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Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks (Download Full Seminar Report)
Post: #26
how can i get full reports..??
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I would like to get the report for bluetooth based smart sensors
Post: #31
The seemingly endless entanglement of data wires connecting today’s electronic devices has become slightly less jumbled with the introduction of Bluetooth technology and the creation of a wireless data link. This article delves into the implementation and architecture of Bluetooth. It also describes the functional overview and applications of Bluetooth. It gives significant advantages of Bluetooth over other data transfer technologies such as IrDA and Home RF. It illustrates how a connection is made in Bluetooth between two environments. It mainly emphasizes the architecture of Bluetooth. It gives over all Bluetooth packet structure and different communication and data information protocols such as WAP, UDP, IP, TCP, RFCOMM, and L2CAP etc. It also explains Link Security by Data Encryption. Finally it narrates how Bluetooth will bring a new level of connectivity and convenience when operating electronic devices. These details in the article establish the growing need for Bluetooth technology.
Bluetooth is a method for data communication that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units. Bluetooth is a radio frequency technology utilizing the unlicensed 2.5GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Bluetooth is an open standard for wireless connectivity with supporters mostly from the PC and cell phone industries. Not surprisingly, its primary market is for data and voice transfer between communication devices and L.M.Ericson of Sweden invented PCs. Bluetooth in 1994. The standard is named after Harald Blaatand"Bluetooth"2nd,king of Denmark.
Bluetooth attempts to provide significant advantages over other data transfer technologies such as IrDA and HomeRF. IrDA is already popular in PC to peripherals,but is severely limited by the short connection distance of 1m and the line of sight requirement for communication. Due to its RF nature bluetooth is not subjected to such limitations. In addition to wireless device connections up to 10-100m, devices need not be within line of sight. Also it is designed to be low cost i.e under $10/unit.
Establishing a connection in Bluetooth:
Linking one Bluetoooth device to another to another involves a series of inquiry and paging procedures. The inquiry process entails the following steps:
• The Bluetooth device sends out an inquiry access code packet (inquiry packet) to search and locate these devices.
• The existing Bluetooth devices already within the area (and usually unware of any inquiring devices) will occasionally enter an inquiry scan state of their own to troll for any inquiring devices.
• when a device in the inquiry scan state receives an inquiry packet, it will respond with a frequency hop synchronization (FHS) packet that is sent back to the inquiring device.
Once the inquiry routine is completed, the paging process follows:
• the inquiring Bluetooth device now wants to establish a connection with another Bluetoooth device.
• To successfully locate and page a target Bluetooth device, the paging device estimates the hop frequency and clock of the target Bluetooth device using the FHS packet received during inquiry.
• the paging device “pages” the target device with the target device’s device access code (DAC). The paging device transmits the DAC on several different hop frequencies that it thinks the target device is receiving (as calculated using the FHS packet) and continues to do so until a connection is made.
• while the paging device (the master) is paging, the target (slave) device may be involved in other piconets. Occasionally, it will enter the page scan state and listen for pages directed to it, scanning through 16 different frequencies. When it receives a page from the paging device, it will respond to the page by sending an update of its clock to the paging device.
• once the paging device receives a page response from the target device, information vital for a connection is exchanged between the two devices. Information exchanged includes the device address and clock of the paging device, which is used to determine the timing and frequency-hop sequence of the newly formed piconet. When all connection information has been communicated, the connection is complete, and the two devices can begin to exchange data with one another.
Bluetooth packet format:
since Bluetooth is meant to be compatible with many different applications, it must be able to send data with different protocols quickly and efficiently. When data is transmitted at the lowest level, it is first broken down into smaller packets and sent serially with the least significant bit sent first. Each data packet (represented in Figure 2) contains three fields: an access code, a header, and a payload.
Access codes
At the beginning of each Bluetooth packet is an access code. The access code is used primarily for piconet identification and synchronization. The access code identifies the piconet to which each data packet belong; all data packets having both a packet header and payload present will have a 72-b access code; otherwise, the access code is 68-b long. Access codes are also used extensively in Bluetooth with no header or payload present. The access code itself (Figure 3) is divided into three sections-preamble, sync word, and trailer-which are not present in inquiry or device access codes.
Packet header
The packet header, which follows the access code and contains link control information, co9ntain six fields: AM_ADDR, TYPE, FLOW, ARON, SEQN, and HEC (Figure 4).
• AM_ADDR, a 3-b active member address, is used to indicate where the packet is destined. When a slave receives a data packet, it checks the packet header’s AM_ADDR. If it matches its own assigned AM_ADDR, the packet will be decoded; otherwise, it is discarded.
• the 4-b TYPE field indicates the type of packet that has been sent. There are up to 16 different types of Bluetooth packets.
• The FLOW bit is used for flow control. For example, if the receive (RX) buffer of a recipient device is full, it will indicate in its response to the master that it cannot accept any data at that moment. Once it can receive more data, the FLOW bit is changed from 0 to 1.
• ARQN is the acknowledge bit that informs the source whether the previous transaction was successful.
• The sequence (SEQN) bit allows the source and the recipient to keep track of the packets that have been sent. The bit is inverted on each packet transmission and used to prevent the reception of packets that may have been sent twice. Repeat transmission of a packet occurs when the acknowledgement signal of a successful data transaction to the master fails to transmit. The receiving device can simply compare the SEQN bit of the packet that was previously processed to determine whether to discard or accept the packet.
• The header error check, HEC, is used to check the integrity and accuracy of the header during each packet transaction. If the HEC is incorrect, the packet is discard. While the header comprises 18 b, the fact that it is encoded at a rate of one-third the forward error correction (FEC) rate, extends the total bit length to 54 b.
• The payload , which follows the header, can range from 0 to 2,745 b, and contains the actual data of interest. With a packet capable of being sent during every 625 micro second time slot, a maximum bit rate of 723.2 kb/s can be achieved for an ACL, and 64 kb/s can be achieved for an ACL, and 64 kb/s for an SCO.
Bluetooth can handle the transmission of many different applications. This entails dealing with different architectural layers to decompose the application data into a form suitable for transmission over a Bluetooth link, as well as to reassemble the data into its original form at the receiving end.
Facilitating this data transmission is a series of protocols within the Bluetooth system that processes the data for suitable transmission and receipt.
The general structure of a Bluetooth system consists of a microprocessor that handles all the base band specifications, and several software layers that structure the data so that it may be sent properly over a Bluetooth link. Figure 5 provides a good representation of the architecture.
At the highest architecture level lies the different communication and data information protocols that can communicate over the Bluetooth link, including wireless application protocol (WAP), user datagram protocol (UDP), transport control protocol (TCP), internet protocol (IP), and point-to-point protocol (PPP). While all of these are standalone communication protocols, they can be adapted for transmission over a Bluetooth link. To support these different types of communication protocols, the Bluetooth system architecture must be capable of capable of differentiating and converting data associated with these protocols into data packets that the Bluetooth base band controller and RF transceiver can send.
One of the protocols within the Bluetooth architecture that is responsible for this adaptation is RFCOMM, which emulates a serial port and can be used by applications that use the serial ports on a Bluetooth device. RFCOMM can take the data from some of the higher level protocols mentioned previously and adapt it so it can be sent down to the baseband and converted into Bluetooth data packets and subsequently sent over a Bluetooth link.
Below RFCOMM lies the logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) that further supports the adaptation of other communication protocols, such as telephony control specification binary (TCS-binary) and the Bluetooth-established service discovery protocol (SDP), as well as performing the multiplexing between all incoming upper-level protocols (RFCOMM, TCS, SDP), as well as performing the multiplexing between all incoming upper-level protocols (RFCOMM, TCS, SDP). In addition to protocol multiplexing, L2CAP is responsible for the segmentation of outgoing data packets so they may be transferred to the baseband processor cannot handle data packets of great size. L2CAP is also responsible for the reassembly of received data packets, which are subsequently sent to one of the higher-level protocols designated to receive this data.
Once the original data has been segmented by L2CAP into subsequent L2CAP packets, the packets are then sent to the host controller interface (HCI), which is responsible for sending data to and receiving data from the lower level Bluetooth hardware (baseband controller) through a physical bus (USB, RS232, PCI), HCI further alters the L2CAP packets so that the data may be transported over one of the physical buses. The link manager and baseband controller that assemble it into packets that are communicable using a Bluetooth link receive this data.
At the lowest level lie the link manager and baseband controller. The baseband controller performs all low level processing, such as Bluetooth packet composition for transmission and packet decomposition upon reception. Running on the baseband controller is firmware implementing the link manager protocol, which handles link control, is responsible for placing the device in low power states, and performs any encryption of the data transmitted.
Post: #32
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Post: #33
ABSTRACT ON Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks
“Dragging the world towards wireless galaxy”
Various sensors are already in a broad use today as part ofdifferent devices or as standalone devices connected to a networkusually to monitor industrial processes, equipments or installations.The advancements in technology, wireless communications haveenhanced development of small, low power and low cost devices. Suchdevices when organized into a network, present a powerful platformthat can be used in many interesting applications.
Bluetooth is a low cost, short-range, wireless technology withsmall footprint, low power consumption and reasonable throughput.Bluetooth wireless technology has become global technologyspecification for “always on” wireless communication not just as a
point-to-point but was a network technology as well.The kernel of this paper, deals about an implementation ofbluetooth based sensor networks.
The main goal of our implementation was to build a hardware platform andgeneric software solutions that can serve as the basis and a test bed for the researchof wireless sensor network protocols.Implemented sensor network consists of several smart sensor nodes and agateway. Each smart node can have several sensors and is equipped with a microcontrollerand a bluetooth radio module.Gate way and smart nodes are members of the Piconet and hence maximum
seven smart nodes can exist simultaneously in the network.
Future work is aimed to develop and design a blue tooth-enabled dataconcentrator for data quisition and analysis.
Post: #34
Presented by:
Kinnari Shah

Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how various communication devices like mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants can easily interconnect with each other using a short-range wireless connection.
Universal radio interface in the 2.4 GHz (ISM Band) frequency gives 10 to 100 meter range.
ISM stands for Industrial, Scientific and Medical Band which is license free in nearly all countries.
Eliminates cables
Easy to set up and use
Readily available
Device compatibility
1 Mbps for Version 1.2
Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0
It is designed to have very low power consumption.
It uses Frequency Hopping to provide a robust and high B/W communication.
Named from Danish King Harald Bluetooth king of Denmark and Norway.
The logo was designed by a Scandinavian firm in which the characters H & B were used.
Invented in 1994 by L. M. Ericsson, Sweden
Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) was founded by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba in Feb 1998.
More than 2500 members today.
Bluetooth version 1.0 , 1.1 , 2.0 ,3.0 and 4.0 have been released.
BLUETOOTH RADIO is a transceiver which transmits and receives modulated electrical signals from peer Bluetooth devices.
BASEBAND is the physical layer of the Bluetooth which manages physical channels and links along with services like error correction, data whitening, hop selection.
ACL is Asynchronous Connection-Less physical link for transmitting data over the physical channels. ACL link provides a packet switched connection between the master and all the active slaves.
SCO is Synchronous Connection-Oriented physical link for voice-like information. It is a symmetric, point-to-point link between the master and a specific slave. It behaves like a circuit-switched connection.
Link Manager essentially handles link set-up, security and control. It provides services like authentication, encryption control, power control
L2CAP is the Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer protocol. It provides connection-less and connection-oriented data services to upper layer protocols.It is also used for Multiplexing , Segmentation and Reassembling of packets.
SDP is Service Discovery Protocol for applications to discover which services are available and characteristics of the services that are available.
RFCOMM is a simple transport protocol, It supports up to 60 simultaneous connections between two Bluetooth devices.
Other Protocols-TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) , Jini technology, WAP Wireless Access Protocol.
A Piconet is a collection of up to 8 devices one of which is a master.
These devices frequency hop together.
They use the master’s clock for synchronization.
Slaves can be in any of the following modes:
Park, Hold, Sniff, and Active.
Scatter net consists of several Piconets connected by devices.
These devices can be slaves in all Piconets or master in one Piconet and slaves in others .
CPU Core: Allows Bluetooth Module to handle inquiries and authentication.
Link Manager (LM) : LM software runs on CPU core. LM discovers other remote LMs and communicates with them via LMP(Link Manager Protocol) using services of the LC (Link Controller).
Link Controller (LC) : Performs Setup, Authentication, Link Configuration , along with LM
Gateway : It plays the role of the Master in the Piconet. It controls establishment of the network, and gathers related information.
Ease of installation –no wires needed.
Automatic Connection- doesn’t require too many buttons to be clicked
Low Energy requirements
Less interference –Frequency Hop technique
It employs frequency hopping with 1600 hops/sec over 79 channels.
Thus, data is present for only 625 us on any 1 channel.
Pass key is upto 16 numeric characters long and 128 bit authenticated on any connection request.
Bluetooth is a mature technology
Bluetooth is a low-cost wireless technology
Bluetooth can be easily integrated into your products.
Bluetooth represents a great chance for sensor-networked architecture.
Post: #35
thanks for giving us this report.
Post: #36
A good topic and a recently informative topicWink
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Post: #41
Hi, I am patel sachin.
I am engineering student.
this site is very helpful to me.
I am sachin patel.
I am in 7th e.c.
i want report on bluetooth
Post: #42
PLZ send me the report on dis topic as soon as possible
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