Digital Scent Technology means to change the interactive amusement knowledge. The digital scent technology is control to create the content very immersive and forceful. It makes stronger sensation and set up place and season. It helps develop characters and gives a sensitive intelligence of reality.
Digital scent technology is emerging as the latest tool in e-commerce. The Digital Scent technology absorbs contribution scents more than the Internet or other forms of electronic interactive media and is self besieged for both business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales.
Digital scent technologies get its extensive range of applications in scentertinment movies, music and games, in communication which includes websites which is improved with smell. A digital movie projector uses a complete frequency sound channel as its passageway to transmit intelligence of smell digital signal or adding a sense of smell digital signal transmission passageway moreover the more than a few full frequencies and a low frequency sound channel.
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Until now, online communication involved only two of our senses, sense of sight & sense of hearing. Soon it will involve the third, the sense of smell using a nose. Digital scent technology is the main application of e-nose. With digital scent technology, it is possible to sense, transmit & receive smell through internet. There is complete software and hardware solution for it. When applied to communications, scent becomes a new information channel. It allows us to perceive products and irate a previously unimagined emotionality and product credibility. Scents extend the myriad of multimedia possibility towards a new level. Scent communication will be one of the most important information tools of the future.
1.1 ABOUT TECHNOLOGY
Until now online communication involved only two of our senses, sense of hearing and sense of sight. Soon it will involve the third, the sense of smell. Anew technology is being developed to appeal to our sense of smell. Bringing alive our experience, technology now targets on the sense of smell.
Using Electronic-nose we can sense a smell and with a technology called Digital scent technology it is possible to sense, transmit and receive smell through internet, like smelling a perfume online before buying them, sent scented E-cards through scent enabled websites, and to experience the burning smell of rubber in your favorite TV games etc.
If this technology gains mass appeal no one can stop it from entering into virtual world. Just imagine you are able to smell things using a device connected to your computer. With Digital scent technology this can be made a reality. There is complete software and hardware solution for scenting digital media and user.
1.2. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SMELL
Before we describe the possibilities of olfactory displays, we should take a glance at the physiological aspects of smell. How does the nose work and what is its function? Naturally we can breath, smell and additionally taste with our nose. First of all we are interested in the anatomy of the nose.
Odor consists of many different molecules, for e.g. the aroma of coffee is made up of 20 various molecules. Nonetheless our nose perceives only 15 odors which is enough to identify the smell as coffee.
At first the odor molecules reach the olfactory mucosa. The receptors for the molecules are placed at the olfactory hairs. When the molecules reach the receptors, an electric impulse is sent directly to the brain to the olfactory bulb. Then the information gets to the olfactory glomeruli, a part of the olfactory bulb. The glomeruli is able to associate the information to the intensity. The olfactory bulb consequently processes the odor and can send the impulse to the olfactory brain. We notice that we have a direct connection between our sense of smelling and our brain. Those scent impulses reach the area of our brain that handles emotions and memories. That explains the link between smelling and being reminded of something.
We percept smell very individually. Every human perceive a difference between a pleasant and unpleasant odor. Humans are not capable to distinguish odors in terms of intensity. Roughly we can only distinguish between three concentrations of some odor whereas we should actually be able to differentiate1000types of odors. Another problem for olfactory display is the fast acclimatization of humans to scents.
What makes it even more difficult to construct olfactory display is that a set
of primary odors has not really been found. There was an attempt to define seven
such of primary odors but had to be extended to 100 odors. For vision, three base colors are sufficient to display any color. Unfortunately this cannot be applied to olfaction as our nose has thousands of receptors and apart from that the odors are not orthogonal. That means you will not necessarily get a new one by mixing two odors. Due to these big problems there is still research in examining our scent.
2.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF E-NOSE
An electronic nose can be a modular system comprising of active materials which operate serially on an odorant sample. These active materials can be classified into two: an array of gas sensors and a signal processing system.
The output of the electronic nose can be the identification of the odorant, an estimation of the concentration of the odorant or the characteristic of the odor as might be perceived by the human.
Fundamental of artificial nose is that each sensor in the array has different sensitivity. The pattern of response across the sensors is distinct for different odors. The distinguishably allows the system to identify the unknown odor from the pattern of sensor responses. The pattern of response across all the sensors in the array is used to identify the odor. Different e-noses use different types of gas sensors which form heart of e-nose.
2.2 SENSING AN ORDANT
In a typical e-nose, an air sample is pulled by a vacuum pump through tube into a small chamber housing the electronic sensor array. Next the sample planning units exposes the sensor to the ordant, producing a transient response as the VOC’s interact with the surface and bulk of sensor’s machine, a steady stste condition is reached in a few seconds to a few minutes.
During this interval, the sensor’s response is recorded and delivered to the signal processing unit. Then a washing gas such as alcoholic vapor is applied to the array so as to remove the odorant mixture from the surface and bulk of sensor’s active material. Finally a reference gas is again applied to the array toprepare it for new measurement cycle. The period during which odorant is applied is called the response time of the sensor array. The period during which washing and reference gases are applied is called the recovery time.
The sensor’s response is converted into electronic signal by using a transducer and is processed by using the signal processing unit.
2.3 TYPES OF SENSORS
2.3.1 POLYMER SENSORS
The working of polymer sensors is based on the change in conductivity of the polymer when the ordant is applied. Response time is inversely proportional to the polymer thickness. The main drawback of this method is that it is difficult and time consuming to electro polymerize the active material, so the exibit undesirable variations from one batch to another.
2.3.2 QUARTZ SENSOR
The vibration of the quartz is changed by a contact between the molecules and the surface. The response and recovery times are minimized by reducing the size and mass of quartz crystal along with the thickness of the polymer coating. The main disadvantage is that they have more complex electronics than of polymer sensors.
2.3.4 MOSFET SENSORS
These are based on the principle that VOCs in contact with a catalyst metal can produce a reaction on the metal. The reaction products can diffuse through the gate og the MOSFET to change the electrical properties of the device. The sensitivity and selectivity of the device can be optimized by varying the type and thickness of the metal catalyst and operating them at different temperatures. The advantage is that they can be made with IC fabrication so that batch to batch variations can be minimized.
2.3.4 OPTICAL FIBRE SENSORS
A light source of single frequency is used to interrogate the active material, which in turn responds with color change in the presence of VOCs to be detected and measured. The active material contains chemically active fluorescent dyes immobilized in an organic polymer matrix. As VOCs interact with it, polarity of the fluorescent dyes is altered and they respond by shifting their fluorescent emission spectrum.
The sensors are cheap and easy to fabricate. The disadvantage is that fluorescent dyes are slowly consumed by sensing process.