Posts: 3,054

Joined: Dec 2008

AN AREA-EFFICIENT UNIVERSAL CRYPTOGRAPHY PROCESSOR FOR SMART CARDS

Cryptography circuits for smart cards and portable electronic devices provide user authentication and secure data communication. These circuits should, in general, occupy small chip area, consume low power, handle several cryptography algorithms, and provide acceptable performance. This project is based on a hardware implementation of three standard cryptography algorithms on a universal architecture.The microcode cryptography processor targets smart card applications and implements both private key and public key algorithms and meets the power and performance specifications. A new algorithm is implemented by changing the contents of the memory blocks that are implemented in ferroelectric RAM ( FeRAM ) .Using FeRAM allows nonvolatile storage of the configuration bits, which are changed only when a new algorithm instantiations required. Security system must implement both private (symmetric) and public ( asymmetric ) key algorithms, to accommodate various application requirements . Private key algorithms with high throughput are suitable for data communication, while public key algorithms with much lower throughput are suitable for private key exchange and authentication. Among all available algorithms data encryption standard (DES), advanced encryption standard (AES), and elliptic curve cryptography(ECC),which are approved by std organizations , are selected for this application. DES, for past compatibility, and AES, for high security and throughput are the major candidates for private key algorithms, and ECC is the best candidate for the public key algorithm for its encryption efficiency. CRYPTOGRAPHY ALGORITHMSÂ¢ DES (Data Encryption Standard)Â¢ AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)Â¢ ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Posts: 1

Joined: May 2010

iam doing project on cryptogaphy algorithms.

Posts: 1

Joined: Jul 2010

project Area-Efficient Universal Cryptography Processor for Smart Cards

Posts: 2

Joined: Dec 2010

I WANT FULL DETAILS AND CIRCIUT DIAGRAM AND METHOD OF IMPLEMENTATION OF

Posts: 3,539

Joined: Sep 2010

Posts: 5,362

Joined: Feb 2011

[attachment=10495]

ABSTRACT

Cryptography circuits for smart cards and portable electronic devices provide user authentication and secure data communication. These circuits should, in general, occupy small chip area, consume low power, handle several cryptography algorithms, and provide acceptable performance. This paper presents a hardware implementation of three standard cryptography algorithms on a universal architecture.

The microcoded cryptography processor targets smart card applications and implements both private key and public key algorithms and meets the power and performance specifications and is as small as 2.25 mm in 0.18-µm 6LM CMOS. A new algorithm is implemented by changing the contents of the memory blocks that are implemented in ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM). Using FeRAM allows nonvolatile storage of the configuration bits, which are changed only when a new algorithm instantiation is required.

INTRODUCTION

SMART CARDS

• Smart cards are ICC embedded integrated circuits which can process data.

• They can be used for identification, authentication, and data storage and eliminate redundant data entry.

• They are classified as Contactless and Contact

• They enable improvements of business processes by enhancing the services and the security.

CRYPTOGRAPHY

The popularity of the devices like smart cards, cellular phones and PDAs necessitates special considerations for their security subsystems. Thus cryptography gives trust in confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of these devices.

Since next-generation, multipurpose smart cards will be used for a wide range of applications, their security system must implement both private (symmetric) and public (asymmetric) key algorithms, to accommodate various application requirements.

Private key algorithms with high throughput are suitable for data communication, while public key algorithms with much lower throughput are suitable for private key exchange and authentication.

Among all available algorithms, data encryption standard (DES), advanced encryption standard (AES), and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), which are approved by standards organizations are selected for this application.

DES, for past compatibility, and AES, for high security and throughput, are the major candidates for private key algorithms, and ECC is the best candidate for the public key algorithm for its encryption efficiency.

RSA, which is also a standard public key algorithm, is not considered in this design for three reasons. First, it is believed that 160-b ECC provides the same level of security as 1024-b RSA. Thus, ECC will be a better choice when implementation area is a key factor in the design. Second, RSA uses binary addition of large numbers and needs binary adderess that are either slow for carry propagation or large for look-ahead carry generation. Third, a larger number of bits in RSA means wider buses, which adds to the area and power consumption of the design, both of which are scarce resources in smart cards.

IMPLEMENTATION

A cryptography system can be implemented in either software or hardware. Software implementations allow multiple algorithms to be supported on the same hardware platform,but they are usually slow and cannot meet the required specifications. Moreover, they are considered to be more vulnerable to side-channel attacks compared to other implementations.

Hardware implementations which support high throughput do not allow for flexibility and, hence, are not suitable for smart cards.

Flexible field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations are not a good choice either, because they need large area and power which cannot be supported on smart card.

However, since users and manufacturers are still concerned about the vulnerability of software implementations of the cryptography algorithms to side-channel attacks, it is important to design hardware circuits that meet the required specifications and are more immune to these attacks.

CRYPTOGRAPHY ALGORITHMS

DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD (DES)

• This is a well-established algorithm that has been used for more than two decades (since 1977) in military and commercial data exchange and storage.

• The algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher blocks of data consisting of 64 b using a 56-b key.

• It uses 2 basic techniques of cryptography: Confusion & Diffusion . Confusion is achieved through numerous permutations & Diffusion is achieved through XOR and Shift operations

• A block to be enciphered is subjected to an initial permutation (IP), then to 16 rounds of a complex key-dependent permutation, and, finally, to another permutation which is the inverse of the IP, IP

Posts: 1

Joined: May 2011

ppt,project report and code