o ARPUs up by 25% CAGR, US [< 5% CAGR]
3. 50% Rise in Mobile Voice Subscribers [+1.4B]
o International +100%, US +15%
o Emerging markets to remain unsaturated through 2012
o Mobile broadband subscribers up 275% [+750M]
4. New Mobile Services Taking Hold – SK/Japan/Nordics
o Provide impetus to mobile data services
5. Operators Consolidating Domestically While Expanding Overseas
o E.g., AT&T Mobility B India, Telefonica (+TIM) B CALA
The 4G
• What we need
o Adaptive high performance transmission system
o Great candidate for SDR
Goal: A Unified Architecture
3G: Some Unfinished Business

• Improved coverage (e.g., residences)
• Inter technology roaming Inter carrier compensation (esp. data services)
• Balance sheet cleanup (debt reduction)
• Capacity Utilization
• Business Models for New Services
Post: #50
presented by:
Sudha Madhuri.Sattiraju
Asha Jyothi.Koganti

Mobile devices are getting smaller, lighter, and more powerful; they have bigger screens and longer battery life, more features and more capabilities. Things like watching the football game on your mobile device, watching movies, videoconferencing, paying your bills and downloading music to the palm of your hand will become second nature in the near future. Bandwidth will always be the limiting factor in the development of applications and devices, be it wired, or wireless. At the moment the wireless world doesn’t have a large-cell, high bandwidth standard, that is capable of delivering the much needed speeds to a mobile device. The short fall of 3G networks is clear, it’s just not fast enough, offering 384kbps doesn’t meet the requirements of what the end user has come to expect these days. Some people see 3G as a stop-gap, until a fully integrated IP network is created; some countries have even chosen to bypass 3G and head straight to 4G, a method which has its advantages, and its disadvantages.
4G is set to be available around 2010, getting it right first time will make it a general winner with the one billion mobile users around the world. The end user can expect low cost per data bit, as well as speed and reliability, something which is greatly.
Technology Companies with 4G networks are knocking on the door and mobile operators are beginning to answer. 4G networks and Next Generation Networks (NGNs) are becoming fast and very cost-effective solutions for those wanting an IP built high-speed data capacities in the mobile network.
IP is pushing its way into the mobile wireless market,” said Visant Strategies Senior Analyst Andy Fuertes, author of “The Road to 4G and NGN: Wireless IP Migration Paths.” By 2010, the just-published study finds, there will be 113 million
NGN and 4G users, with the market starting to take effect 2006 and 2007.
4G is an initialize of the term Fourth-Generation Communications System.
 A 4G system will provide an end-to-end IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be served to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis at higher data rates than previous generations.
No formal definition is set as to what 4G is, but the objectives that are predicted for 4G can be summarized as follows
 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks wired and wireless networks (e.g.: computer, consumer electronics, communication technology…)
 Providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments
 End-to-end quality of service
 High security
 Offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere
 Affordable cost and one billing
 The following are some possible features of the 4G systems :
 Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other broadband services.
 High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit.
 Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks.
 Seamless switching, variety of services based on Quality of
 Service (QoS) requirements
 Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks
Pre-4G Wireless Standards:
• WiMAX - 7.2 million units by 2010 (May include fixed and mobile)
• Flash-OFDM - 13 million subscribers in 2010 (only Mobile)
• 3GPP Long Term Evolution of UMTS in 3GPP - valued at US$2 billion in 2010 (~30% of the world population)
• UMB in 3GPP2

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