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computer networks full report
Post: #1


Introduction to Computer Networks
Internet Structure
Autonomous Systems (AS)

Internet is not a single network!

The Internet is a collection of networks, each controlled by different administrations

An autonomous system (AS) is a network under a single administrative control
AS Numbers (ASNs)

ASs want to choose own local routing algorithm
AS takes care of getting packets to/from their own hosts
Intradomain routing: RIP, OSPF, etc

ASs want to choose own non-local routing policy
Interdomain routing must accommodate this
BGP is the current interdomain routing protocol
BGP: Border Gateway Protocol
Inter-Domain Routing
Global connectivity is at stake
Inevitably leads to one single protocol that everyone must speak
Unlike many choices in intra-domain routing
What are the requirements?
Flexibility in choosing routes
If you were to choose, link state based or distance vector based?

BGP is sort of a hybrid: Path vector protocol
Border Gateway Protocol Part I: E-BGP
Purpose of E-BGP
Part II: I-BGP, Carrying Info within an AS
Join I-BGP with IGP to Create Forwarding Table
Multiple Routing Processes on a Single Router
Routing between ISPs
Routing protocol (BGP) contains reachability information (no metrics)
Not about optimizing anything
All about policy (business and politics)
Metrics optimize for a particular criteria
AT&Tâ„¢s idea of a good route is not the same as UUnetâ„¢s
What a BGP speaker announces or not announces to a peer determines what routes may get used by whom
Nontransit vs. Transit ASes
Selective Transit
Customers and Providers
Customers Donâ„¢t Always Need BGP
Customer-Provider Hierarchy
The Peering Relationship
Peering Provides Shortcuts
BGP: Path Vector Protocol
Distance vector algorithm with extra information
For each route, store the complete path (ASs)
No extra computation, just extra storage

can make policy choices based on set of ASs in path
can easily avoid loops
BGP Operations (Simplified)
Four Types of BGP Messages
Open : Establish a peering session.
Keep Alive : Handshake at regular intervals.
Notification : Shuts down a peering session.
Update : Announcing new routes or withdrawing previously announced routes.
Attributes are Used to Select Best Routes
Example: Multiple AS Paths
Shorter Doesnâ„¢t Always Mean Shorter
Implementing Customer/Provider and Peer/Peer relationships
What you announce determines what route can be used by whom

Enforce transit relationships
Outbound route filtering
Enforce order of route preference
provider < peer < customer

Import Routes

Export Routes
How Can Routes be Colored? BGP Communities!
Example AS Graph
BGP Issues
BGP designed for policy not performance

Susceptible to router misconfiguration
Blackholes: announce a route you cannot reach

Incompatible policies
Solutions to limit the set of allowable policies
More Issues
Scaling the I-BGP mesh
Route Reflectors
BGP Table Growth
140K prefixes and growing
Address aggregation (CIDR)
Address allocation
AS number allocation and use
Dynamics of BGP
Inherent vs. accidental oscillation
Rate limiting and route flap dampening
Lots and lots of redundant info
Slow convergence time
please read for computer networks full seminars report
Post: #2
A computer networks is a communication system connecting two or more computers that work together to exchange information & share resources. A network may consist of microcomputers or it may integrate microcomputers or other devices with large computer. Networks can be controlled by all nodes co-ordinarily & supply all resource. These networks differ in geographical size. There are three important types of networks.
1. Local Area Network
2. Metropolitan Area Network
3. Wide Are Network
1. Local Area Network:
A computer is connected to other computer with cables and other means & make communication possible between them is called network. The network, which connects one or more computers within a limited distance of one another perhaps within the same building or within the same office premises, is known as Local Area Network. This requires special software NetWare, LAN Cards (Ethernet Card), cables and connectors etc required for connecting computers included in it. Many organisations need multi-user environment, which allows sharing of data as well as expensive resources like printers and storage. Following figures shows the multi-user system, which includes LAN. A local Area Network is a system of interlinked personal computer, sharing common resources, like disks, printers etc. These networks are widely used now days.
LAN used for following purposes
1) Data processing: Data entry transaction processing (Banking system0, File transfer, Inquiry/response.
2) Office Automation: Document/word processing, Electronic mail, Intelligent copying.
3) Factory Automation: CAD/CAM, Inventory control/order entry/shipping, Monitor and control of factory floor equipment
4) Process control
5) Fire & Security: Sensor alarms. Cameras and monitors.
6) Telephones, Teleconferencing.
Metropolitan Area Network: (MAN) These networks are used as links between office buildings in a city. Cellular phone systems expand flexibility of Manes by allowing links to car phones and portable computers.
WIDE AREA NETWROK: (WAN) Wide area Network is a countrywide and worldwide network. Among other kinds of channels, they use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances – for e.g. from Los-angels to Paris. The widest of all WANs is the Internet, which spans the entire globe. The primary difference between a LAN, MAN and WAN is geographical range. Each may have various combinations of hardware, such as microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframe computers and various peripheral devices.
Post: #3
computer networks full report


Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network)

Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network)

Network Topology

The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions.

Bus Topology

Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable

Ring Topology

.A frame travels around the ring, stopping at each node. If a node wants to transmit data, it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame.
.The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node, which takes the data out of the frame.
Single ring – All the devices on the network share a single cable
Dual ring – The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions.
Post: #4
computer networks


UDP transmission is different from TCP transmission in that:
1.UDP transmission is unidirectional; information is sent only from the source to the destination, and the absence of feedback from the receiver prevents the sender from knowing whether the transmitted segments arrived successfully in order. In other words, retransmission is not supported.
2.UDP does not provide any means of reliability or congestion control. There’s no concept of acknowledgement and retransmission timer. What arrives is simply what the receiver gets.

Explanation for

The only thing changed in the function is the addition of the UDP sender and receiver functions.
•An additional array is created to store the UDP segments.
•When the TCP Sender is called, the UDP sender is called next.
•When the router is called, the UDP segments along with the TCP segments are sent to the function.
•Lastly, when the TCP Receiver is called, the UDP receiver is called next.

Explanation for UDPSender.send()

The UDPSenderclass has two variables, RTTand sendMode.
•RTTkeeps track of the number of iterations.
•sendModeis 1 when the UDP Sender is sending packets and is 0 when the UDP Sender is not sending packets (off mode).The UDP Sender has two options:
•If sendModeis 1 then it initializes the array of UDP segments to the number of packets selected by the user.
•If sendModeis 0 then it increases the RTT by 1.In order to identify whether or not sendModeis 1 or 0, we use a modulus of two times sendModeduration.
Post: #5
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Post: #6
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Post: #8
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