CHETAN KUMAR D
Ever wondered where we would find the new material needed to build the next generation of microprocessors????
HUMAN BODY (including yours!)…….DNA computing.
“Computation using DNA” but not “computation on DNA”
Initiated in 1994 by an article written by Dr. Adleman on solving TSP problem using DNA.
DNA itself does not carry out any computation. It rather acts as a massive memory.
BUT, the way complementary bases react with each other can be used to compute things.
Proposed by Adelman in 1994
Uniqueness of DNA
Why is DNA a Unique Computational Element???
Extremely dense information storage.
Extraordinary energy efficiency.
Dense Information Storage
How Dense is the Information Storage?
with bases spaced at 0.35 nm along DNA, data density is over a million Gbits/inch compared to 7 Gbits/inch in typical high performance HDD.
Check this out………..
How enormous is the parallelism?
A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel !
Check this out……. We Typically use
How extraordinary is the energy efficiency?
Adleman figured his computer was running
2 x 1019 operations per joule.
given a test tube T and a strand s, it is possible to extract all the strands in T that contain s as a subsequence, and to separate them from those that do not contain it.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Used to measure the length of a DNA molecule.
Based on the fact that DNA molecules are –ve ly charged.
DNA Microarrays are small, solid supports onto which the sequences from thousands of different genes are immobilized, or attached, at fixed locations.
The supports themselves are usually glass microscope slides, the size of two side-by-side pinky fingers, but can also be silicon chips or nylon membranes.
The DNA is printed, spotted, or actually synthesized directly onto the support. With the aid of a computer, the amount of mRNA bound to the spots on the microarray is precisely measured, generating a profile of gene expression in the cell.
The smallest programmable DNA computer was developed at Weizmann Institute in Israel by Prof. Ehud Shapiro last year
It uses enzymes as a program that processes on on the input data (DNA molecules).
Discover magazine published an article in comic strip format about Leonard Adleman's discovery of DNA computation. Not only entertaining, but also the most understandable explanation of molecular computation I have Ever seen.
Algorithm used by Adleman for the traveling salesman problem was simple. As technology becomes more refined, more efficient algorithms may be discovered.
DNA Manipulation technology has rapidly improved in recent years, and future advances may make DNA computers more efficient.
The University of Wisconsin is experimenting with chip-based DNA computers.
DNA computers are unlikely to feature word processing, emailing and solitaire programs.
Instead, their powerful computing power will be used for areas of encryption, genetic programming, language systems, and algorithms or by airlines wanting to map more efficient routes. Hence better applicable in only some promising areas.