This paper encloses the information regarding the
present interesting topic, the biometrics; biometrics
technology allows determination and verification of
ones identity through physical characteristics. To put
it simply, it turns your body in to your password. We
discussed various biometric techniques like finger
scan, retina scan, facial scan hand scan etc. An algorithm have been proposed by taking a multi
modal biometric voting system to authenticate a
person and consider his voting .
We conclude that this voting system is superior for
use in a general election when compared with
traditonal voting system and ven
Biometrics, Hashing, Database, Covert Surveillance
Elections allow the people to choose their
representatives and express their preferences for how
they will be governed. Naturally, the integrity of the
election process is fundamental to the integrity of
democracy itself. The election system must be
sufficiently robust to withstand a variety of
fraudulent behaviors and must be sufficiently
transparent and comprehensible that voters and
candidates can accept the results of an election.
Unsurprisingly, history is littered with examples of
elections being manipulated in order to nuence their
out come. The design of a “good” voting system,
whether electronic or using traditional paper ballots
or mechanical devices, must satisfy a number of
sometimes competing criteria.
The anonymity of a voter’s ballot must be preserved,
both to guarantee the voter’s safety when voting
against a malevolent candidate, and to guarantee that
voters have no evidence that proves which candidates
received their votes. The existence of such evidence
would allow votes to be purchased by a candidate.
The voting system must also be tamper-resistant to thwart a wide range of attacks, including ballot stuffing by voters and incorrect tallying by insiders. Another factor, as shown by the so-called “butter y ballots” in the Florida 2000 presidential election, is the importance of human factors. A voting system must be comprehensible to and usable by the entire voting population, regardless of age, infirmity, or disability. Providing accessibility to such a diverse population is an important engineering problem and one where, if other security is done well, electronic voting could be a great improvement over current paper systems. Flaws
in any of these aspects of a voting system, however, can lead to indecisive or incorrect election results.
In electronic voting system there have been several threats, and poor software development processes including unauthorized privilege escalation, incorrect use of cryptography, vulnerabilities to network
1.1Draw back of traditional and electronic voting system-need for Biometrics
Up to now the voting systems are taking the data of voting and they are not bothered about the authenticity of the person where by providing a chance for others to cast the votes i.e unauthorized privilege escalation .
The proposed voting system authenticates the person and considers the voting
2. Classification of biometrics:
The two categories of biometric techniques are:
The physiological based techniques, which measure the physiological characteristics of a person. These include fingerprint verification, iris analysis, facial analysis, hand geometry-vein patterns, ear recognition, odor detection and DNA pattern analysis.
The behavioral based techniques, which measure the behavior of a person. These include hand written signature verification and speech analysis. These techniques involve two major steps. These are the Authentication & the verification.
Authentication is a process of one-to one
comparison, rather than a mass searching process. Identification is a process of checking for a particular identity in the database available.
The setting of the error tolerance of these systems is critical to their performance. Both errors (False Rejection and False Acceptance).
Should be low and they should both are quoted by the
3.How biometric technology works Process involved in using a
biometric system for security is:
Capture the biometrics, which has to be stored in the
Process the biometric, extract and enroll the
Store the template in a local repository, a central
repository, or a portable token such as a smart card.
During access to database:
4) Live-scan the biometric feature;
5) Process the biometric and extract the biometric
6) Match the scanned biometric against stored
7) Incase of successful verification; provide a
matching score to business application;
8) Record a secure audit trail with respect to system
Biometric applications depend on comparing as new
Measure against previously captured information. In
Biometric application some aspect of a person is
measured; the measure is processed; and the resulting
data is stored; At a subsequent time, the same aspect
of a person is measured and compared against the
stored data .If it is being used for authentication, the
new data is compared against the data, already in
storage for that person. If it is being used for
identification, the entire database is searched, in order
to locate one or more individuals that are a close fit to
the new data. Most biometrics technologies do not
seek exact equality between the new and the stored
measures. Instead they have a pre-set tolerance range
within which the two are deemed to be sufficiently
close. In order to reduce transmission time, costs and
to require less storage space, compression algorithms
are used. To provide better transfer rate of data
during identification & authentication ‘hashing’ is
used. Hashing is a process of detecting the perfect
match of a particular input record from a large
database using a hashing function.
4.Applications of biometrics
All the information regarding the fingerprints, retina
etc… Are digitalized and stored. This can be
compared with a database in seconds and with an
extraordinary degree of accuracy. Fingerprints have
the advantage of being cheaper and simpler than most
E-commerce developers are exploring the use of biometrics to more accurately verify a trading party’s identity.
4.2 Covert Surveillance:
Facial and body recognition biometric techniques come in to picture automatically to identify known suspects entering buildings or traversing crowed security areas such as airports.
5.Types of Biometric security technologies:
5.1 Finger scan:
Finger-scan biometrics is base on the distinctive
characteristics of the human fingerprint. A fingerprint image is read from a capture device, features are extracted from the image, and a template is created. Fingerprints are used in forensic applications: large- scale, one-to-many searches on databases of up to millions of fingerprints. These searches can be done within only a few hours by using AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems). The basic in both finger scan and finger prints is that the curvatures, deltas, crossovers, pores, loops etc, are of a person are captured and stored in the database in digitized for and are encrypted in cases of authentication or identification .