Biomagnetism is a combination of two sciences Physics and Biology. It is a new field of scientific research evolved after the major discovery of biomagneticfield resulting from bioelectric currents or magnetization biological tissues. It deals with the study of magnetic contaminants of the body.
Science of biomagnetism applies a technology that was originally developed for the measurement of extremely weak signals. Biomagnetism can change and elevate the electric currents and cellular charges thereby increasing the efficiency of bodyâ„¢s functional metabolism.
It is the science where specifically designed magnets and their energy fields are used to affect the living system that is human body or what is called body electric. When proper protocols are followed biomagnetism can help the body heal itself on even chronic or long term conditions.
In 1820â„¢s French scientists Biot and Savart found that whenever current flows a magnetic field appears in the surrounding region. Within the human body Ëœcurrent dipolesâ„¢ are developed and results in biomagnetic field.
DEVELOPMENT OF CURRENT DIPOLE
We assume positively charged ions within the body to move in the direction of arrow along a short narrow path confined by the cell membrane. Any net movement of charge from one area to another is an electric current. The field becomes weaker as the distance increases from the arrow. Such a current segment is known as the current dipole. The product of the current and the length of the path give the strength of the current dipole.
The movement of positive charge in a current dipole produces a build up of positive charge at the head of the arrow. The out ward electric field from this charge drives ions in the surrounding medium to form an outward spreading pattern of current. Similarly at the tail of the arrow the removal of positive charge cause an inward flow of current. The total effect produces two current patterns of opposite polarity, one outward and the other inward, hence the name Ëœcurrent dipoleâ„¢.
Depolarisation and repolarisation of cells result incurrents within the human body. And these current give rise to biomagnetic field.
Electrical potential exist across the enveloping membrane of living cells and many cells have the ability to propagate a change in these potentials. The speed of propagation in the fastest nerve is approximately 150 m/s. This phenomenon is related to the functioning of the cell. When such a cell responds to a stimulus, the membrane potential exhibits a series of riverside changes called the action potential.
Certain types of cells within the body, such as nerve and muscle cells are encased in a semi permeable membrane that permits some substances to pass through it while keeping others out.
Surrounding the cells of the body are the body fluids called protoplasm. The protoplasm inside the cell is called cytoplasm. These fluids are conductive solutions containing charged atoms called ions. The principal ions are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and chloride (Cl-).
The membrane of excitable cells readily permits the entry of potassium and chloride ions but effectively block the entry of sodium ions. Since the various ions seek a balance between the inside of the cell and outside, both according to concentration and electric charge, the inability of sodium ions to penetrate the membrane results two conditions.
First, the concentration of sodium ions inside the cell becomes much lower than tin the intracellular fluid outside. Since, Na+ ions are positive, this would tend to make the outside of the cell more positive than inside. Second, in an attempt to balance the electric charge, additional potassium ions that are also positive enter the cell, causing a higher concentration of potassium on the inside than the outside. Thus a potential difference exists between the interior and exterior of the cell, negative on the inside and positive on the outside. This potential is called the resting potential of the cell and is maintained until some kind of disturbances upsets the equilibrium.
Since the measurement of membrane potential is generally made from inside the cell with respect to the body fluids, the testing potential of a cell is given as negative. Researchers have measured membrane potentials in various cells ranging from â€œ60 to -100 mV. Figure 2 shows the cross-section of a cell with its resting potential. A cell in the resting state is said to be polarised.
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