A patented new power machine concept has been designed and analyzed for production, and proof of principle subscale tests have been performed, with positive results. The machine design concept is applicable as a compressor, pump, motor, or engine. Simplicity of design based on spherical ball pistons enables a low moving part count, high power to weight ratio, elimination of valve train and water cooling systems, and perfect dynamic balance.
The new design concept utilizes novel kinematic design to completely eliminate inertial loads that would contribute to sliding friction. Also, low leakage is maintained without piston rings by using a small clearance on the ball piston, resulting in choked flow past the ball. These features provide the potential for an engine with higher efficiency than conventional piston engines. The engine design utilizes existing recent technology to advantage, such as silicon nitride ball pistons, so a large development effort is not required.
Efforts to develop rotary internal combustion engines have been undertaken in the past, and are continuing. One main advantage to be gained with a rotary engine is reduction of inertial loads and better dynamic balance. The Wankel rotary engine has been the most successful example to date, but sealing problems contributed to its decline. The Hanes rotary engine uses an eccentric circular rotor in a circular chamber with sliding radial vanes. This engine has never been fully tested and commercialized, and has a sealing problem similar to that of the Wankel. A more recent development, the Rand Cam engine, uses axial vanes that slide against cam surfaces to vary chamber volume. Currently under development, it remains to be seen whether the Rand Cam can overcome the sealing problems that are again similar to those of the Wankel.
In the compressor and pump arena, reduction of reciprocating mass in positive displacement machines has always been an objective, and has been achieved most effectively by lobe, gear, sliding vane, liquid ring, and screw compressors and pumps, but at the cost of hardware complexity or higher losses. Lobe, gear, and screw machines have relatively complex rotating element shapes and friction losses. Sliding vane machines have sealing and friction issues. Liquid ring compressors have fluid turbulence losses. The new design concept of the Ball Piston Engine uses a different approach that has many advantages, including low part count and simplicity of design, very low friction, and low heat loss, high power to weight ratio, perfect dynamic balance, and cycle thermodynamic tailoring capability. These aspects will be discussed in more detail below.
1.1 THE DESIGN CONCEPT
Although the design is applicable as a compressor, pump, motor, or engine, the engine implementation will be used for concept discussion. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show end and side cross section views, respectively, of a four stroke engine design.
1.1.1 Mode of operation
The basis of the design is ball pistons rolling on an eccentric track. The balls exert tangential force on the cylinder walls which turn the rotor. Useful power is available at the rotor output shaft. The combustion chambers are within the spinning rotor. Chamber porting for intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes is achieved by passage of the chamber tops across an internal stator with appropriate feeds as the rotor spins.
Beginning at top dead center (TDC) at 0 degrees rotation, the stator intake passage is open to the cylinder and a fuel/air charge is pulled into the cylinder as the ball piston moves radially outward for the first 90 degrees of rotation (intake stroke).
Then the intake passage is closed off, and the ball reverses radial direction for the next 90 degrees of rotation, during which time the new charge is compressed (compression stroke).
Just past 180 degrees rotation, the compressed charge is ignited as the cylinder port passes a small ignitor port. Combustion ensues, and the high combustion pressure pushes radially outward on the ball piston for the next 90 degrees of rotation. The ball in turn pushes tangentially on the cylinder wall because of the "slope" of the eccentric ball track, which is now allowing the ball to move radially outward. The tangential force produces useful torque on the rotor (power stroke).
At 270 degrees of rotation, the spent combustion charge is allowed to escape through the exhaust passage as the cylinder port is uncovered. Exhaust is expelled as the ball moves radially inward for the next 90 degrees of rotation (exhaust stroke). Then the cycle repeats.
Important Design Features
The basic operation of the new design is conventional for an internal combustion engine, i.e. a piston reciprocates within a cylinder, and with porting, implements the four strokes of the Otto cycle. However, there are a number of features that make this engine design favorable for high efficiency and emissions control.
The porting required for four stroke operation is achieved with no additional moving parts, and no valve train losses. The porting mechanism is achieved with simple port clocking within the rotor/internal stator bearing interface. Thus, part count is low and the hardware is simple in geometry, with only the rotor and ball pistons as moving parts.
Note that cylinder induction and mixing are aided by centrifugal and coriolis accelerations, because the cylinders are within the spinning rotor.
Sliding friction sites are minimized by the use of a rolling ball piston. Friction at conventional piston rings, piston pin, and connecting rod/crankshaft bearing are eliminated. Sliding friction still exists at the ball/cylinder wall contact, but is minimized by special material selection and working gas hydrodynamics (and possibly local lubrication). The rotor/stator bearing is of a gas or fluid hydrostatic type, so friction is very low at that site.
The use of an eccentric ball track allows tailoring of the chamber volume vs. time to optimize the cycle from a thermodynamic and chemical kinetics standpoint. The only requirement is that the ball return to the starting radius at TDC before intake. For example, the expansion/exhaust stroke length can be made different than for intake/compression for more exhaust energy recovery, or the combustion can be held at constant volume for a certain period.
Multi-cycle rotors can be implemented. Instead of 4 strokes, 8, 12 or more strokes can be traversed in a single revolution. Compressors and pumps can use any multiple of 2 strokes (intake and compression only), either in parallel or staged arrangement. Provided that inertial forces are controlled (to be discussed later), power to weight ratio can therefore be made high. Other engine configuration options are also under investigation, including a dual rotor/intercooler configuration, diesel cycles, and 2 stroke cycles. The dual rotor option is attractive because it allows the compression and expansion ratios to be widely different (on separate rotors), but there are interstage pumping and intercooling losses that must be considered.
The uses of many ball pistons, which each undergo the four strokes in clocked fashion, results in smooth power delivery and small net oscillatory forces. In fact, the total ball inertia forces are automatically balanced by symmetry if the number of balls is even. Further, combustion forces can be balanced by using an eight stroke rotor or stacking rotors axially with relative clocking. Also note that a four (or higher) stroke rotor compressor would be balanced.
Novel design of the ball track has been devised that will eliminate inertial forces on each ball that contribute to friction. As the ball moves in and out radially on the eccentric track while the rotor spins, coriolis and other acceleration forces are generated on the ball radially and tangentially. Net tangential inertial forces contribute to friction at the ball/cylinder wall contact point. By changing the ball rolling radius using a widening/narrowing dual contact track in a prescribed manner, Figure 3, the net tangential inertial forces on the ball can be eliminated. In essence, the track design results in a balance of translational and rotational ball kinetic energy to eliminate tangential force. In other words, the ball track is designed so that the ball rolls around the track in synchronization with the rotor at constant rotation rate. Due to the form of the laws of motion, it is possible to maintain this condition at all rotation rates with a fixed track design. This allows the machine to be run at any high rpm desired, until the mechanical limits of the ball piston rolling on the track are reached (Hertzian stress fatigue). Engine power theoretically increases linearly with rpm. In actuality, intake flow dynamics may limit peak power at very high rpm, but that depends on the intake passageway details.
There is another interesting by-product of the rolling ball approach. The ball spins at very high rates around its own axis, while it is radially compressed by centrifugal forces of rotation about the rotor axis. These two sources of inertial load tend to cancel out in terms of generating internal ball stresses. This allows high engine speeds to be sustained with less ball fatigue damage.
Heat loss is kept low because the engine intake can be configured to flow through the outer stator/rotor cavity. Rotor heat loss is gained by the intake charge, with less loss to the outer stator.
2.1 Technical Challenges
The main concerns for operation of the new machine are being addressed in focused subscale testing.
First, leakage through the ball piston/cylinder gap is a significant factor for engine or compressor efficiency, especially at low speeds. Calculations show that the flow is choked during combustion due to high pressure differential and small clearance area. Choking is helpful in keeping leakage to acceptable levels. Engine efficiency predictions based on simple choked flow leakage models are very favorable. Leakage tests performed in subscale testing have shown that leakage is less than the simple models predict, and dependence on ball spin, pressure, and rpm have been and are being characterized.
Second, the friction and wear at the ball piston/cylinder wall sliding interface is important. Engine performance depends on the magnitude of the effective friction coefficient, and high relative sliding speed can contribute to wear. Engine efficiency predictions based on an average friction coefficient of 0.1 or less are very favorable. Subscale tests have proven that the coefficient of friction for a silicon nitride ball piston on polished steel with no lubrication is about 0.075 +/- 0.03, about the same as estimated.
The wear issue must be proven out mainly by testing with a full range of operating conditions. Thus far, tendency for cylinder wall plasticity has indicated that cylinder material must be of high hot strength and hardness. Large reductions in "wear-in" plastic flow were achieved by changing cylinder walls from 1018 hot rolled steel to 17-4PH hardened to about Rc 44. A material with better hot hardness, such as achievable with M2 high speed tool steel, has been subsequently selected to resist high sliding flash temperatures and completely eliminate cylinder wall plastic deformation. Low cost production options include case hardening, plating over a hot hard substrate, coatings, and other surface treatment technologies.
It is intended to design the machine for no lubrication, except that available from the working gas or fluid. This is most feasible for compressor and pump applications. However, lack of lubrication is a driving consideration in cylinder wall material selection for the engine, based on subscale testing to date with air only. Extra lubrication is a secondary design option that may be best for some applications, especially the engine, where loads are higher. Lubrication can reduce friction coefficient and wear potential and provide hydrodynamic separation at the ball piston/cylinder wall, and also can reduce leakage flow past the ball piston. However, there will be a trade off for residue build up, emissions, and maintenance.
INERTIAL CONTROL THEORY
Early efforts to analytically demonstrate engine performance were plagued by excessive frictional losses due to large coriolis forces on the ball. Although the effect was conservative, i.e. average tangential force per revolution of the rotor was zero, the attendant friction force at the ball piston/cylinder wall contact would grow too large as speed increased. The design of the ball track impacted the magnitude of coriolis force somewhat, but it was not immediately apparent that track design could completely eliminate the net tangential force.
The mechanical dynamics of the design are conceptually simple, based on the 2-D equations of motion of an individual ball piston. Using Figure 4, assuming constant rotor rotation rate and simple Coulomb friction at the ball piston/cylinder wall contact, the three equations of motion are
Where the ball accelerations are
and is pressure force, is tangential contact force, = is friction force, =d /dt, =d /dt ( is ball spin rate), R is ball position radius, r is rolling radius, is friction coefficient, m is ball mass, is ball moment of inertia, is ball radius, and is track slope relative to tangential. All kinematic quantities, including , are known if rolling is assumed, so the three problem unknowns are , and T.
One must be careful to keep sign conventions and direction of non-conservative friction forces correct while considering all phases of the engine cycle, and one reaches the important result of tangential force on the ball and imparted to the rotor in the clockwise sense,
k = +1 if > 0 and
k = -1 if < 0.
For reasonable values of , the denominator of equation (3) is always positive, so the sign of can be determined from the numerator alone.
Earliest designs not based on engineering analysis used a dual contact track with maximum rolling radius (equal to ball radius) at TDC, changing in approximately sinusoidal manner to a small rolling radius at BDC. This design allowed for maximizing stroke and maximum compactness. In that case, coriolis forces and attendant frictional losses would negate the useful power from combustion/expansion at undesirably low rotor rpm.
Then sensitivity analysis of ball track design was studied using simple basic track geometry, i.e. sinusoidal variation of ball radius with rotation angle. It was thought that substantial reductions of inertial contributions to F were achievable by "reversing" the track design so that full rolling radius was at BDC and a smaller rolling radius was reached at TDC, using a dual contact track. This approach was based on maintaining constant ball spin rate, which was thought to minimize inertial loads, and it was recognized that there would be some loss of stroke due to the track at TDC. It was found, however, that results were not much better, because of large coriolis forces that still existed. Figure 5 shows the individual contributors to rotor tangential force for an example of the constant ball spin rate track design. It is seen that the power producing force from combustion is dwarfed
by the inertial loads, particularly the coriolis contribution.
Then sensitivity to rolling radius magnitude change was investigated by trial and error, and it was found that large improvements could be made by imposing a certain amount of ball angular acceleration in the proper direction to cancel coriolis forces. Figure 6 shows a comparison of net tangential forces for the simple constant ball spin rate track and optimized sinusoidal track. Inertial forces were decreased by almost an order of magnitude by this approach. The remaining force has about double the frequency, due to nonlinear ball track slope details that were not correctable by a simple sinusoidal track design.
Looking in more detail at equation (3), it is seen that along with the power producing contribution of , there are also tangential acceleration forces from both translation and rotation of the ball. We can take these contributions together and minimize them by using track rolling radius to impose ball angular acceleration . We can define the inertial load we wish to eliminate by
Now, is zero for constant speed operation, R, r, and are dependent only on , and , , and are dependent only on and spin rate due to the constraint of rolling. For example, the ball spin rate is
Then differentiating with respect to time, the angular acceleration can be shown to be a separable function of and ,
Similarly, all other time derivatives can be separated, and using primes to denote derivatives with respect to , one obtains
Thus, it is seen that for any rpm ( ), the geometry of the ball track (ball position radius R and rolling radius r as a function of rotation angle of the rotor) can be tailored to give exactly zero net force, by playing the ball angular acceleration against the ball translational acceleration. Given R , r , and , then and can be fully computed. Using a dual contact track, allowing the ball rolling radius to change adds the degree of freedom necessary to achieve this balance. Figure 6 shows, for the "optimal" case, how inertial tangential forces are completely eliminated, leaving only the combustion force to provide usable power.
It is important to point out that the resulting design is not a perpetual motion machine. The translational and rotational kinetic energy is simply exchanged in a prescribed manner to achieve the desired effect. In total absence of friction and other losses, the ball would roll around the track in perfect synchronization with the constant speed rotor without tangential interaction forces.
It is difficult to solve for the optimal geometry of the track explicitly, due to the trigonometric complexity of the governing equation (7). Iterative numerical methods, such as Newton Raphson, can be implemented to solve for the ball rolling radius, given a functional form for ball position radius. A logical assumption for R is sinusoidal, but a different form useful for engine cycle optimization is just as easily used in the computation of r . The track slope depends completely on R by the equation
so maintaining zero net force in equation (7) consists of solving a nonlinear transcendental equation for r at discrete values of . Figure 7 shows an example of the optimal ball rolling radius variation with rotation angle for a 2.0 inch diameter ball with a mean ball position radius of 10.00 inches, and sinusoidal R . Using the pure sine wave comparison in Figure 7, the form of r is seen to be nearly sinusoidal, but there are small nonlinearities introduced by track slope effects. Nevertheless, the track is readily producable using computer controlled
Note that the minimum rolling radius for this case is 0.81 at TDC, so a portion of the stroke available, 0.19 , is lost. One must iteratively choose a stroke, implicit in the definition of R , and then check whether it is geometrically feasible for rolling radius at the end of the computation. Figure 8 shows the lost stroke as a function of ball size and ball position radius. Larger balls and ball track radii are better for minimizing stroke loss. Figure 9 shows minimum rotor radius as a function of ball size, based on a reasonable stroke loss of 25%. Less stroke loss can be achieved by using larger rotors, but there will be a practical design trade-off against centrifugal loads and engine size.
3.1 COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS
As a compressor, the design is effective, even without active lubrication. Figure 12 shows the influence of ball track design on specific compressor performance over a range of speed (2 inch diameter ball piston, 2 stroke rotor, mean ball position radius=5.25 inch, 0.10 coefficient of friction, pressure rise of 120 psig, and ball diametral clearance of 0.001 inch). The "ideal" condition in the figure corresponds to performance of a frictionless adiabatic compressor, and this condition is used as the datum for efficiency measures. When track design is optimal to eliminate inertial friction forces, efficiency does not drop with rpm, and is about 85%, increasing slightly with rpm.
Figure 10. Specific compressor performance for track designs (2 inch diameter ball piston, 2 stroke rotor, mean ball position radius=5.25 inch, 0.10 coefficient of friction, pressure rise of 120 psig, and ball diametral clearance of 0.001 inch)
Leakage loss plays a part at very low speed, but for any speed above about 500 rpm, leakage losses are minimal. Leakage loss can be further decreased either by increasing rotor speed or by increasing strokes per revolution. In both cases, leakage time is decreased per unit displacement. For example, the same compressor size with four strokes per revolution was found to have efficiency of 89%. Even more strokes can be added to improve efficiency, but there will eventually be a speed trade-off due to oscillatory ball radial acceleration forces.
The overall efficiency of the compressor is mainly controlled by cylinder wall friction, with a smaller thermal loss component. As friction is reduced, the performance will move closer to the adiabatic ideal case. In situations where air purity is not a concern, lubrication can be used to reduce friction, and efficiencies up to about 95% can be obtained. Note lubrication hydrodynamics will also serve to block leakage. With lubrication, silicon nitride ball pistons may be replaced by metallic or plastic balls for lower cost. With much lower operational temperatures than for an engine, these ball/cylinder combinations may be feasible.
In fluid pumping applications, the conditions are even more favorable for high efficiency. Leakage is further reduced due to higher viscosity working fluid, and the working fluid acts as coolant, further reducing material strength requirements. Near ideal pump efficiency is therefore expected. The main difference in a pump design is that the compression stroke is open to a high pressure plenum, instead of trapped.
CHAPTER - IV
PROOF OF PRINCIPLE TESTING
4.1 Test Configuration
Subscale test fixturing was devised to prove out leakage and friction characteristics of the design at minimal cost. Figure 11 shows the layout of the test system. Working air is provided from a high pressure tank with regulation (2200 psig max). The gas feeds to a fixed test cylinder, fitted with a ball piston. The ball piston rolls on an eccentric drive wheel with a single contact groove to maintain alignment (no dual contact track is implemented in the tester).
The eccentric drive wheel provides the stroking action of the ball piston, and at the same time changes the mechanical leverage angle of the ball forces, thus simulating the eccentricity of the ball track in the actual engine design. Interface forces develop between the ball and interchangeable cylinder sleeve wall, as seen in Figure 12.
Because the cylinder does not rotate in this arrangement, inertial forces are naturally low, but not insignificant at high speeds. Using terminology similar to the engine case, replacing rotor rotation by eccentric drive wheel rotation, the result for tangential force is quite similar to the engine case,
k = +1 if > 0 and k = -1 if < 0.
Now, the kinematics are clearly different, where
and is the lateral drive center offset, is the wheel eccentricity, and is the downward ball acceleration. Determination of the predicted result is best done in a spreadsheet where the kinematic quantities can all be recursively computed using a small step size.
The test cylinder is suspended on three load cells that enable measurement of all reaction forces, Figure 12. The pressure and load response signals are amplified and filtered with Bessel filters to avoid distortion and digital aliasing, and are then digitized with a PC based A/D system.
Given the reaction forces, known chamber pressure force (by pressure measurement), and assumption of equilibrium of the cylinder, the ball interface forces can be estimated by the equations
More conveniently, the predicted oscillatory component of reaction force is directly correlated with coefficient of friction, as shown in Figure 13. The force maintains rotational equilibrium against only the ball force at radius r1 and the friction force FR at radius . Axial forces are all reacted by and , so the measurement is not corrupted by extraneous forces such as piping reactions and axial leakage flow momentum forces. Thus, the best measure of friction is determination of oscillatory amplitude of , and comparison with the theoretical correlation.
Figure 13. Predicted correlation of test force F3 with coefficient of friction (1.5 inch ball, 0.6 inch stroke, 800 rpm, 0.6 inch drive wheel offset, 11.80 inch drive wheel diameter)
For leakage measurement, the tank pressure is measured by a strain gage transducer during blowdown. Leakage is estimated by ideal gas calculations using the pressure drop, time of blowdown, and approximate temperature drop of the tank gas.
Auxiliary measurements included cylinder dynamic pressure and temperature. A heater around the cylinder was used to adjust and stabilize cylinder temperature before tests, to achieve variable cylinder/ball clearances from 0.0005 to 0.0020 inches diametral without changing sleeves. The cylinder assembly has substantial thermal mass, which helps maintain ball clearance during blowdown, when the expanded supply air cools significantly.
4.2 Test Results-Leakage
First, non-rotating blowdown tests were used to measure leakage as a function of ball piston clearance and cylinder pressure. Figure 14 shows the results for all non-rotating tests that were performed to date, in the form of effective orifice coefficient. It was clear that the assumed orifice coefficient of 1.0 in previous analysis was conservative for the non-rotating condition. Actual coefficient is dependent on clearance value, with smaller clearances giving lower and also some lesser variation with pressure. The logical conjecture is that boundary layer effects at the clearance are impacting the leakage. Note some data points, for example for 0.0020 inch clearance, are highly variable for about the same pressure. These were impacted by clearance change from working air cooling in a continuous series of tests.
Figure 14. Leakage measurement results (0 rpm unless specified)
Subsequently, rotating tests were done at about 800 rpm for leakage measurement (about 6000 rpm of ball, 0.0015 inch diametral clearance). These data are also shown on Figure 16. Both directions of rotation were tested, because it was believed there would be an improvement in leakage for the ball spinning outward on the more restricted cylinder contact side. However, both cases showed similar results. This data shows close correlation with the previous assumption of =1.0, for this clearance value.
Thus far, leakage data indicate that previous assumptions, although simplistic, are conservative for clearances of 0.0015 inch diametral or less. For a probable design clearance of 0.001 inch diametral, leakage will be significantly less than previous predictions, at least at lower speeds. Higher speeds have yet to be tested, but as was already shown, leakage is a minor loss factor at higher speeds.
4.3 Test Results - Friction
Rotating tests with varying cylinder pressure and speed were performed to measure reaction forces and hence correlate to friction coefficient, with no lubrication. Both mild steel and hardened 17-4PH sleeves were used, with silicon nitride ball. The test results were found to be largely consistent with predictions, with near sinusoidal form of the oscillating force as seen in Figure 15. Some high frequency oscillation was seen, probably due to cylinder vibration against the load cells, or ball bounce on the eccentric drive wheel contact stiffness. There was also some distortion in the signal, whose source is not known. It may be due to piping reactions in response to cylinder pressure oscillation. Another explanation may be the plastic deformation of the cylinder wall that was observed. The cylinder pressure oscillation was large enough to require correction in the calculations for correlation to friction coefficient.
Interestingly, friction was found to be invariant with pressure, speed and sleeve materials tested, and average friction coefficient was found to be about 0.075, with experimental error of about 0.03. This was true for 800 and 1430 rpm tests, and 300-500 psi cylinder pressure. These results compare favorably with previous predictions.
However, some problems were encountered with cylinder wall plastic deformation under the action of the spinning ball. Material was "burnished" or displaced to the end of the ball/cylinder contact region in tests with both mild steel and 17-4PH sleeves. After some detailed analytical investigation based on the observations, it was determined that the probable cause was development of high flash temperature at the moving contact point, which locally reduced material strength and hardness, resulting in plastic flow. The plastic flow was greatly reduced in the 17-4PH case compared to mild steel. Extrapolation of the observed results by more detailed sliding contact and stress analysis indicated that a hot hard material such as M2 high speed tool steel would have withstood the test conditions without plastic flow. Further subscale tests are planned with such a material, when longer test durations and higher speeds up to about 5000 rpm can be evaluated.
Analyses based on the design assumptions showed that the ball piston engine has potential for achieving higher efficiency than piston internal combustion engines. In addition, subscale tests have shown that critical leakage and friction characteristics are consistent with design assumptions. Thus, the feasibility of this new engine concept based on ball pistons has been proven.
A new approach to kinematic design has been devised to eliminate friction contributions from inertial forces in the engine. On the other hand, conventional carburetion/induction and exhaust systems are applicable to the new engine. Some material problems were encountered in subscale testing, indicating that more detailed material selection was warranted. The material selection has been done in anticipation of additional subscale tests to extend the range of speed and duration of simulated operation. Baseline material for testing is M2 tool steel.
Shortly after cylinder material selection is verified in subscale tests, fabrication and testing of a prototype engine will be undertaken. The prototype will be used to finalize design details such as thermal design, transient operation, starting, and cylinder wall treatments with actual combustion environment.
The new design concept can be immediately applied to compressor and pump applications in parallel with further engine development. The concept holds immediate promise for high efficiency and low cost in these applications, where temperatures and loads are more benign and lower cost materials can be used.
1. Dale, T.W.,"Spherical Piston Radial Action Engine", U.S. Patent #5,419,288, May 30, 1995.
2. Avallone, E.A. and Baumeister, T. III,"Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers", Ninth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.
3. Richards, T.D.,"The Hanes Engine", informational report, copyright 1994, available from the author at P.O. Box 21147, Carson City, NV, 89721.
4. Ashley, S.,"A New Spin on the Rotary Engine", Mechanical Engineering, April 1995, p80-82.
5. Bloch, H.P.,"A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.
6. Anon.,"GAUSS Volume I, System and Graphics Manual", Aptech Systems, Inc., Maple Valley, WA, July 18, 1994.
7. Heywood, J.B.,"Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals", Mcgraw-Hill, New York, 1988.
8. Sliney, H.E. and Dellocorte, C.," The Friction and Wear of Ceramic/Ceramic and Ceramic/Metal Combinations in Sliding Contact", NASA TM-106348, DOE/NASA/50306-3, N94-15769, October 1993.