Asynchronous Transfer Mode
The successful deployment of broadband networks and services requires a comprehensive assessment of the capabilities of the impacted network elements. In particular, conformance, performance, and interoperability testing of switching systems and routers is necessary for all aspects of network and service deployment. To ensure timely, high quality deployment of products and services on Multi Protocol Label Switching, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, and/or Internet Protocol (IP)-based networks, network service providers need to select network equipment with proven reliability and the interoperability necessary to support the services they plan to offer. Often, service providers will refuse to purchase new products and capabilities from their existing telecommunications suppliers if they have experienced numerous or significant field problems with that supplierâ„¢s products in the past.
In this intensely competitive equipment market, telecommunications suppliers need to ascertain with confidence that their network equipment will meet the applicable specifications and standards expected by the customers and further, that this equipment will integrate successfully with other network equipment from a diversified market of suppliers to deliver the quality of service expected by customers.
Telecommunications suppliers need to determine whether their equipment:
1) Meets industry standards and network requirements for the network service it intends to support
2) Delivers an acceptable quality of service given the wide variety and quantity of traffic that may be experienced in the network
3) Conforms to the necessary standards that enable it to integrate with other network equipment, so that it can deliver reliable end-to-end service.
IP and ATM are major examples for connectionless and connection-oriented services. Connectionless IP is more efficient for browsing, e-mail, and other non-real time services demanding quality and real time delivery. But for services demanding guaranteed quality and real-time delivery, fixed-path ATM is a much better candidate. A standalone ATM or IP network has additional problems. For ATM, despite the efforts, there is still little confidence that statistical multiplexing can be economically implemented in a gigabit network.
After many years of research, it is abundantly clear that future networks need two modes of operation: datagram (connectionless) and virtual circuit (connection-oriented). IP and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) are the two archetypal examples. Connectionless IP is more efficient for browsing, e-mail, and other non-real-time services, but for services demanding guaranteed quality and real-time delivery, fixed-path ATM is a much better candidate. A standalone ATM or IP network has additional problems. For ATM, despite overwhelming efforts, there is still little confidence that statistical multiplexing can be economically implemented in a gigabit network. It is unrealistic to expect all users know the call descriptors of their connections. Without statistical multiplexing, the potentially large amount of unused bandwidth from the real-time virtual channels may be wasted. For IP, supporting real-time services with guaranteed quality requires bandwidth reservation; but the constant change of paths in an IP network makes bandwidth reservation difficult to implement.
Pinning, however, can cause IP to lose the flexibility of a connectionless network. Even if pinning is used, the network still needs to deal with the issues of call admission control rate policing, pricing, and how to support a variety of charging policies (like 800 services). To successfully tackle these issues requires extensive signaling capability, which is the characteristic of a connection-oriented network. With each additional step added to IP, the network will look more like an ATM network.
Processor Type : Pentium -IV
Speed : 1.2 GHZ
Ram : 128 MB RAM
Hard disk : 20 GB HD
Operating System : Win2000/XP
Programming Package : CORE JAVA.