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Digital Watermarking Full Seminar Report Download
Post: #26
gimme..the seminars report of digital watermaking....pls
Post: #27
please go through the previous pages. you can find it out.
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Post: #30
please carefully go through all pages in this thread and the below thread too
Post: #31
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Post: #32
there is a related thread on Digital Watermarking. please go through the following thread.
Post: #33
very usefull one to do our final year project
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Post: #35
send me the seminars details and also the XML watermarking seminars
Post: #36
please send me the report
Post: #37
Hello Biya I am a student of Mushroof college i doesn't knew how to do my projects more effiently i want your guideness to do my project.....
I knew you help me
Post: #38
plz send quickly about this seminars topic
Post: #39
please send me full report on digital watermarking...................Tank u
Post: #40
digital watermarking report
Post: #41
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Post: #42
plz send me " Digital Watermarking" Full Seminar Report
Post: #43
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Post: #44
Definition of Digital Watermarking

Digital watermarking is a process of embedding unobtrusive marks or labels into digital content. These embedded marks are typically imperceptible (invisible) that can later be detected or extracted (Yeung, Yeo, & Holliman, 1998). The concept of digital watermarking is associated with steganography.
Steganography is defined as covered writing. It has a long history of being associated with methods of secret communication. Steganography does not immediately arise the suspicion of something secret or valuable. Instead, it hides an important message in an unimportant one. Therefore, digital watermarking is a way to hide a secret or personal message to protect a product’s copyright or to demonstrate data integrity (Voyatzis & Pitas, 1999).
Purpose of Digital Watermarking
Watermarks added to digital content serve a variety of purposes. The following list details six purposes of digital watermarking (Memon & Wong, 1998).
• • Ownership Assertion – to establish ownership of the content (i.e. image)
• • Fingerprinting – to avoid unauthorized duplication and distribution of publicly available multimedia content
• • Authentication and integrity verification – the authenticator is inseparably bound to the content whereby the author has a unique key associated with the content and can verify integrity of that content by extracting the watermark
• • Content labeling – bits embedded into the data that gives further information about the content such as a graphic image with time and place information
• • Usage control – added to limit the number of copies created whereas the watermarks are modified by the hardware and at some point would not create any more copies (i.e. DVD)
• • Content protection – content stamped with a visible watermark that is very difficult to remove so that it can be publicly and freely distributed
Unfortunately, there is not an universal watermarking technique to satisfy all of these purposes (Memon & Wong, 1998). The content in the environment that it will be used determines the digital watermarking technique. The following section describes some digital watermarking techniques.
Digital Watermarking Techniques
The most important properties of any digital watermarking techniques are robustness, security, imperceptibility, complexity, and verification. Robustness is defined as if the watermark can be detected after media (normal) operations such as filtering, lossy compression, color correction, or geometric modifications. Security means the embedded watermark cannot be removed beyond reliable detection by targeted attacks. Imperceptibility means the watermark is not seen by the human visual system. Complexity is described as the effort and time required for watermark embedding and retrieval. Lastly, verification is a procedure where by there is a private key or public key function (Dittmann, Mukherjee, & Steinebach, 2000).
Each of these properties must be taken into consideration when applying a certain digital watermarking technique. The following sections describe a few of the most common digital watermarking techniques.
Spatial and Frequency Domain
Spatial and frequency domain watermarking are applied to graphic images and text. Spatial domain watermarking slightly modifies the pixels of one or two randomly selected subsets of an image. Modifications might include flipping the low-order bit of each pixel. However, this technique is not reliable when subjected to normal media operations such as filtering or lossy compression (Berghel, 1998).
Frequency domain watermarking technique is also called transform domain. Values of certain frequencies are altered from their original. Typically, these frequency alterations are done in the lower frequency levels, since alternations at the higher frequencies are lost during compression. The watermark is applied to the whole image so as not to be removed during a cropping operation. However, there is a tradeoff with the frequency domain technique. Verification can be difficult since this watermark is applied indiscriminately across the whole image (Berghel, 1998).
The Zhao Koch Algorithm and The Fridrich Algorithm
The Zhao Koch Algorithm and The Fridrich Algorithm watermark techniques are applied to MPEG videos. The Zhao Koch Algorithm embeds a copyright label in the frequency domain of the video. The algorithm randomly selects three coefficients from the discrete cosine transform encoded block and manipulates them to store a single bit of information using a secret key. This single bit information can be the name or address of the owner. The watermark can be easily embedded into the video with minimal operation. Thus, complexity is not an issue. However, the Zhao Koch Algorithm watermark technique is not robust against normal media operations such as scaling or rotation (Dittmann, Stabenau, & Steinmetz, 1998).
The Fridrich Algorithm watermark technique is where a pattern is overlaid in the low frequency domain. The pattern is created using a pseudo random number generator and a cellular automation with voting rules. The pseudo random number generator creates a white and black initial pattern that is the same size as the image. A cellular automation with voting rules is then applied until there is a convergence to fixed points. The voting rule randomly patches the pattern into these connected points. Thus, the pattern is now overlaid into the image. This algorithm is resistant to normal media operations. However, verification using this algorithm is not reliable. This is because the watermark technique does not include detail information about the owner when the pattern is created and overlaid (Dittmann et al., 1998).
Digital watermarking does not have the same capability or level of security as data encryption. It does not prevent the viewing or listening of content, nor does it prevent accessing that content. Therefore, digital watermarking is not immune to hacker attacks (Yeung et al., 1998). The following are some intentional attacks on watermarks (Cox, Miller, & Bloom, 2000).
• • Active Attacks – hacker tries to remove the watermark or make it undetectable. An example is to crop it out.
• • Passive Attacks – hacker tries to determine whether there is a watermark and identify it. However, no damage or removal is done.
• • Collusion Attacks – hacker uses several copies of one piece of media, each with a different watermark, to construct a copy with no watermark.
• • Forgery Attacks – hacker tries to embed a valid watermark of their own rather than remove one.
• • Distortive Attacks – hacker applies some distortive transformation uniformly over the object in order to degrade the watermark so that it becomes undetectable/unreadable (Collberg & Thomborson, 1999).
These intentional attacks are just one of the barriers of why authors do not put their works into digital format. However, the government has stepped in to help these authors by establishing new laws.
Current Laws
There are three main laws concerning digital copyright. They are the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), the Collections of Information Antipricay Act, and changes to Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code. Each of these laws is briefly described below.
Post: #45
In recent years, the distribution of works of art, including pictures, music, video and textual documents, has become easier. With the widespread and increasing use of the Internet, digital forms of these media (still images, audio, video, text) are easily accessible. This is clearly advantageous, in that it is easier to market and sell one's works of art. However, this same property threatens copyright protection. Digital documents are easy to copy and distribute, allowing for pirating. There are a number of methods for protecting ownership. One of these is known as digital watermarking.
Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content. The signal, known as a watermark, can be used later to identify the owner of the work, to authenticate the content, and to trace illegal copies of the work.
Watermarks of varying degrees of obtrusiveness are added to presentation media as a guarantee of authenticity, quality, ownership, and source.
To be effective in its purpose, a watermark should adhere to a few requirements. In particular, it should be robust, and transparent. Robustness requires that it be able to survive any alterations or distortions that the watermarked content may undergo, including intentional attacks to remove the watermark, and common signal processing alterations used to make the data more efficient to store and transmit. This is so that afterwards, the owner can still be identified. Transparency requires a watermark to be imperceptible so that it does not affect the quality of the content, and makes detection, and therefore removal, by pirates less possible.
The media of focus in this paper is the still image. There are a variety of image watermarking techniques, falling into 2 main categories, depending on in which domain the watermark is constructed: the spatial domain (producing spatial watermarks) and the frequency domain (producing spectral watermarks). The effectiveness of a watermark is improved when the technique exploits known properties of the human visual system. These are known as perceptually based watermarking techniques. Within this category, the class of image-adaptive watermarks proves most effective.
In conclusion, image watermarking techniques that take advantage of properties of the human visual system, and the characteristics of the image create the most robust and transparent watermarks.
Digital watermarking is a technology for embedding various types of information in digital content. In general, information for protecting copyrights and proving the validity of data is embedded as a watermark.
A digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into digital content. The digital content could be a still image, an audio clip, a video clip, a text document, or some form of digital data that the creator or owner would like to protect. The main purpose of the watermark is to identify who the owner of the digital data is, but it can also identify the intended recipient.
Why do we need to embed such information in digital content using digital watermark technology? The Internet boom is one of the reasons. It has become easy to connect to the Internet from home computers and obtain or provide various information using the World Wide Web (WWW).
All the information handled on the Internet is provided as digital content. Such digital content can be easily copied in a way that makes the new file indistinguishable from the original. Then the content can be reproduced in large quantities.
For example, if paper bank notes or stock certificates could be easily copied and used, trust in their authenticity would greatly be reduced, resulting in a big loss. To prevent this, currencies and stock certificates contain watermarks. These watermarks are one of the methods for preventing counterfeit and illegal use.
Digital watermarks apply a similar method to digital content. Watermarked content can prove its origin, thereby protecting copyright. A watermark also discourages piracy by silently and psychologically deterring criminals from making illegal copies.
1.2 Principle of digital watermarks
A watermark on a bank note has a different transparency than the rest of the note when a light is shined on it. However, this method is useless in the digital world.
Currently there are various techniques for embedding digital watermarks. Basically, they all digitally write desired information directly onto images or audio data in such a manner that the images or audio data are not damaged. Embedding a watermark should not result in a significant increase or reduction in the original data.
Digital watermarks are added to images or audio data in such a way that they are invisible or inaudible Ñ unidentifiable by human eye or ear. Furthermore, they can be embedded in content with a variety of file formats. Digital watermarking is the content protection method for the multimedia era.
1.3 Materials suitable for watermarking
Digital watermarking is applicable to any type of digital content, including still images, animation, and audio data. It is easy to embed watermarks in material that has a comparatively high redundancy level ("wasted"), such as color still images, animation, and audio data; however, it is difficult to embed watermarks in material with a low redundancy level, such as black-and-white still images.
To solve this problem, we developed a technique for embedding digital watermarks in black-and-white still images and a software application that can effectively embed and detect digital watermarks.
Post: #46
hey plz send me full report on digital watermarking
Post: #47
Please send me full report on "DIGITAL WATERMARKING TECHNOLOGY"
Post: #48
please send me full report on "NANORING MEMORY"
Post: #49
hello this is rajesh...i need this topic 4 ma seminars..i urge you to send full report on this soon as possible...please
Post: #50

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