Â¢ A biosensor is a device for the detection of an analytic that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component. Many optical biosensors based on the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance are evanescent wave techniques . The most widespread example of a commercial biosensor is the blood glucose biosensor, which uses the enzyme glucose oxidase to break blood glucose down
Biosensor consist of
Â¢ 1.the sensitive biological element
Â¢ 2.the transducer or detector element
Â¢ 3.signal processors
Â¢ Tiny and compactable
Â¢ Linear response
Â¢ Small, cheap
Â¢ Easy use
Â¢ Highly specific
a â€œ analyte
c - immobilized biological molecule
d -biospecific immobilization surface
e - chemical signal
g - amplification and control unit interferent
h - output of measured analyte
Response time is longer
After use it require more time
Cells contains many enzymes
1.Medicine and health
1. Potentiometric biosensors
2. Amperometric biosensors
3. Optimal biosensors
4. Calorimetric biosensors
5. Acoustic wave biosensors
Â¢ Use iron selective electrodes
Â¢ Electrodes used are
-solid state electrode
-ph meter glass electrode
Â¢ Gas sensing electrode detect and measure the amount of gas produced
Â¢ It measures the change in temperature
Â¢ It can be used for turbid and strongly colored solutions
Â¢ Eg-glucose oxidase for determination of glucose
Â¢ Production of current when potential applied between electrodes
Â¢ These are the first generation biosensors
Â¢ Used to measure redox reactions
Â¢ Measure both catalytic and affinity reactions
Â¢ They measure change in fluorescence
ACOUSTIC WAVE BIOSENSORS
Â¢ These are also called piezo electric devices
Â¢ There Surface is coated with antibodies which bind to the complementary antigen present in the sample solution
There are number of areas where the unique capabilities of biosensors might be exploted to meet the requirement of environmental monitering.advances in such areas such as toxity,bioavailability and multipollutant screening, could when the potential market and allow these techniques to be more competetive.miniatarizaion,reversability and continuous operation may allow biosensor techniques to be incorporated as detectors in chromatographic systems
What is a Biosensor
A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device thai is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element which is in direct spatial contact with a transduction element (IUPAC, 1996)
"Biosensor" - Any device that uses specific biochemical reactions to detect chemical compounds in biological samples.
A sensor that integrates a biological element with a physiochemical transducer to produce an electronic signal proportional to a single analyte which is then conveyed to a detector.
History of Biosensors
â€ 1916 First report on immobilization of proteins : adsorption of invertase on activated charcoal
â€ 1922 First glass pH electrode
â€ 1956 Clark published his definitive paper on the oxygen
First description of a biosensor: an amperometric e electrodre for glucose (Clark)
Guilbault and M ontalvo - First potentiometric biosensor:urease immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea
Bergveld - ion selective Field Effect Transistor (ISFET)
cribed a fibre-optic sensor with immobilised ioxide or oxygen.
â€ 1975 First commercial biosensor ( Yellow springs Instruments glucose biosensor)
â€ 1975 First microbe based biosensor, First immunosensor
â€ 1976 First bedside artificial pancreas (Miles)
â€ 1980 First fibre optic pH sensor for in vivo blood gases
â€ 1982 First fibre optic-based biosensor for glucose
â€ 1983 First surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
â€ 1984 First mediated amperometric biosensor:
ferrocene used with glucose oxidase for glucose
Blood-glucose biosensor launched by
1990 SPR based biosensor by Pharmacia BIACore
1992 Hand held blood biosensor by i-STAT
1996 Launching of Glucocard
1998 Blood glucose biosenso r launch by LifeScan
1998 Roche Diagnostics by Merger of Roche and
Quantom dots, nanoparicles, nanowire,
Basic Characteristics of a Biosensor
Value of the electrode response per
3. SELECTIVITY Chemicals Interference must be
obtaining the correct result.
Time necessary for having 95%
1. The Analyte (What do you want to detect)
Molecule - Protein, toxin, peptide, vitamin, sugar, metal ion
2. Sample handling (How to deliver the analyte to the sensitive region)
(Micro) fluidics - Concentration increase/decrease), Filtration/selection
3. Detection/Recognition (How do you specifically recognize the analyte)
Typical Sensing Techniques for Biosensors Â¢/ Fluorescence Â¢/ DNA Microarray
Â¢ SPR Surface plasmon resonance
Â¢ Impedance spectroscopy
Â¢ SPM (Scanning probe microscopy, AFM, STM)
Â¢ QCM (Quartz crystal microbalance)
Â¢ SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy)
Types of Biosensors
1. Calorimetric Biosensor
2. Potentiometric Biosensor
3. Amperometric Biosensor
4. Optical Biosensor
5. Piezo-electric Biosensor
ct the specific angle at which electron waves are d to laser light or crystals, such as quartz, which vibrate under the influence of an electric field.
Â¢ For applied current: Movement of e- in redox reactions detected when a potential is applied between two electrodes.
â€ For voltage: Change in distribution of charge is detected using ion-selective electrodes, such as pH-meters.
Â¢ Colorimetric for color Measure change in light adsorption
Â¢ Photometric for light intensity
Photon output for a luminescent or fluorescent process can be detected with photomultiplier tubes or photodiode systems.
If the enzyme catalyzed reaction is exothermic, two thermistors may be used to
the analyte concentration.
Electrochemical DNA Biosensor
Ã‚Â¦ Steps involved in electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors:
Ã‚Â¦ Formation of the DNA recognition layer
Ã‚Â¦ Actual hybridization event
Ã‚Â¦ Transformation of the hybridization event into an electrical signal
Motivated by the application to clinical diagnosis and genome mutation detection
Types DNA Biosensors
Biosensors on the Nanoscale
Molecular sheaths around the nanotube are developed that respond to a particular chemical and modulate the nanotube's optical properties.
In a nanoelectrode react with low-concentration lect). Doctors can use to diagnose diseases at earlier
Nanosphere lithography (NSL) derived triangular Ag nanoparticles are used to detect streptavidin down to one picomolar concentrations.
The School of Biomedical Engineering has developed an anti- body based
piezoelectric nanobiosenso r to be used for anthrax,HIV hepatitis detection.
Application of Biosensor
Study of biomolecules and their interaction
Medical diagnosis (both clinical and laboratory use)
Environmental field monitoring
Industrial Process Control
Detection systems for biological warfare agents
Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and replacement organs
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