Tokyo Japan, February 19, 2002: Nine leading companies today announced that they have jointly established the basic specifications for a next generation large capacity optical disc video recording format called "Blu-ray Disc". The Blu-ray Disc enables the recording, rewriting and play back of up to 27 gigabytes (GB) of data on a single sided single layer 12cm CD/DVD size disc using a 405nm blue-violet laser.
By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser, the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converges the laser 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0.32um, almost half of that of a regular DVD, achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc.
Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.
Concept of the format establishment :
To realize the large capacity with 12cm disc
- More than 2-hour high definition video recording
- High capacity of more than 4-hour recording by double layer technology.
To cope with digital broadcasting
- High compatibility with digital broadcasting
- To prevent illegitimate duplication of contents
To enhance the Blu-ray Disc world
- Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in variety of media and applications
Main Features of physical format:
Large recording capacity up to 27GB:
By adopting a 405nm blue-violet semiconductor laser, with a 0.85NA field lens and a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection disc layer structure, it can record up to 27GB video data on a single sided 12cm phase change disc. It can record over 2 hours of digital high definition video and more than 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting (VHS/standard definition picture quality, 3.8Mbps)
Easy to use disc cartridge:
An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints
High-speed data transfer rate 36Mbps:
It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasts or high definition images from a digital video camera while maintaining the original picture quality. In addition, by fully utilizing an optical disc's random accessing functions, it is possible to easily edit video data captured on a video camera or play back pre-recorded video on the disc while simultaneously recording images being broadcast on TV.
Like the DVD, the Blu-ray disc uses phase change recording. This must be good news for those who plan to make the new format compatible with its wildly popular predecessor. This recording format will also makes a two-sided disc easily realizable because both writing and reading can be executed by a single pickup.
Blu-ray disc utilizes global standards like MPEG-2 Transport Stream compression technology for video and audio multiplexing. This makes it possible for a Blu-ray Disc to record high definition broadcasting and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. Data captured on a video camera while recording images being broadcast on TV can also be edited simultaneously.
Main Features Of Logical format :
Highly compatible with digital broadcasting :
MPEG2 transport stream compression technology for video recording can record digital broadcasting including HDTV while maintaining its original picture quality.
Best data structure for disc recording
Achieving improvement of searching, easy editing functions and play a list playback functions by adapting logical data structure making the best use of
File system for HDTV real time recording
Adapting the file system which can achieve high bit rate recording and playback of HDTV and best use of disc space
405nm (blue-violet laser)
Lens numerical aperture(NA):
Data transfer rate:
1.2mm (optical transmittance protection layer: 1mm)
Phase change recording
Shortest pit length:
Recording phase density:
Video recording format
Audio recording format:
AC3, MPEG1, Layer2, etc.
Video and audio multiplexing format:
MPEG2 transport stream
Approximately 129 x 131 x 7mm
The Blue Laser
A blue laser operates in the blue range of the light spectrum, ranging from about 405nm to 470nm. Most blue laser diodes use indium gallium nitride as the material to create the laser light, although the amount of indium included in the material varies. (Some blue laser diodes use no indium.) Some manufacturers create blue LEDs (light-emitting diodes), which create light in a manner similar to lasers with silicon carbide.
Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams, which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor, along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc, in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes. Blue lasers are desirable because blue light has the shortest wavelength among visible light.
A blue laser operates at a shorter wavelength of about 405nm than a red laser at about 650nm. A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, one-millionth of a millimeter, and one-thousandth of a micron. One inch is equal to about 25.4 million nanometers. A human hair is about 50,000nm wide.
Blue Laser Development
Shiju Nakamura is credited with inventing the blue diode laser and blue, green, and white LEDs. Nakamura was working at Nichia Chemical Industries in Japan when he developed the blue laser in 1995. Itâ„¢s a technology many large corporations had been trying to develop for several years.
Nakamura had worked with LEDs and lasers for several years before tackling blue lasers in the late 1980s. Because most research at the time focused on using zinc selenide as the laser material, Nakamura decided to work with gallium nitride. He spent two years perfecting a technique for growing high-quality gallium nitride crystals, something other researchers had been unable to achieve.
Finally, Nakamura had the materials necessary to create blue LEDs, which he did in 1993. He followed with green LEDs and a blue laser diode in the next few years. He says the biggest commercial use for blue lasers should be DVD players.
Putting Blue Lasers to Work
Blue lasers could appear in a variety of business applications, including high-density DVDs, laser printers, and lighting situations.
HD DVDs : HD (high-definition) DVDs using blue laser light could lead to five or six times the storage capacity possible using red laser light on a DVD. Blue laser light could create HD CDs, too.
Because blue lasers can increase the capacity of optical discs by five-fold or more, they give manufacturers a few options for their digital files. Manufacturers could choose to burn additional data onto the disc while keeping the same digital quality, potentially making CDs containing 50 to 75 songs. Manufacturers also could choose to use blue laser to increase the quality level of the video or audio recording. Keep in mind that nearly all DVDs using the MPEG-2 standard automatically contain some compression of the video file, which allows the file to fit on the disc. With an HD DVD, manufacturers could choose to use no compression on the video file, which should improve file quality.
Light bulbs : With green and red lasers already available, development of a blue laser would be the final piece of the laser puzzle among primary colors. By using all three colors of lasers, a researcher could create a device that would mix the laser light and create white light, which, at some point, could replace the common light bulb. If you combine red, green, and blue laser light, you can produce light with greater brilliance and greater efficiency than currently is available with fluorescent lights.
Creating LEDs in this manner can be of particular help in areas where light bulbs are expensive and difficult to replace. An LED can burn for several times as long as a light bulb for about one-fourth the operating cost because most of the LEDâ„¢s energy is involved in creating light, rather than creating heat energy. Traditional light bulbs create a lot of heat along with the light.
LEDs already are used in many traffic lights, where traditional bulbs usually last less than one year, can be tough to see in sunlight, and fail suddenly. LEDs in a traffic light should last at least five years, remain highly visible in sunlight, and gradually fade in intensity rather than failing suddenly.
Medicine : Scientists already are experimenting with blue lasers in discovering certain types of cancer. Using an endoscope, researchers have had some success finding tumors using a blue laser light inside the patientâ„¢s stomach and intestinal tract.
Printing : Laser printers using blue laser light would be smaller and more precise than todayâ„¢s laser printers, which use red laser light. Because of blue laser lightâ„¢s smaller wavelength, the laser mechanism inside a printer that uses blue laser light could be smaller, leading to smaller printers. Print resolution using blue lasers would be at least double that of todayâ„¢s top laser printers, too; some researchers estimate resolution as sharp as 2,400dpi in a blue laser printer. Blue laser could play a role in full-color scanners and fax machines, too.
Security : After the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, fears have increased over additional attacks using biological or chemical weapons. However, blue laser light causes some chemical and biological agents to give off light, even though those agents are invisible to the naked eye, which might let security screening personnel spot a biological agent during a routine search or as the agent comes through customs.
Waiting for HD DVD
The unfortunate news is that all of these applications and developments concerning blue lasers remain in the earliest stages. Some of the applications weâ„¢ve mentioned here could take until the next decade to become commercially viable. You arenâ„¢t going to be able to buy an HD DVD player for a while for several reasons.
First, blue laser devicesâ€like most new types of technologyâ€arenâ„¢t cheap to manufacture. It took several years for red and infrared laser devices to become as easily and inexpensively manufactured as they are today; blue laser devices almost certainly will follow that trend in the next few years.
Second, the reliability and durability of blue lasers, at least when compared to red and infrared lasers, is a little shaky. The materials used to create lasers inevitably break down at some point. Although the material in red and infrared lasers, usually gallium aluminum, can last 10,000 hours or more, material in blue lasers, usually indium gallium nitride, typically lasts less than 1,000 hours. Researchers expect to iron out the problem with materials relatively soon, though. Cree claimed in February 2002 that it had created a blue laser with a 10,000-hour lifespan at room temperature. Cree also says its blue laser should be compatible with the Blu-ray Disc standard.
Third, the exacting current specifications for creating optical discs will become even more stringent to account for the smaller pits blue lasers make. Even the tiniest imperfections will be magnified in an optical disc with blue laser technology. Optical disc manufacturers will need some time to improve manufacturing processes.
Finally, consumer demand just isnâ„¢t there yet. Only a fraction of the population is using DVD players or CD burners. Why would someone whoâ„¢s still using a VCR and videotape suddenly begin clamoring for an HD DVD Such changes in the tastes and demands of consumers just take time.
Some experts say consumers will be wary of HD DVD, especially those whoâ„¢ve spent hundreds or thousands of dollars switching their movie collections from videotape to DVD. Some movie studios might be wary of HD DVD initially, too, waiting for improved copy protection before adopting the new technology.
Regardless of the reasons, most experts say any form of HD DVD probably is five to 10 years away from mainstream consumer acceptance. (After all, it might take consumers that long to restock their DVD-purchasing bank accounts.) You can be sure blue laser technology wonâ„¢t sit around waiting for consumer tastes to turn, though. Blue laser has enough potential applications available to keep researchers busy for the next several years.
The Blu-ray Impact
Blu-ray is expected to challenge DVD's run as the fastest selling consumer-electronics item in history. If that happens, the impact would be too big for the major players to discount. For example, the number of films sold on DVD more than doubled last year to over 37 million. In addition, almost 2.4 million DVD players were bought in the past year. As Blu-ray is not compatible with DVD, its success could upset the applecart of many players. If the new format turns out to be much popular, the demand for DVD players could come down drastically. Not withstanding the challenge to DVD makers, the new format is seen as a big step in the quest for systems offering higher data storage. It is expected to open up new opportunities for broadcasting industry. Recording of high-definition television videoâ€an application in which more than 10GB of storage space is filled up with just one hour of videoâ€will get a major boost. Conversely, the format could take advantage of the spread of high-definition television. As Blu-ray Disc uses MPEG-2 Transport Stream compression technology, recording for digital broadcasting would become easier. Its adoption will grow in the broadband era as it offers a technology platform to manage stored content. But the real action will begin when the companies involved develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. As that happens, Blu-ray will move beyond being a recording tool to a variety of applications. Adoption of Blu-ray Disc in PC data storage is already being considered.
Characteristics of Ideal Communication
1. Speed: The blue laser technology will allow DVD recording devices to record data at a speed of 36Mbps. Developing companies such a TDK also stated that they will be able to increase the recording speed up to 72Mbps and 144Mbps. Developing companies such as Toshiba and NEC have been working on this technology and have already developed the blue laser standard.
2. Reliability: Storage mediums used by blue laser burners will provide high reliable backup at affordable prices. Media types will provide a 50 year data life. They will also employ a new dual shutter cartridge to minimize contamination and protect valuable data stored on a disc.
3. Quality: Media storage devices using this technology will have a quality similar to the quality of red laser storage devices. Optical discs have to be used in a safe way. They should be in the case they come in or in the device using it. This is to avoid scratching of the discs which can cause data on a disc to be unreadable. Laser printers would me more precise than regular laser printers that use red laser, because of the shorter wavelength that blue laser has.
4. Ease of Use: DVD recording devices are very simple to use. Even children can use them. There are no complexities to the use of blue laser recording devices. They are used just like any regular red laser DVD recording device. An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints.
5. Cost: The price of an optical disc recording device using blue ray will start off with a high price tag around $1700. Just like any computer related devices that are new the price will decrease as time passes. It has a high storage capacity which is up to 60 GB on a dual sided DVD.
6. Safety and Security: Blue laser light helps in detecting some chemical and biological weapons because it causes them to give off light. So it could be used in airports and other places that have security screening to detect such a weapon.
Comparison of Storage Technologies
While current optical disc technologies such as CD, DVD, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW use a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. The benefit of using a blue laser is that it has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometer) than a red laser (650 nanometer), which means that it's possible to focus the laser beam with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly on the disc and makes it possible to fit more data on the same size disc. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray Disc Recorders will be made compatible with current red-laser technologies and allow playback of CDs and DVDs.
The following diagram shows the comparison between different storage Technologies.
Trends in Storage Technology
The following graph shows the trends in optical storage technology over the years .
How does Blu-ray disc work
History of Technology
1. The challenge to write more information on disk
2. Shiju Nakamura is credited with inventing the blue diode laser and
blue, green, and white LEDs.
3. Nakamura was working at Nichia Chemical Industries in Japan
when he developed the blue laser in 1995.
Description of how this technology works.
Blue lasers have a wavelength of 405 nanometers, shorter than that of red lasers, which have a wavelength of around 650 nanometers and are used for reading and writing DVD and CD discs. The shorter wavelength means that the laser can register smaller dots on a disc and more data can be stored. As a result, blue laser technology has been adopted for the development of next-generation optical discs.
1. Using double infrared frequency to create the wavelength for blue light.
2. A blue laser operates in the blue range of the light spectrum, ranging from about 405nm to 470nm.
3. Most blue laser diodes use indium gallium nitride as the material to create the laser light.
4. Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams, which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely.
5. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor, along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc, in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc.
6. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes.
The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified.
The nine companies involved in the announcement will respectively develop products that take full advantage of Blu-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate are:
LG Electronics Inc.
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.
Royal Philips Electronics.
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd..
Despite the impending tug-of war, the industry is excited about the future prospects of this technological innovation. The industry is of the view that Blu-ray has the potential to replicate, if not better, the DVD success story. The expected upswing in high-definition television adoption and broadband implementation could act as the catalyst. Aware that the recession in economies across the globe could come in the way of high-definition television broadband penetration, major players are exploring the ways to make Blu-ray compatible with DVDs. Cost can dampen the sales in the first year. Owing to the patent and the technology involved, Blu-ray is likely to cost more than DVDs. But sooner than later, it will move towards commodity pricing. Once that happens, Blu-ray holds the promise to steal a march over its immediate predecessor.
In conclusion the Blue-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. Blue lasers have a shorter wavelength, which means the laser beam can be focused onto a smaller area of the disc surface. In turn, this means less real estate is needed to store one bit of data, and so more data can be stored on a disc. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. Companies involved in the development will respectively make products that take full advantage of Blue-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blue-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is also being considered. There is a lot of talk about blue-laser-based systems being focused around high-definition television, which has heavy data needs. But Blue-ray Disc groups are also considering development of write-once and read-only formats for use with PCs.
Prototype blue-laser-based optical disc systems have been around for more than a year. However, one problem has hampered development of commercial systems: cost. A sample blue-laser diode currently costs around $1000, making consumer products based on the parts unrealistic. However, Nichia, the major source for blue lasers, is expected to begin commercial production this year and the price of a blue-laser diode is expected to tumble once the company begins turning them out in volume. The DVD forum may or may not invite the blue-ray light into is era but the 27GB disc is not far off in practically disturbing the DVD wave.
1) Wobble-address format of the blu-ray disc. By S. Furumiya, S. Kobayashi, B. Stek, H. Ishibashi, T. Yamagami, K. Schep: Presented at ISOM/ODS Hawaii, July 2002 .
2) Millipede- Nanotechnology Entering Data Storage, By P. P. Vettiger, G. Cross, M. Despont, U. Drechsler, U. DÃƒÂ¼rig, B. Gotsmann, W. HÃƒÂ¤berle, M. A. Lantz, H. E. Rothuizen, R. Stutz, and G. K. Binnig:
3) 34 GB Multilevel-enabled Rewritable System using Blue Laser and High NA Optics. By H. Hieslmair, J. Stinebaugh, T. Wong, M. Oâ„¢Neill, M. Kuijper, G. Langereis: Published at ISOM/ODS HawaiÃƒÂ¯, July 2002.
Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of a next-generation optical disc video recording format jointly developed by nine leading consumer electronics companies. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HDTV). Blu-ray makes it possible to record over 2 hours of digital high-definition video (HDTV) or more than 13 hours of standard-definition video (SDTV/VHS picture quality) on a 27GB disc. There are also plans for higher capacity discs that are expected to hold up to 50GB of data.
The Blu-ray Disc technology can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. Adoption of the Blu-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is being considered.
Key Characteristics of Blu-ray discs are :
2. Main Specifications
3. The Blue Laser
4. Characteristics of Ideal Communication
5. Comparison of Storage Technologies
6. Trends in Storage Technology
7. How Blu-ray works
8. Companies Involved
9. Future Development
I am deeply indebted to Prof. P.V. Abdul Hameed, Head of the Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering, MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram for his sincere and dedicated cooperation and encouragement for the seminars.
I would also like to thank our guide Mr.Berly C.J, Lecturer, Department of ECE, MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram, for his invaluable advice and wholehearted cooperation without which this seminars would not have been a success.
Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of ECE for their valuable advice and encouragement.