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Post: #1

Implementing file transfer, printer sharing, and mail service among Apple systems using the Local Talk interface built into Apple hardware, these were the main tasks of AppleTalk developed by Apple Computer. AppleTalk ports to other network media such as Ethernet with the aod of LocalTalk to Ethernet bridges or by Ethernet add-in boards for Apple machines. In addition to many third-party applications, internetwork routing, transaction and data stream service, naming service, and comprehensive file and print sharing are some of the provisions of this multi-layered protocol. With the introduction of AppleTalk Phase 2 in 1989, the addressing capability of AppleTalk networks were extended and thereby provided compliance with the IEEE 802 standard. Some other additions present in AppleTalk Phase 2 were the range of available network layer addresses and the use of the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) protocol at the Data Link Layer.
Post: #2
AppleTalk, a protocol suite developed by Apple Computer in the early 1980s, was developed in conjunction with the Macintosh computer.The aim was to allow multiple users to share resources, like files and printers. servers supply these resources and the devices that make use of these resources are called clients. It is one o the first distributed client/server networking system. In this , the interaction between client computers and network servers requires little interaction from the user.

AppleTalk Network Components
Four basic components form the basis of an AppleTalk network: sockets, nodes, networks, and zones.
[Image: CT843501.jpg]

It is a unique, addressable location in an AppleTalk node.The upper-layer AppleTalk software processes and the network layer Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) interact at this point.

It is is a device that is connected to an AppleTalk network.numerous software processes called sockets run in each node.

It consists of a single logical cable and multiple attached nodes. a single physical cable or multiple physical cables interconnected by using bridges or routers may be found. They can be-
-Non extended Networks:
It is a physical network segment that is assigned only a single network number, which can range between 1 and 1024. Each node number in a nonextended network must be unique, and a single nonextended network segment cannot have more than one AppleTalk Zone configured on it.

-Extended Networks:
Also known as a cable range. It is a physical network segment that can be assigned multiple network numbers. It can indicate a single network number or multiple consecutive network numbers.

AppleTalk Physical and Data Link Layers:
The AppleTalk architecture maintains media-access dependencies on such lower-layer protocols as Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI.EtherTalk, LocalTalk, TokenTalk, and FDDITalk are the four main media-access implementations .

Full report:
Post: #3


AppleTalk, a protocol suite developed by Apple Computer in the early 1980â„¢s.
 AppleTalk's purpose was to allow multiple users to share resources, such as files and printers. The devices that

supply these resources are called servers.
 AppleTalk was designed with a transparent network interface”that is, the interaction between client computers and

network servers requires little interaction from the user.
 Two versions of AppleTalk exist:

AppleTalk Phase 1
AppleTalk Phase 2

link layer.

2.AppleTalk Network Components


Non-extended Networks
Extended Networks


The AppleTalk Internetwork Consists of a Hierarchy of Components


An AppleTalk socket is a unique, addressable location in an AppleTalk node.
Sockets can be assigned statically or dynamically.
Socket Clients Use Sockets to Send and Receive Datagrams
Zones: An AppleTalk zone is a logical group of nodes or networks that is defined when the network

administrator configures the network.

AppleTalk network consists of a single logical cable and multiple attached nodes.

The logical cable is comprised of either a single physical cable or multiple physi­cal cables interconnected by

using bridges or routers.

AppleTalk networks can be classified into two types

Non extended network

Extended network.

AppleTalk Physical and Data link Layers EtherTalk EtherTalk Link Access Protocol LocalTalk

LocalTalk Link Access Protocol TokenTalk TokenTalk Link Access Protocol

Local Talk LocalTalk networks are organized in a bus topology, which means that devices are connected to each other

in series. Local Talk Link Access Protocol: The LocalTalk Link Access Protocol (LLAP) is the media-access

protocol used in LocalTalk networks to provide best-effort, error-free delivery of frames between AppleTalk nodes
Token Talk: supporting the same speeds and the same number of active network nodes. Token Talk Link Access

Protocol: The Token Talk Link Access Protocol (TLAP) handles the interaction between the proprietary

AppleTalk protocols and the standard data link layer.

Network Addresses
Network number” A 16-bit value that identifies a specific AppleTalk network (either non extended or extended)

Node number” An 8-bit value that identifies a particular AppleTalk node attached to the specified network

Socket number” An 8-bit number that identifies a specific socket running on a network node

AppleTalk Address Resolution
Address Mapping Table

Each AppleTalk node contains an Address Mapping Table (AMT), where hardware addresses are associated with

network addresses.
Address Gleaning

This process of obtaining address mappings from incoming packets is known as address gleaning.

AARP Operation

The AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) maps hardware addresses to network addresses. When an

AppleTalk protocol has data to send, it passes the network address of the destination node to AARP.

Figure : The AppleTalk Network Address Consists of Three Distinct Numbers

D D P Overview:

DDP TransmissionProcess
The Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) is the primary network layer routing protocol in the AppleTalk protocol suite

that provides a best-effort connectionless datagram service between AppleTalk sockets.

AppleTalk Protocol Suite

DDP Packet Format
The following descriptions summarize the fields associated with the DDP packets. This packet has two forms:
Short DDP packet”The short format is used for transmissions between two nodes on the same network segment in a non

extended network only. This format is seldom used in new networks.
Extended DDP packet”The extended format is used for transmissions between nodes with different network numbers (in

a no extended network) and for any transmissions in an extended network.

An Extended DDP Packet Consists of 13 Fields:

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