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Computer Science Seminar Abstract And Report 2
Post: #1

Choke packet

The picture of an irate system administrator trying to choke their router is what comes to mind when you see this term. While we think this should be used in anger management seminars for network administrators, sadly the term choke packet is already taken and being used to describe a specialized packet that is used for flow control along a network.

AKA stands for the Authentication and Key Agreement security protocol. It is a mechanism which performs authentication and session key distribution in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) networks. AKA is a challenge-response based mechanism that uses symmetric cryptography. AKA is typically run in a UMTS IM Services Identity Module (ISIM), which resides on a smart card like device that also provides tamper resistant storage of shared secrets.

Exponential key exchange

The first publicly knownbpublic-key agreement protocol that meets the above criteria was the Diffie-Hellman exponential key exchange, in which two people jointly exponentiate a generator with random numbers, in such a way that an eavesdropper has no way of guessing what the key is.However, exponential key exchange in and of itself does not specify any prior agreement or subsequent authentication between the participants. It has thus been described as an anonymous key agreement protocol.


Anonymous key exchange, like Diffie-Hellman, does not provide authentication of the parties, and is thus vulnerable to Man-in-the-middle attacks.A wide variety of cryptographic authentication schemes and protocols have been developed to provide authenticated key agreement to prevent man-in-the-middle and related attacks. These methods generally mathematically bind the agreed key to other agreed-upon data, such as:

Public/private key pairs , Shared secret keys , Passwords
Data gram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)
Data gram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)

Almost all internet applications like the streaming media and internet telephone favour reliability than time. This factor makes the TCP factor a less preferred choice. Even the UDP network cannot make up to this level as it is in short of the congestion control. These congested controlled networks are usually causes great risk factors for the use of high bandwidth UDP applications. So naturally there was need for designing a congestion-controlled unreliable transport protocol.

The result, Data gram Congestion Control Protocol or DCCP gets added to UDP like foundation the minimum mechanisms necessary to support congestion control. The resulting protocol sheds light on how congestion control interacts with unreliable transport, how modern network constraints impact protocol design, and how TCP reliable byte stream semantics intertwine with its other mechanisms, including congestion control.
Pervasive computing
Pervasive computing

Ubiquitous computing or pervasive computing is the result of computer technology advancing at exponential speeds -- a trend toward all man-made and some natural products having hardware and software. With each day computing devices become progressively smaller and more powerful. Pervasive computing goes beyond the realm of personal computers: it is the idea that almost any device, from clothing to tools to appliances to cars to homes to the human body to your coffee mug, can be imbedded with chips to connect the device to an infinite network of other devices.

The main aim of pervasive computing, which combines current network technologies with wireless computing, voice recognition, Internet capability and artificial intelligence, is to create an environment where the connectivity of devices is embedded in such a way that the connectivity is unobtrusive and always available.
Stream computing
Stream computing

The main task is to pull in streams of data, process the data and stream it back out as a single flow and thereby analyzes multiple data streams from many sources live. Stream computing uses software algorithms that analyzes the data in real time as it streams in to increase speed and accuracy when dealing with data handling and analysis. System S, the stream computing system of IBM, introduced in June 2007, runs on 800 microprocessors and the System S software enables software applications to split up tasks and then reassemble the data into an answer.

ATI Technologies also announced a stream computing technology derived from a class of applications that run on the GPU instead of a CPU which enables the graphics processors (GPUs) to work in conjunction with high-performance, low-latency CPUs to solve complex computational problems.

Choreography, in a Web services context, refers to specifications for how messages should flow among diverse, interconnected components and applications to ensure optimum interoperability. The term is borrowed from the dance world, in which choreography directs the movement and interactions of dancers.

Web services choreography can be categorized as abstract, portable or concrete:

¢ In abstract choreography, exchanged messages are defined only according to the data type and transmission sequence.

¢ Portable choreography defines the data type, transmission sequence, structure, control methods and technical parameters.

¢ Concrete choreography is similar to portable choreography but includes, in addition, the source and destination URLs as well as security information such as digital certificates

Session Initiation Protocol

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a protocol developed by IETF MMUSIC Working Group and proposed standard for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video, voice, instant messaging, online games, and virtual reality.

SIP clients traditionally use TCP and UDP port 5060 to connect to SIP servers and other SIP endpoints. SIP is primarily used in setting up and tearing down voice or video calls. However, it can be used in any application where session initiation is a requirement. These include, Event Subscription and Notification, Terminal mobility and so on. There are a large number of SIP-related RFCs that define behavior for such applications. All voice/video communications are done over RTP.

A motivating goal for SIP was to provide a signaling and call setup protocol for IP-based communications that can support a superset of the call processing functions and features present in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

SIP enabled telephony networks can also implement many of the more advanced call processing features present in Signalling System 7 (SS7), though the two protocols themselves are very different. SS7 is a highly centralized protocol, characterized by highly complex central network architecture and dumb endpoints (traditional telephone handsets). SIP is a peer-to-peer protocol. SIP network elements

Hardware endpoints, devices with the look, feel, and shape of a traditional telephone, but that use SIP and RTP for communication, are commercially available from several vendors. Some of these can use Electronic Numbering (ENUM) or DUNDi to translate existing phone numbers to SIP addresses using DNS, so calls to other SIP users can bypass the telephone network, even though your service provider might normally act as a gateway to the PSTN network for traditional phone numbers (and charge you for it).

SIP makes use of elements called proxy servers to help route requests to the user s current location, authenticate and authorize users for services, implement provider call-routing policies, and provide features to users.

SIP also provides a registration function that allows users to upload their current locations for use by proxy servers.

Since registrations play an important role in SIP, a User Agent Server that handles a REGISTER is given the special name registrar. It is an important concept that the distinction between types of SIP servers is logical, not physical.

Ajax, shorthand for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, is a web development technique for creating interactive web applications. The intent is to make web pages feel more responsive by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes, so that the entire web page does not have to be reloaded each time the user makes a change. This is meant to increase the web page s interactivity, speed, and usability.

The Ajax technique uses a combination of:

XHTML (or HTML) and CSS, for marking up and styling information.

The DOM accessed with a client-side scripting language, especially ECMAScript implementations such as JavaScript and JScript, to dynamically display and interact with the information presented.

The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. In some Ajax frameworks and in certain situations, an IFrame object is used instead of the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data with the web server. XML is sometimes used as the format for transferring data between the server and client, although any format will work, including preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON and even EBML.

Like DHTML, LAMP and SPA, Ajax is not a technology in itself, but a term that refers to the use of a group of technologies together.

A simple script function deleterow(id) { if (confirm( Are you sure you want to delete row number + id + )) { // Set up the request var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest(); POST , mycheck.php , true); // The callback function xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() { if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4) { // implies the request is sucessfull if (xmlhttp.status == 200) { var response_stat = xmlhttp.responseXML.getElementsByTagName( deleted )[0]; if (response_stat == 1) { alert( Deleted row successfully. ); } else { alert( Failed to delete row: + xmlhttp.responseXML.getElementsByTagName( error )[0] + . ); } } } } // Send the POST request xmlhttp.setRequestHeader( Content-Type , application/x-www-form-urlencoded ); xmlhttp.send( row= + id); } }
Ruby on Rails
Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails, often called RoR, or just Rails written in , is an open source web application frameworkRuby that closely follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. It strives for simplicity and allowing real-world applications to be developed in less code than other frameworks and with a minimum of configuration.

The Ruby programming language allows for extensive metaprogramming, which Rails makes much use of. This results in a syntax that many of its users find to be very readable. Rails is primarily distributed through RubyGems, which is the official packaging format and distribution channel for Ruby libraries and applications
VOIP in mobile phones
VOIP in mobile phones

Today when mobile phones rule the world of communication, the word communication has become too much of an expensive affair. The cheapest of calling is still Pc to pc calling, since it has a VolP in it. Let us see the disadvantages and advantages of using VolP in mobile phones using different networks like the GPRS/EDGE, Bluethooth, WiFi etc.

OWL is an acronym for Web Ontology Language, a markup language for publishing and sharing data using ontologies on the Internet. OWL is a vocabulary extension of the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and is derived from the DAML+OIL Web Ontology Language (see also DAML and OIL). Together with RDF and other components, these tools make up the Semantic Web project. OWL represents the meanings of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between those terms in a way that is suitable for processing by software.

The OWL specification is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

OWL currently has three flavors: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full. These flavors incorporate different features, and in general it is easier to reason about OWL Lite than OWL DL and OWL DL than OWL Full. OWL Lite and OWL DL are constructed in such a way that every statement can be decided in finite time; OWL Full can contain endless loops .
Cake PHP
Cake PHP

CakePHP is a web application framework written in PHP, modeled after the concepts of Ruby on Rails.


¢ Model, View, Controller Architecture

¢ View Helpers for AJAX, Javascript, HTML Forms and more

¢ Built-in Validation

¢ Application Scaffolding

¢ Application and CRUD code generation via Bake

¢ Access Control Lists

¢ Data Sanitization

¢ Security, Session, and Request Handling Components

¢ Flexible View Caching

Active, Friendly Community - Just join our IRC channel to see who s in. We d love to help you get started.

1. Flexible License - Cake is distributed under the MIT License

2. Clean IP - Every line of code was written by the CakePHP development team

3. Extremely Simple - Just look at the name...It s Cake

4. Rapid Development - Build apps faster than ever before

5. Best Practices - Cake is easy to understand and sets the industry standard in security authentication, and session handling, among other features.

6. OO - Whether you are a seasoned object-oriented programmer or a beginner, you ll feel comfortable

7. No Configuration - Set-up the database and watch the magic begin
Genetic programming
Genetic programming

Genetic programming (GP) is an automated methodology inspired by biological evolution to find computer programs that best perform a user-defined task. It is therefore a particular machine learning technique that uses an evolutionary algorithm to optimize a population of computer programs according to a fitness landscape determined by a program's ability to perform a given computational task. The first experiments with GP were reported by Stephen F. Smith (1980) and Nichael L. Cramer (1985), as described in the famous book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection by John Koza (1992).

Computer programs in GP can be written in a variety of programming languages. In the early (and traditional) implementations of GP, program instructions and data values were organized in tree-structures, thus favoring the use of languages that naturally embody such a structure (an important example pioneered by Koza is Lisp). Other forms of GP have been suggested and successfully implemented, such as the simpler linear representation which suits the more traditional imperative languages [see, for example, Banzhaf et al. (1998)]. The commercial GP software Discipulus, for example, uses linear genetic programming combined with machine code language to achieve better performance. Differently, the MicroGP uses an internal representation similar to linear genetic programming to generate programs that fully exploit the syntax of a given assembly language.

GP is very computationally intensive and so in the 1990s it was mainly used to solve relatively simple problems. However, more recently, thanks to various improvements in GP technology and to the well known exponential growth in CPU power, GP has started delivering a number of outstanding results. At the time of writing, nearly 40 human-competitive results have been gathered, in areas such as quantum computing, electronic design, game playing, sorting, searching and many more. These results include the replication or infringement of several post-year-2000 inventions, and the production of two patentable new inventions.

Developing a theory for GP has been very difficult and so in the 1990s genetic programming was considered a sort of pariah amongst the various techniques of search. However, after a series of breakthroughs in the early 2000s, the theory of GP has had a formidable and rapid development. So much so that it has been possible to build exact probabilistic models of GP (schema theories and Markov chain models) and to show that GP is more general than, and in fact includes, genetic algorithms.

Genetic Programming techniques have now been applied to evolvable hardware as well as computer programs. Meta-Genetic Programming is the technique of evolving a genetic programming system using genetic programming itself. Critics have argued that it is theoretically impossible, but more research is needed.

Gecko is the open source, free software web browser layout engine used in all Mozilla-branded software and its derivatives, including later Netscape releases. Written in C++, Gecko is designed to support open Internet standards. Originally created by Netscape Communications Corporation, its development is now overseen by the Mozilla Foundation.

Gecko offers a rich programming API that makes it suitable for a wide variety of roles in Internet enabled applications, such as web browsers, content presentation and client/server [1]. Primarily it is used by Mozilla browser derivatives, such as Mozilla Firefox, K-Meleon and Netscape, to render websites and the browser user interface (written in XUL), but it is used elsewhere as well. Gecko is cross-platform and works on a number of different operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, BSD s, GNU/Linux and Mac OS X.

Gecko is generally considered to be the second most-popular layout engine on the Web, after Trident (used by Internet Explorer for Windows since version 4), and followed by KHTML (used by Konqueror), WebCore (used by Safari), Presto (used by Opera) and Tasman (used by Internet Explorer for Mac).
Post: #2
please provide seminars report on gecko layout engine
Post: #3
i want total information about aka and abstract
Post: #4
visit this thread for more details on AKA:

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