Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the final and most serious stage of the disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Symptoms begin when an HIV-positive person presents a CD4-cell (also called T cell, a type of immune cell) count below 200. AIDS happens concurrently with numerous opportunistic infections and tumors that are normally associated with the HIV infection.
The most common neurological complications of AIDS involve opportunistic infections of the brain such as progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) and meningitis, other opportunistic infections such as herpes zoster (shingles), peripheral neuropathy, depression, and AIDS-related dementia.
Full form of AIDS is Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS is a retroviral disease.
Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
MORE ABOUT HIV
HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV-1 global and HIV-2 discovered in West Africa and found principally in West Africa.
HIV-2 more virulent, faster progression and associated with greater morbidity.
STRUCTURE OF HIV
Structure of HIV
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) consists of a nucleoid core and the surrounding protein matrix, both enclosed in a lipid envelope. The nucleoid core contains the viral genetic material and the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which are used in viral replication. The transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 are attached to the envelope; these proteins
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV 1
routes of spread
Sexual Contact – 75%.
Inoculation – intravenous drug abusers and recipients of blood and blood products.
Passage of virus from Infected mothers to children through the placenta or through breast milk.
Virus is carried in the semen and enters the recipient's body through abrasions in the rectal mucosa.
Other sexually transmitted diseases like Gonorrhea associated with increased transmission of HIV due to the increased concentration of virus in the seminal fluid due to increased number of inflammatory cells in the Semen.
IV drug abusers
Hemophiliacs – factor VIII
Random recipients of blood
Screening of donated blood
Mother to Child
In utero by transplacental spread
During delivery by an infected birth canal
After birth through breast milk and handling of the cord
AIDS spread by casual personal contact in the workplace, household or school.(hugging, kissing, food, water).
The virus is spread by insect (mosquito) bites.
Results of misperceptions
Ryan White became a poster child for HIV after being expelled from school because of his infection.
Phases of HIV Infection (CDC)
Weight loss >10% of body weight
Chronic diarrhea >1 month
Prolonged fever >1 month (int or perm)
Persistent cough >1 month
The number of people living with HIV has risen from around 8 million in 1990 to 33 million today, and is still growing. Around 67% of people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa
Global HIV/AIDS estimates, end of 2007
No cure known yet……
Azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine, Retrovir) prolongs survival but does not eliminate the virus, Inhibits proviral DNA synthesis but does not eliminate the virus.
Dideoxyinosine(ddI, didanosine, videx) mechanism of action is similar to AZT
Sexually active: stick to one sexual partner.
Earvin Johnson, who played his entire National Basketball Association (NBA) career with the Los Angeles Lakers, earned the nickname Magic after an extraordinary performance in a high school game. Johnson was named NBA most valuable player in 1987, 1989, and 1990. In 1991 Johnson learned that he had been infected with the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and he started an educational campaign to raise awareness
Let us Promise ourselves that we will be a part of red cross and always take precautions & remain enjoying our lives.