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Biometrics (Download Full Report And Abstract)
Post: #26
Presented by:
Abhinav Goel.

Definition Of Biometrics
The term is derived from the Greek words “bios” which means life and “metrics” for measure. Biometrics can be defined as the technique of studying physical characteristics of a person such as finger prints, hard geometry, eye structure etc. to establish his or her identity. This science is primarily implemented to identify individuals.
Techniques Used In Identification
 Fingerprint Scanning
 Retinal Scanning
 Iris Scanning
 Facial Recognition
 Voice Recognition
Way back to the 1880s, while in Japan, Henry Faulds studied the prints left behind by craftsmen on ancient clay fragments. He then went on to study his own and his colleagues’ fingerprints. This convinced him that each individual had unique fingerprints. A little later, a fellow worker was arrested by the police for a pretty crime. Faulds exonerated the man by showing that the finger prints on the crime scene did not match with those of his friends.
Thus began the journey of the most promising science of identification and recognition: Biometrics. Today, apart from fingerprints, we have discovered facial recognition, DNA, retinal scanning, and voice recognition.
What Is Biometrics?
The term is derived from the Greek word “bios” which means life and “metrics” for measure. Biometrics can be defined as the technique of studying physical characteristics of a person such as finger prints, hard geometry, eye structure etc. to establish his or her identity. This science is primarily implemented to identify individuals.
Need Of Biometrics
The use of biometrics is no longer restricted to define establishment or sensitive areas. An increased need for security has prompted even everybody office goers to install fingerprint recognition devices to boot up their laptops, thumb devices & other daily use gadgets.
The question is, why? Why isn’t the 16-digit password good enough? Simply because fingerprints are more secure. A password is breakable & anyone with basic knowledge of computers can crack password using the myriad free programmes available on the Internet.
But a fingerprint however is difficult to fake without the help of the owner. Secondly it is more convenient to simply place your finger on to a scanner instead of remembering a long & complex series of characters & their cases.
Biometric systems have the potential to identify individuals with a very high degree of certainty. Forensic DNA evidence enjoys a particularly high degree of public trust. Substantical claims are being made is respect of this recognition technology, which has the capacity to discriminate between the individuals with identical DNA.
Working Of Biometric Processes
The concept of biometric verification is simple. The system already has some prestored data. When you approach the system, say a fingerprint scanner, your finger is scanned & matched with a record of fingerprint already in its database. Only when it finds a match access is granted. The concept might be simple, but the process is quite ingenious.
Fingerprint Scanning
Fingerprint is a unique feature to an individual. It stays with the person throughout his or her life. This makes the fingerprint the most reliable kind of personal identification because it can not be forgotter, misplaced or stoles.
A fingerprint is made up of ridges and valleys (lines and gapes separating them) & it is these ridges & valleys which are scanned to verify the authenticity of a print.
The most commonly used method of scanning is optical scanning. An optical scanner has a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor similar to the ones used in digital cameras. There is an array of light sensitive diodes (photosites). When these diodes come in contact with light, they generate an electrical signal. Every photosites record a pixel representing the light it came in contact with.
An analog to digital converter (ADC) system in the scanner processes the electrical signals to generate digital representations of the image. It is not necessary that the same kind of light falls on all diodes. So what is generated is a mix of dark & light areas, which together make up the image. It is not necessary that the same kind of light falls on diodes. So what is generated is a mix of dark and light areas, which together make up the image.
The process begins as soon as you place your finger on the glass plate. The scanner has its own source of light (mostly an array of LEDs) which illuminate the finger & the CCD inside takes a picture of the finger. After that it checks for the integrity of the image in terms of contrast, sharpness & sheer quality.
The system checks the average pixel darkness. If the image is too dark or too light, it is rejected. Exposure settings are then accordingly adjusted and the print rescanned.
If the exposure level is found to be correct, it goes on to check the sharpness of the fingerprint. It does so by analyzing severals straight lines moving horizontally & vertically across the image. If the definition is good, a line running perpendicular to ridges will comprise alternating segments of light and dark pixels. If this is found to be in order, the scanner will compare the fingerprint with those in the database.
Matching of prints is a fairly complex process in itself & is far removed from the super-imposing method commonly shown in films. This is so because smudging (due to scan surface or oily fingers) can make the same print appear different photos. Also, scanning and matching the entire finger consumes a lot of processing power. An individual can even fool a fingerprint detector by using a piece of sticky tape gelatin with an authentic fingerprint on it.
Retinal Scanning
Retinal scanning is rather old in the chronology of technology innovations. For the retina to be scanned, the user looks through s small hole in the scanning device and focuses on a particular point for the time period during which, a low intensity light and a CCD analyse the layer of blood vessels at the back of the eye for matching patterns and then validate the person identity.
This technology is still not in public domain (unlike fingerprint recognition, which is) and is used only to secure highly sensitive security areas.
Unlike fingerprints, there is absolutely no known method of replicating a person’s retina.
Iris Scan
Iris scans, though relating to the eye (like retinal scan) uses a completely different method of identification. The Iris scan is the colored ring surrounding the pupil. The scan analyses the features that exist in this colored tissue.
Over 200 points can be used for comparison such as rings, furrows and freckles. The scan is done with a regular camera and the subject stands about a foot from the lens of the camera.
The Iris pattern is much more unique than a fingerprint. A statistical analysis puts the probability of two irises matching at 1 in 10 to the power 78 while the population of humans on earth is 7 billion that is 7 to the power 9.
Facial Recognition
A Facial recognition system is a computer drives application for automatically identifying a person from a digital image, it does meant by comparing selected facial features in the live image and a facial database.
Fingerprinting and retinal scanning are relatively easy to administer, since the people going through the process are aware of it and are consenting to subject themselves to these measures, the main application of facial recognition is in security where the software is expected to pick a face out of, say, thousands of passengers at the airport, and match it with a database of wanted criminals and positively state whether or not that face belong to the guilty party.
To make the computer recognize a face from a picture or a video feed is quite an achievement in itself, but the bigger achievement is to identify clearly if the face is that of wanted man or not.
If you look in the mirror, or at a persons face for that manner, you will notice that every face has certain characteristics and distinguishable feature, which allows us to differentiate between two people.
The facial recognition software divides the face into 80 nodes, some of common ones being distance between eyes, width of nose, and depth of eye sockets, cheekbones, jaw lines, and the chin. The system generally needs to match between 14-25 nodes in order to obtain a positive ID.
Now, obviously these are a lot of people coming in and out of a place where this system is setup (stadiums, airports etc.).The real challenge is to recognize face instantaneously. To facilitate this, a database is created with the help of an algorithm, which goes through the characteristics of the faces and stores them as a string of numbers. This string is called a face print.
Following are the steps processed by the facial recognition software:-
 Face Detection
First of all the camera pans around looking for a face, as it e1ncounters a face, it starts scanning it and than proceeds to identifying the various nodes.
 Detection Of Orientation
Once the face is detected, the system determines the size of the head and position. Generally, a face needs to be around 40 degree towards the camera for the system to register and analyse it.
 Mapping
The facial image is scaled down to the level of the images in the database and is then rotated and otherwise adjusted to match the formatting of the images in the database.
 Encoding
The algorithm then converts the face into a face print based on the pre-defined criteria programmed into the algorithm.
 Matching
This new data is then used as a fitter to sort through the database of faces at a very fast speed to find a match.
Since it uses a variety of nodes, simple alternations of the face will not fool it. However, twins might; so the system certainly not infallible.
Voice Recognition
Like fingerprints and face attributes, every person has a unique speech pattern. Voice recognition works by first storing voice pattern and then using them as a database to authenticate a subject.
Voice recognition is often confused with speech recognition, which is technology that converts speech to text and conversion software were needs to go through extensive training by the user before any suitable and acceptable result are obtained.
Voice recognition works by nothing a person’s voice (physical characteristics of the vocal tract, the harmonic and the resonant frequencies) and converts it into an audio file which is known as voice print.
Post: #27
Post: #28
Presented by:
Vartika Paul

What is Biometrics?

"Biometrics is the automated identification, or verification of human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological, or behavioral characteristics”
The search of a biometric sample against a database of other samples in order to ascertain whether the donor is already contained in, or new to the database.
It refers to the 'one to one' comparison between a sample and another to ask the question, 'are you who you say you are.'
The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). For our use, biometrics refers to technologies for measuring and analyzing a person's physiological or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns, and hand measurements, for identification and verification purposes.
Identification and verification have long been accomplished by showing something you have, such as a license or a passport. Sometimes it also required something you know, such as a password or a PIN. As we move into a time when we need more secure and accurate measures, we begin to look at using something you are: biometrics.
Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic.
History of BIOMETRICS:
Chinese Precursor:

Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today.
European Origins:
Until the late 1800s, identification largely relied upon "photographic memory." In the 1890s, an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed a method of multiple body measurements which got named after him (Bertillonage). His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone, two people could get treated as one. After the failure of Bertillonage, the police started using finger printing, which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard, essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years.
Modern Times:
In the past three decades biometrics has moved from a single method (fingerprinting) to more than ten discreet methods. Companies involved with new methods number in the hundreds and continue to improve their methods as the technology available to them advances. Prices for the harware required continue to fall making systems more feasible for low and mid-level budgets. As the industry grows however, so does the public concern over privacy issues. Laws and regulations continue to be drafted and standards are beginning to be developed. While no other biometric has yet reached the breadth of use of fingerprinting, some are beginning to be used in both legal and business areas.
Biometric devices consist of a reader or s
canning device, software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with previous records. When converting the biometric input, the software identifies specific points of data as match points. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the database.
All Biometric authentications require comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example, a fingerprint captured during a login).
Enrollment Mode:
A sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. For example, an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. This is sometimes called “one-to-many” matching.
Verification Mode:
In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern. This is also called “one-to-one” matching. In most computer access or network access environments, verification mode would be used. A user enters an account, user name, or
inserts a token such as a smart card, but instead of entering a password, a simple glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user.
There are two types of biometrics: behavioral and physical.
Behavioral biometrics - Used for verification .
Physical biometrics - Used for either identification or verification.
Physical biometrics :
 Fingerprint - Analyzing fingertip patterns.
 Facial Recognition - Measuring facial characteristics.
 Hand Geometry - Measuring the shape of the hand.
 Iris recognition - Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye.
 Vascular Patterns - Analyzing vein patterns.
 Retinal Scan - Analyzing blood vessels in the eye.
 Bertillonage - Measuring body lengths (no longer used).
Behavioral biometrics:
 Speaker Recognition - Analyzing vocal behavior.
 Signature- Analyzing signature dynamics.
 Keystroke - Measuring the time spacing of typed words.
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes, as represented in figure on the right:
• Physiological are related to the shape of the body. The oldest traits, that have been used for more than 100 years, are fingerprints. Other examples are face recognition, hand geometry and iris recognition.
• Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. The first characteristic to be used, still widely used today, is the signature. More modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of voice.
According to most experts, the future of biometrics is dependant upon two critical areas: standardization and the use of hybrid technologies.
Currently, the biometrics industry is very fragmented, with more than 150 companies with their own proprietary systems and methodologies. Standards have only recently been established in order to provide direction for the development of a common interface that will allow for shared biometric templates. The BioAPI standard created by the BioAPI Consortium, a group of more than 60 vendors and government agencies, defines a common structure for interfacing with biometrics. Yet, competitive forces remain as technology giants like Microsoft have abandoned the consortium and the BioAPI standard in order to develop their own proprietary software standards. The development and acceptance of a primary standard is critical for the growth and applicability of the biometrics industry. Only after the technological standard is more established can systems integrate and interact efficiently.
Hybrid Technologies:
One of the critical concerns with the use of biometric technologies is that of privacy and security of stored personal biometric data. To have personal data stored in a centralized database leaves the information potentially open to theft or compromise. The concept of combining smart card or public key infrastructures with biometric readers where the biometric template is stored on an individually controlled key has been suggested as a solution for the privacy concern and is considered by some critical to the advancement of biometric applications.
Biometrics is a powerful combination of science and technology that can be used to protect and secure our most valuable information and property. The future holds no limits for this industry as more applications are found. Further, the technology itself continues to improve in terms of application and accuracy. From the application of total body scanning for highest security areas to speed and accuracy of identification when shopping on-line, the applications are boundless.
Imagine a world where interstate air travel is allowed automatically via a full body scan that not only verifies identity but simultaneously searches for insecure or illegal paraphernalia. Where access to one is bank or credit accounts is only granted after identification via iris or retina scan. Where a shopping trip is made possible by a vehicle that operates only with biometric verification of ownership and payment is made via a fingerprint scan that links directly to one is credit account.
In the future, we will live in a faster paced, more secure world where verification of one is identity is critical for daily activities. While some might argue that privacy and personal "freedom" are sacrificed with this level of control, most believe that it is the necessary price for a secure world environment.
Post: #29

Biometrics refers to two very different fields of study and application. The first, which is the older and is used in biological studies, is the collection, synthesis, analysis and management of data in biology. Biometrics in reference to biological sciences, or biostatistics, has been studied since the early twentieth century. Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for authentication purposes.
More recently and incongruously, the term's meaning has been broadened to include the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology particularly, biometrics is a form of identity access management and access control.
Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for behavioral biometrics such as typing rhythm or mouse gestures where the analysis can be done continuously without interrupting or interfering with user activities.
Biometrics is used to identify the input sample when compared to a template, used in cases to identify specific people by certain characteristics.
i. possession-based
ii. using one specific "token" such as a security tag or a card
iii. knowledge-based
iv. The use of a code or password.
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes, as represented in figure on the right:
Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, hand and palm geometry and iris recognition.
Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Characteristic implemented by using biometrics are signature verification, keystroke dynamics, and voice. The analysis and recognition of facial features is a tool used in the detection of criminals and undesirables. Conventional biometric methods introduced to improve security are mainly based on cross matching the face of the person with that recorded in their databases. At present, the data is static and would not, for example, identify suspects with cosmetic or plastic surgery modification of their faces to escape identification. However, it is possible to train persons that could be referred to as "face-minders", to memorized faces of suspects on a watch-list, by way of example.
Recently, a new trend has been developed that merges human perception to computer database in a brain-machine interface. This approach has been referred to as cognitive biometrics. Cognitive biometrics is based on specific responses of the brain to stimuli which could be used to trigger a computer database search. Currently, cognitive biometrics systems are being developed to use brain response to odor stimuli, facial perception and mental performance for search at ports and high security areas. .
Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.
Other biometric strategies are being developed such as those based on gait (way of walking), retina, hand veins, finger veins, ear canal, facial thermo gram, DNA, odor and scent, palm prints and footprints.
The diagram on right shows a simple block diagram of a biometric system.
When such a system is networked together with telecommunications technology, biometric systems become telebiometric systems. The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information.
Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired.
The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing background noise), to use some kind of normalization, etc.
In the third block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.
If enrollment is being performed the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e.g. Hamming distance). The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e.g. entrance in a restricted area) .
Post: #30
Presented By
V Pravin

 Forget passwords ...
 Forget pin numbers ...
 Forget all your security concerns ...
 Automated method
 Pattern recognition system
 Specific physiological or behavioral characteristics
 Traditional methods involving passwords and PIN numbers
 Biometrics highest level of security
• Fingerprints
• Voiceprints
• Facial features
• Writing patterns
• Iris patterns
• Hand geometry
 Data Collection
 Transmission
 Signal Processing
 Data Storage
 Decision
 The hardware captures the salient human characteristic
 The software interprets the resulting data and determines acceptability.
 Oldest form of Biometrics
 Highly Reliable
 Uses distinctive features of fingers
 Global features
 Local features
 Fingerprint Scanning
 Fingerprint Matching
 Identification
 Optical
 Thermal
 Capacitance
 Ultra Sound

Pattern recognition technique
Identification by mathematical analysis of the random patterns.
Based upon the qualities of the Iris
Iris is a protected internal organ whose random texture is stable throughout life
High degree of Randomness
No two Iris are alike
Stable in a persons life
Doesn't vary with changes
 Camera at close proximity
 Captures photograph
 Uses Infra red light to illuminate
 High resolution photograph
 Localization of inner and outer boundaries
 Pattern of 512 bytes
 Complete and Compact description
 More complete than features of DNA

 Database of millions of records
 Iris code generated is compared
 Searching algorithm based on Properties of Iris
 Order of a few seconds

The FAR is the chance that someone other than you is granted access to your account.
Low false acceptance rate is most important when security is the priority
The FRR is the probability that are not authenticated to access your account.
A low FRR is required when convenience is the important factor
 FAR - As low as 1 in 1,000,00
 FRR –around 4%
 FAR - As low as 1 in 1,000,000
 FRR –around 2%
 Criminal identification
 Prison security
 Aviation security
 Border crossing controls
 Database access
Post: #31
1. Introduction
One thing I have learned in a long life—that all our science,
measured against reality, is primitive and childlike.
As we all know that Engineers, scientists and business men are increasingly turning towards nature for design inspiration. The field of Biomimetics, the application of methods and systems found in nature to the engineering and technology, has spawned a number of innovations far superior to what the human mind alone could have devised. The reason is simple. Humans, through billions of years of trial and error, have produced effective solutions to innumerable complex real-world problems. For example, gas-powered cars are only about 20 percent efficient, that is, only 20 percent of the thermal-energy content of the gasoline is converted into mechanical work.
Today, it is hard for a human to imitate nature. The machines mirror living beings. Biomimetic is the science of copying the technology present in nature and emerging it for our better life style and living. Due to our want of luxuries we have exploited the nature to its maximum that humans try developing new technologies to replicate what is present in nature to our labs. There are various kinds of technologies which man has hackneyed from nature. When designers first made robotic arms, they had to unlearn what they knew about their own arms. The movement of machine joints needn't be limited the way our elbows and knees are. With the combination of man’s skill and nature we have industrialized magnificent technologies called hi-fi technologies; this includes running cars by the help of water. Bridge technologies are a technology that has been copied from the attachment of muscles in our body. We've also failed to make submarines that swim like fish, vehicles that move like animals, or computers that think like humans. The reason is that nature does these things in ways that are multifarious to copy. Someday, we might yet learn to fly with the grace and delicacy of a bird, or swim like a fish. It's much harder than it looks to copy nature, but perhaps, someday, we shall...
2. Mimicking Nature
Bio mimesis: to mimic life, to imitate biological systems
Biomimetic as a science is growing leaps and crossing every boundary existed. We have developed cars by seeing the speed in which an animal like cheetah can go. And even better we have made cars that run on water rather than diesel and petrol this is also a part that we have inherited from nature. All this is because of the research which has gone into the field of Biomimetic.
3. Technology from natural world
3.1. Terrestrial

Engineers are in the business of solving problems. It's their job to find ways to achieve certain outcomes. The problem might involve finding a way to build a skyscraper that can withstand hurricane-force winds. Or it might be to discover a method to deliver a specific dosage of drugs to a single cell in the human body.
Engineers often look to nature to see if there's already a solution to the problem they currently face. Not only must we recognize the solution, but also be able to study, copy and enhance that solution so that we can take advantage of it. There's a special word for this approach: Biomimetics. Ultimately, the engineer's creation mimics the structure or function of a biological entity.
The results can be awe-inspiring or something people routinely take for granted. But even the basic inventions wouldn't have been possible if engineers hadn't paid close attention to the way things work in nature. We'll take a look at four ways nature has inspired the technology we rely upon, listed in no particular order.
These Four are:
3.1.1. Developing Artificial Intelligence
3.1.2. Invading Cancer Cells
3.1.3. Sticking to Walls
3.1.4. Navigating Autonomously

3.1.1. Developing Artificial Intelligence
The brain is so complex that even the fastest supercomputer can't simulate it in real time.
Artificial intelligence is a term that has been thrown around for decades. In the past, computers were just powerful machines that could crunch enormous numbers. A computer could only follow explicit instructions.
Today, engineers and computer scientists are trying to make the leap from computation to thinking. They've met with some progress. In 2008, scientists used the Blue Gene L supercomputer to simulate a mouse's brain. That might sound simple, but a brain -- even one belonging to a virtual mouse -- is incredibly complex. So complex, in fact, that the powerful computer could only run the simulation in bursts of 10 seconds.
The program took a series of measurements and used a genetic algorithm to extrapolate the basic laws of physics. In the future, we may see machines capable of solving complex engineering problems. We may even reach the point where computers design even more powerful machines.
3.1.2. Invading Cancer Cells
Nanotechnology scientists study viruses in the hopes of developing new treatments for diseases like cancer. There are teams of engineers, computer scientists and doctors who are working on methods to cure cancer and other diseases on a cell-by-cell basis. One solution they're working on involves designing delivery technologies on the nano scale. They're building medical nano particles -- objects that are smaller than 100 nanometres in diameter. A nanometre is one-billionth of a meter. In fact, the nano scale is so small that it's impossible to view nanoparticles even with the aid of a light microscope. (Fig – 2)
Creating a drug-delivery particle that can seek out a cancer cell, infiltrate it and deliver medication exactly where it needs to go. By targeting just the cancer cells, doctors hope to eliminate the disease while minimizing any side effects. Healthy cells would remain unaffected.
3.1.3. Sticking to Walls
Since the dawn of time, man has searched for the ideal way to stick something to something else. In ancient times, this may have involved hammering a large spike through the hide of a mammoth to make the cave dwelling a little less draft. These days, engineers look to plants with burrs or creatures like the gecko for inspiration. Back in 1941, Swiss engineer Georges de Mestral was picking out burrs that had caught on his clothing and in his dog's fur. He placed a burr under a microscope and noticed that it had tiny barbs that allowed it to attach to passing creatures. The engineer came up with a brilliant plan -- create a material that used these tiny barbs as a fastening device. That material is what we now call Velcro.
Then there's Gecko Tape, a material that uses nanoscopic hairs to cling to sheer surfaces. The hairs mimic the ones you'd find on the feet of geckos. One day, scientists might be able to create an entire suit using this material. That suit would allow the wearer to scale walls and perhaps even walk across ceilings. Before long, we may be able to put in a call to our friendly neighbourhood Spider-man. (Fig – 3)
3.1.4. Navigating Autonomously
In the future, there will be robots. Whether they will cater to our every need or hunt us down in packs. It remains to be seen. Either way, one feature robots will need to achieve their true potential is autonomous navigation.
Most robots either require a pre-programmed route or simply react to the environment whenever they encounter an obstacle. Very few can find their way from one point to another on their own. Some engineers are trying to overcome this problem by studying ants. The Cataglyphis is an ant found in the Sahara Desert. Unlike other ants, the Cataglyphis doesn't rely on pheromone trails to navigate through its environment. Scientists believe that the ants use a combination of visual piloting, path integration and systematic search. Engineers hope that by gaining a deeper understanding of how creatures like the Cataglyphis navigate, they can build robots with similar capabilities.
Post: #32
plz send me a biometric seminars report
Post: #33

Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioural characteristic. Among the features measured are; face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent.
Biometric-based solutions are able to provide for confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy. The need for biometrics can be found in federal, state and local governments, in the military, and in commercial applications. Enterprise-wide network security infrastructures, government IDs, secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies.
Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation, network, and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and Web security. Trust in these electronic transactions is essential to the healthy growth of the global economy. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards, encryption keys and digital signatures, biometrics are set to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. Utilizing biometrics for personal authentication is becoming convenient and considerably more accurate than current methods (such as the utilization of passwords or PINs). This is because biometrics links the event to a particular individual (a password or token may be used by someone other than the authorized user), is convenient (nothing to carry or remember), accurate (it provides for positive authentication), can provide an audit trail and is becoming socially acceptable and cost effective.
There are two kinds of Biometric System
 Recognition Systems
 Identifying a person among the whole group of users enrolled in the system.
 It must be an online system.
 Typical applications : Forensics
 Authentication Systems
 Verifying the identity that user claims to have.
 It can be offline.
 Typical applications: Access Control, all kinds of applications where cards are used.
Benefits of Biometrics
 It links an event to a particular individual - not just to a password or Token.
 Convenient – nothing to remember.
 Can’t be guessed, stolen, shared, lost or forgotten.
 Protects against unauthorized access to personal information.
 Protects against identity thefts.
Biometric Technologies
I. Speech Verification
 Compares live speech with previously created speech model of person’s voice.
 Measures pitch, cadence & tone to create voice point.
 Uniqueness based on local track differences.
 Length, shape of mouth, nasal cavities, etc.
 Can be text dependent or independent.
 Behavioral & physiological biometric.
 Can use standard microphone or telephone set or existing audio channels
 Can be combined with challenge/response techniques
 Can be affected by illness & stress
 Background noise can interfere
II. Fingerprints
 A fingerprint is made of a series of pattern on the surface of the finger.
 Applications
• Access Control systems- door locks, time & attendance systems, office buildings.
• Mobile phones, Laptops, personal computers, law enforcements.
 Long time use
 High Accuracy
 General ease & speed of use
 Small % of population have poor print due to injury, disease or occupation.
III. Facial Recognition
 Analyzes characteristics of a person's face image input through a camera.
 Measures geometry of face & relative distances between features (e.g. Nose & mouth).
 Used in averting terrorist crimes, law enforcements, banks.
 Can be used with previously compiled photo database
 Can be fused with skin Biometrics to enhance accuracy
• Can be affected by lighting
• Age progression
• Sometimes affected by eye glasses, facial hair or expression.
IV. Iris Recognition
 Measures features associated with random texture of the colored part of the eye.
 Measures 266 unique features.
 Popular for facility access & transportation/ border security.
 Highly accurate
 Very stable over lifetime
 Works through Glasses & Contacts
• Can be affected by eye diseases
• Difficult to perform at large distances (more than few meters)
• Obscured by eyelashes
V. Hand Geometry
 Measures dimensions Of hand, including shape & length of the fingers.
 Used extensively for physical access control, nuclear power plants, Airports, employee time keeping.
 Easy to use & fast
 High public acceptence
 Proven over many years of use
• Expensive device
• Hand Injuries
• Not properly accurate
 Deoxyribonucleic acid is hereditary matrial in humans & almost all other organisms
 Used in criminal forensic invstigation
 High accuracy (1 person in 6 billion accuracy)
 Never changes
• Requires collection of DNA samples
• Not intantaneous – takes nearly 12 hours to give result
• Affected by changes in typing patterns
• Indentical twins share same DNA
The Future of Biometrics in India
 Smaller, cheaper, faster & more accurate.
 Government is sponsoring widespread plans.
 Biometric ATMs to expand in India.
 Introduction of Biometric voting machines.
 Combination of Biometrics with other authentication mechanisms.
 Public’s awareness & acceptance is growing.
Post: #34
Post: #35
“ Biometrics is the identificationor verificationof human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological and behavioral characteristics”
Biometrics as Authentication
Authentication depends on

What you have
What you know
What you ARE !
Why Biometrics ?
Identity thefts
Something you know can be stolen
Predicted or hacked
Reliability on manual verification
Categories of BIOMETRICS:
Biometrics can be sorted into two classes:
1.Examples-face,fingerprints,hand geometry and iris Recognition,dna.
2.Examples-signature and voice.
3.Biometrics can be sorted into two classes:
Basic characteristics of BIOMETRIC Technologies
Every person should have the characteristic. People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be accommodated in some way.
Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish.
The characteristics should not vary with time. A person's face, for example, may change with age.
The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable.
The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances.
The general public must accept the sample collection routines. Nonintrusive methods are more acceptable.
The technology should be difficult to deceive
The metrics of Biometrics
FTE – Failure To Enroll
FTA – Failure To Accept
FAR – False Acceptance Rates
FRR – False Reject Rates
Working principle:

Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data with comparison with existing records.
Enrollment Mode.
Verification Mode.
Enrollment Mode:
A sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison.
Verification Mode:
In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern.
Biometric Modalities:
Fingerprint Recognition:
For fingerprint Recognition look at:
Friction ridges.
Ridge Ending.
Uses ridge endings ,bifurcations on a person’s finger to plot points know as Minutiae.
The number and locations of the minutiae vary from finger to finger in any particular person, and from person to person for any particular finger.
Fingerprint Verification
Face Recognition:
It involves recognizing
people by there:
Facial features.
Face geometry.
Analysis of unique shape, pattern and positioning of facial features.
Identification across expression
FRR or FAR fluctuate
Easily spoofed
Tougher usability
High Environmental impact
Facial Recognition:PCA–Training Set
Facial Recognition: PCATraining
Find average of training images.
Subtract average face from each
Create covariance matrix
Generate eigenfaces
Each original image can be expressed
as a linear combination of the
eigenfaces – face space.
Voice Recognition:
Voice recognition is not the same as speech recognition, it is speaker recognition.
Considered both physiological and behavioral.
Popular and low-cost, but less accurate and sometimes lengthy enrollment.
Styles of spoken input:
These system have three styles of spoken inputs :
Text Dependent.
Text prompted.
Text Independent.
Framework for Authentication/Interaction
Speaker Recognition

It is the method of recognizing a person based on his voice
It is one of the forms of biometric identification
Depends of speaker specific characteristics.
Speaker Recognition
Iris Recognition:

It is the coloured area of the eye that surrounds the pupil.
It is a protected internal organ whose random texture is stable throughout life.
The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system .
Iris Images:
Retinal Scanning
Scans retina into database
User looks straight into retinal reader
Scan using low intensity light
Very efficient – cant be spoofed!
Disadvantages Retinal Scanning
User has to look “directly”
FTE ratio high in this biometric
Acceptability concerns
Light exposure
Iris Scanner
Scans unique pattern of iris
Iris is colored and visible from far
No touch required
Overcomes retinal scanner issues
Contact lenses an issue?
Signature Verification:
Static/Off-line:the conventional way.
Dynamic/On-line:using electronically instrumented device.
The movement of the pen during the signing process rather than the static image of the signature.Many aspects of the signature in motion can be studied, such as pen pressure, the sound the pen makes.
Biometric devices:
Personal fingerprint safes:
These safes are revolutionary locking systems storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger.
Advantages of Biometrics:
Biometric identification can provide extremely accurate, secured access to information; fingerprints, retinal and iris scans produce absolutely unique data sets when done properly.
Current methods like password verification have many problems (people write them down, they forget them, they make up easy-to-hack passwords) .
Automated biometric identification can be done very rapidly and uniformly, with a minimum of training .
Your identity can be verified without resort to documents that may be stolen, lost or altered.
Disadvantages of BIOMETRICS:
The finger print of those people working in Chemical industries are often affected. Therefore these companies should not use the finger print mode of authentication.
It is found that with age, the voice of a person differs. Also when the person has flu or throat infection the voice changes or if there there are too much noise in the environment this method may not authenticate correctly. Therefore this method of verification is not workable all the time
For people affected with diabetes, the eyes get affected resulting in differences.
Biometrics is an expensive security solution.
Security personnel look for biometric data that does not change over the course of your life; that is, they look for physical characteristics that stay constant and that are difficult to fake or change on purpose.
Current applications
Immigration facilities across USA
ID widget – interesting research
Eyegaze at Stanford
Smart spaces and pervasive computing are moving from concepts to implementations
Security has to be incorporated in the design stage
Traditional authentication and access control paradigms cannot scale to numerous and ubiquitous devices
Biometrics serves as a reliable alternative for minimally intrusive authentication
Biometrics solves key management and repudiation problem
Securing biometrics is a major challenge in an open environment
Biometric hashing can be used to create revocable biometric templates
Post: #36
Biometrics comprises methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometrics are best defined as measurable and/or behavioral characteristics that can be employed to verify the identity of a person. They include fingerprints, retinal and iris scanning, hand-writing and geometry, voiceprints, facial recognition, DNA codes, and other techniques and features. Initially, these techniques were employed primarily in access control of high security facilities, however, they are now being deployed or proposed for use in a much broader range of public facing situations. In this talk, we will present, the highlights of some of these techniques as well as the challenges encountered in their selection and deployment.
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes. First one is physiological & second one is behavioral. Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry, iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odor/scent. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers [1] have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.
What are Biometrics?

Biometric technologies are automated methods for recognizing individuals based on biological and behavioral characteristics. Biometric technology involves the capture and storage of a distinctive, measurable characteristic, feature, or trait of an individual for subsequently recognizing that individual by automated means. Humans recognize each other according to their various characteristics. For example, friends, family, and co-workers recognize each other by faces and voices. Automated methods of recognizing a person based on a biological or behavioral characteristic is the basic tenet underlying biometrics.
Working of a biometric system:
A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system that recognizes a person by comparing the binary code of a uniquely specific biological or physical characteristic to the binary code of the stored characteristic. Samples are taken from individuals to see if there is similarity to biometric references previously taken from known individuals. The system then applies a specialized mathematical algorithm to the sample and converts it into a binary code and then compares it to the template sample to determine if the individual can be recognized.
B.D of biometric system
The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing background noise). In the third block features needed are extracted. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.
If enrollment is being performed the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e.g. Hamming distance). The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e.g. entrance in a restricted area).
What is a Pattern?
By the time they are five years old, most children can recognize digits and letters. Small characters, large characters, handwritten, machine printed or rotated-all are easily recognized by the young. The characters may be written on a cluttered background, on crumpled paper or may even be partially occluded. We take this ability for granted until we face the task of teaching a machine how to do the same. Watanabe defines a pattern as opposite of a chaos; it is an entity, vaguely defined, that could be given a name. For example, a pattern could be a fingerprint image, a handwritten cursive word, a human face, or a speech signal.
Pattern Recognition:
The best pattern recognizers in most instances are humans, yet we do not understand how humans recognize patterns. Pattern recognition stems from the need for automated machine recognition of objects, signals or images, or the need for automated decision-making based on a given set of parameters. Despite over half a century of productive research, pattern recognition continues to be an active area of research because of many unsolved fundamental theoretical problems as well as a rapidly increasing number of applications that can benefit from pattern recognition.
A fundamental challenge in automated recognition and decision-making is the fact that pattern recognition problems that appear to be simple for even a 5- year old may in fact be quite difficult when transferred to machine domain.
A pattern
Consider the problem of identifying the gender of a person by looking at a pictorial representation. It is relatively straightforward for humans to effortlessly identify the genders of these people, but now consider the problem of having a machine making the same decision. hat distinguishing features are there between these two classes—males and females—that the machine should look at to make an intelligent decision? Of course, real-world pattern recognition problems are considerably more difficult then even the one illustrated above.
Data Acquisition: Acquiring of data from the real world. This part is basically done by the biometrics system. Adequacy ensures that a sufficient amount of data exists to learn the decision boundary as a functional mapping between the feature vectors and the correct class labels. There is no rule that specifies how much data is sufficient.
Preprocessing: An essential, yet often overlooked step in the design process is preprocessing, where the goal is to condition the acquired data such that noise from various sources are removed to the extent that it is possible. Various filtering techniques can be employed if the user has prior knowledge regarding the spectrum of the noise.
Feature Extraction: Both feature extraction and feature selection steps are in effect dimensionality reduction procedures. In short, the goal of feature extraction is to find preferably small number of features that are particularly distinguishing or informative for the classification process, and that are invariant to irrelevant transformations of the data.
Feature Selection: In feature selection, selection specifically means selectionof m features that provide the most discriminatory information, out of a possible d features, where m<d. In other words, feature selection, refer to selecting a subset of features from a set of features that have already been identified by a preceding feature extraction algorithm.
Post: #37
Presented by:
Pravin Tapse
Onkar Phutane

Three Basic Identification Methods
Refer to a broad range of technologies
Automate the identification or verification of an individual
Based on human characteristics
Physiological: Face, fingerprint, iris
Behavioural: Hand-written signature, gait, voice
Identification vs. Verification
Working of a biometric system
Pattern Recognition
Pattern may be in the form of fingerprint image, a handwritten cursive word, a human face, or may be in speech signal.
Pattern recognition system recognizes a person by comparing the binary code of a uniquely specific biological or physical characteristic to the binary code of the stored characteristic.
Face Recognition
Speaker Recognition
Iris Recognition
Hand and Finger Geometry
Signature Verification
Finger-scan biometrics is based on the distinctive characteristics of the human fingerprint.
A fingerprint image is read from a capture device, features are extracted from the image, and a template is created.
If appropriate precautions are followed, what results is a very accurate means of authentication.
False Rejection Rates (FRR), in the vicinity of 0.01%.
False Acceptance Rates (FAR), in the vicinity of 0.001%.
Equal Error Rate, frequently claimed to be 0.1%.
Hand Geometry and Palmprints
Palmprints are an extension of fingerprint
Hand shape new technique of identification
Uses features such as finger position, shape, length, width, and curvature
Iris scan
Perhaps the most reliable of all biometrics
The human iris contains around 266 visible patterns, which forms the basis of several recognition algorithms
Even on the same person, left and right irises are different. The iris is unique to an individual and is stable with age
Types of Facial Recognition Systems
Feature based
Finds certain points such as tip of nose, eyes, and ends of mouth
Creates a geometric map of the face
Uses the entire face image
Eigenface technique
Facial Recognition
Emerging Technologies
Vein Scanning
Facial Thermography
DNA Matching
Odor Sensing
Blood Pulse Measurement
Skin Pattern Recognition
Nailbed Identification
Gait Recognition
Ear Shape Recognition
Biometrics are going to be used for many things in the near future
Introduced under the assumption that its for convenience
In reality there for security
Accomplishes both very well
Post: #38
Presented by:

Biometrics is the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. It is a new method of verifying authenticity. Biometrics uses biological traits or behavioral characteristics to identify an individual. A Biometrics system is actually a pattern recognition system that utilizes various patterns like iris patterns, retina patterns and biological traits like fingerprints, facial geometry, voice recognition and hand recognition etc. What makes Biometrics really attractive is the fact that the various security codes like the passwords and the PIN can be interchanged between people but the physiological traits can’t be.
The current applications of Biometric authentication are Entry control, ATMs and Government programs. The most obvious use of biometrics for network security is for secure workstation logons for a workstation connected to a network. The main use of Biometric network security will be to replace the current password system. The most popular biometric authentication scheme employed for the last few years has been Iris Recognition. Many companies are adding biometric authentication features to their products for e.g. Key ware Technologies LBV (Layered biometrics verification) Internet toolkit provides high-level security to e-commerce applications. This toolkit finds use in the area of Internet Banking.
There are various pros and cons to Biometrics that ought to be considered .The advantages mainly are the high levels of security it provides when compared to conventional methods, the uniqueness of biometric attributes makes them an ideal candidate authenticating users, problems associated with passwords can be avoided and that a Biometric characteristic can’t be stolen as opposed to passwords etc. The various disadvantages are the low acceptance rate, high costs associated with Biometric authentication due to the integration into the current network and the acquisition of the hardware and the software, the danger of an individual’s biometric data can be exploited and there are instances especially in voice recognition where the individual is restricted access due to a change in Biometric characteristics due to a cold etc. So, all these disadvantages have to be worked upon to ensure that this brilliant technology be incorporated into all the security systems to ensure safer transactions and restricted access to them to prevent any kind of breach of security.
Biometrics is derived from the conjunction of the Greek words bios and metrics that mean life and to measure respectively. Biometrics has been put to use in computer and network security settings. It is defined as” the development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences”. Biometrics is an accurate method of authentication that uses the physiological and biological traits of a person to verify and establish their identity. It has its roots in the ancient methods of authentication and finds use in many areas like Internet Banking, e-commerce and network security settings etc.
There were various methods of authentication used earlier .The Chinese were the first to use Biometrics in the form of a fingerprinting method. This was later followed by a method called Bertillonage that sought to identify people on the basis of certain characteristics like the length of their fingers and the size of their skull. Later on Scotland Yard detectives then began using the method of Fingerprinting analysis, which was initially put into practise by the Chinese.
Pros and Cons of these methods:
These methods used in the past had various flaws in them like:
There could be two people with the same measurements and having the same kind of measurements would be convicted and this was gruesome. So, the development of sophisticated methods was necessary for identifying the real culprits.
So emerged the technology of Biometrics !!!!
Emergence of Biometrics:
Biometrics has found its application in many areas like Network authentication, Internet Banking, Entry Control and Government programs.
Biometrics works by taking into consideration certain parameters that are unique to each person like their facial geometry, iris recognition, hand geometry, voice recognition and fingerprinting analysis etc. The main advantage of using these physiological traits is that though other kinds of authentication like passwords and tokes can be presented by anybody, physiological traits can’t be replicated and thus form the main reason why these Biometrics systems are used.
Biometrics: How??
Biometrics is basically a pattern recognition system that utilizes the uniqueness of certain physiological patterns like iris patterns, voice recognition patterns, facial geometry, hand geometry and fingerprint patterns etc.
Post: #39

BitTorrent is a protocol designed for transferring files. It is peer-to-peer in nature, as users connect to each other directly to send and receive portions of the file. However, there is a central server (called a tracker) which coordinates the action of all such peers. The tracker only manages connections, it does not have any knowledge of the contents of the files being distributed, and therefore a large number of users can be supported with relatively limited tracker bandwidth. The key philosophy of BitTorrent is that users should upload (transmit outbound) at the same time they are downloading (receiving inbound.) In this manner, network bandwidth is utilized as efficiently as possible. BitTorrent is designed to work better as the number of people interested in a certain file increases, in contrast to other file transfer protocols.
One analogy to describe this process might be to visualize a group of people sitting at a table. Each person at the table can both talk and listen to any other person at the table. These people are each trying to get a complete copy of a book. Person A announces that he has pages 1-10, 23, 42-50, and 75. Persons C, D, and E are each missing some of those pages that A has, and so they coordinate such that A gives them each copies of the pages he has that they are missing. Person B then announces that she has pages 11-22, 31-37, and 63-70. Persons A, D, and E tell B they would like some of her pages, so she gives them copies of the pages that she has.
The process continues around the table until everyone has announced what they have. The people at the table coordinate to swap parts of this book until everyone has everything. There is also another person at the table, who we will call 'S'. This person has a complete copy of the book, and so does not need anything sent to him. He responds with pages that no one else in the group has. At first, when everyone has just arrived, they all must talk to him to get their first set of pages. However, the people are smart enough to not all get the same pages from him. After a short while, they all have most of the book amongst themselves, even if no one person has the whole thing. In this manner, this one person can share a book that he has with many other people, without having to give a full copy to everyone that is interested. He can instead give out different parts to different people, and they will be able to share it amongst themselves. This person who we have referred to as 'S' is called a seed in the terminology of BitTorrent.
When a file is made available using HTTP, all upload cost is placed on the hosting machine. With BitTorrent, when multiple people are downloading the same file at the same time, they upload pieces of the file to each other. This redistributes the cost of upload to downloaders, (where it is often not even metered), thus making hosting a file with a potentially unlimited number of downloaders affordable. Researchers have attempted to find practical techniques to do this before. It has not been previously deployed on a large scale because the logistical and robustness problems are quite difficult. Simply figuring out which peers have what parts of the file and where they should be sent is difficult to do without incurring a huge overhead. In addition, real deployments experience very high churn rates. Peers rarely connect for more than a few hours, and frequently for only a few minutes. Finally, there is a general problem of fairness. The total download rate across all downloaders must, of mathematical necessity, be equal to the total upload rate. The strategy for allocating upload that seems most likely to make peers happy with their download rates is to make each peer's download rate be proportional to their upload rate. In practice it's very difficult to keep peer download rates from sometimes dropping to zero by chance, much less make upload and download rates be correlated.
BitTorrent Interface
BitTorrent's interface is almost the simplest possible. Users launch it by clicking on a hyperlink to the file they wish to download, and are given a standard "Save As" dialog, followed by a download progress dialog that is mostly notable for having an upload rate in addition to a download rate. This extreme ease use has contributed greatly to BitTorrent's adoption, and may even be more important than, although it certainly complements, the performance and cost redistribution features
Post: #40
In 1968, Biometrics technique was implem-
ented in New York bank.
But after1990, IT comes in picture ,through
Its advancement and simplicity Biometrics
Technique become very popular.

Voice print is recorded by microphones.
Voice print is determined by many different factors: size of vocalcactivites (throat, oral, nasal) as well as the characteristic of the vocal chords themselves.
Your voice is further modified by the way you speak the way your mouth, lips, teeth, jaw and tongue move. Therefore, the chance of two people have
Finger print is also called finger scanning.
To scan the finger print, a special kind of scanner that can work with optical rays is used.
it fetches the diagram of finger print & delivers it to the computer where a special programmer measures the distance between the special features & that print.
Here, those special features are core, split, island, end &delta. Most fingerprint data takes up around 250kb
Iris is located behind the cornea of the eye and front of the lens. Its only physiological purpose is to control the amount of light that enters the eye through the pupil, but iss construction from elastic connective tissue gives it a complex, fibrillous pattern.
Finger print technique there are only 90 special features, but in iris pattern there are 266 special features.
It use various features of the face to recognize or verify a user.
Use various kind of camera and computer .
The computer converted this feature into digital form.
Most widely used biometrics sys.
It use the geometric shape of the hand for authenticating the user’s identity.
Generally two method is used:
1. mechanical.
2. Image edge detection.
Hand scanner is used in this method which is shown in fig.
Retina scan method is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of eye.
The device used in this method is shown in the fig. on this the user position there head against a support and a low power infrared light is directed against the back of the retina.
This method analyzes the way in which a user types at a computer keyboard.
The durations of keystrokes and the latencies between them are recorded
Facial recognition technique has recently developed into two areas of study;
1. Facial metrics.
2. Eigenfaces.
It is based on the dynamics of making the signature.
i.e. accretion rates, direction, pressure, stroke length etc.
The problem is measurement used in the recognition process and repeatability of the signature.

Table show the crossover accuracy of different biometrics.
crossover accuracy is the ratio of the crossover Frequency as compared to the whole population of tested data.
DNA differs from standard biometrics in several ways.
DNA is type of biometric in as much as it is the use of physiological characteristic two verify or determine identity.
Where Biometrics is used?
The new opportunities & Future Technologies.
Post: #41
than you for the documentation on biometrics
thank you for the documentation on biometrics
Post: #42
To get more information about the topic "Biometrics " please refer the link below
Post: #43
I want a full report ppt of biomrtric retinal scan technology
Post: #44
To get more information about the topic "Biometrics " please refer the link below
Post: #45
Heart:heart:great Heart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:greatHeart:heart:great
Post: #46
To get more information about the topic "Biometrics " please refer the link below
Post: #47

plz give full repot on bicmos technology
Post: #48
To get more information about the topic "Biometrics " please refer the link below
Post: #49
hai,,,,,can u send me biometric voting system documentation and ppts plzz,,,,to dis mail sravanipusa[at]
Post: #50
PLZ give the report of biometrics

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