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Post: #1

Automobile industry is one of the most competitive industries nowadays. Inorder to sustain in this competitive world the manufacturers have to include suitable modification in their design. Modifications are done in design with a view to increase the comfort of driver as well as passengers. Sensors are incorporated in automobile to determine various parameter and to enhance safety and to improve efficiency of the automobile. These are actually electro-mechanical devices which convert the physical quantity to electrical signal. The signals are send to control unit which take necessary action to control the parameter. Many of the research projects are currently underway in designing electronic control system for automobiles. These so called drive-by wire system are becoming wide spread in automotive engineering. Many of direct link between driver and vehicle control have been supplemented by electronic connection . These electronic control system heavily depend on sensors for collecting information from various parts of a automobile. The paper reviews the current practice in sensors and their application in automobile. In the past the driver had direct control over the vehicle by mechanical linkages. Nowadays these mechanical linkages are replaced by wiring harnesses and an electronic interface is present between driver and the vehicle. These so called drive-by-wire systems enable the driver a safer, easier driving at the same time optimising economy, emissions and performance of engine. These systems are heavily dependent on sensors for collecting necessary data regarding the vehicle. The various electronic control systems that use sensors are engine management systems, anti-lock braking system, active suspension systems, different safety system etc.
Post: #2
please give the full report
Post: #3
Drive-by-wire will play an important role in future automotive systems. The main idea of
drive-by-wire is to replace purely mechanical/hydraulic steering, braking and engine control
systems by mechatronic components that allow for higher performance and extended
functionality. A whole range of new functions such as collision mitigation, autonomous
driving, advanced cruise control and novel anti-skid control approaches depend on drive-bywire
systems. The presentation will give an overview of some important drive-by-wire
systems and the related applications.

Drive-by-wire, DbW, by-wire, or x-by-wire technology in the automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces such as pedal and steering feel emulators. Hence, the traditional components such as the steering column, intermediate shafts, pumps, hoses, fluids, belts, coolers and brake boosters and master cylinders are eliminated from the vehicle. Examples include electronic throttle control and brake-by-wire.

read this
Post: #4
please send full detail of given topics for seminars presentation
Post: #5
Do you want the power point slide show file of DRIVE-BY WIRE SYSTEMS?then,here it is....
Post: #6

Automobiles are the major lifeline by which people travel.
In the U.S the number of vehicles has increased from just 4,192 units in 1900’s to more than 204 million units in 2000’s.
With the increase traffic the number of accidents are also increasing drastically.
Car manufacturers world wide are vying with each other to invent more reliable gadgets there by coming closer to the dream of the ‘Advanced safety vehicle’ or ‘Ultimate safety vehicle’.

In modern aircrafts hydraulic and mechanical transmission components are more and more replaced by electronic components.
The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires hence the term fly-by-wire was coined.
Drive-by-wire technology also known simply as “X-by-wire” technology replaces the direct mechanical linkages between the driver and the various car elements with electronic components.
A car with this type of system mainly employs electronics to control wide range of vehicle operations including steering , braking , acceleration etc.
Although the mechanical systems are powerful they can become overly complex , inefficient and conductive to wear and tear over the years.

In internal combustion engines, the throttle is a valve that directly regulates the amount of air entering the engine, indirectly controlling the fuel burnt on each cycle and maintaining constant air/fuel ratio.
The throttle body is located between the air filter box and the intake manifold.
In convectional throttle system, the valve is mechanically linked with the throttle pedal or lever.
In electronic throttle control the valve is electronically controlled that allows the electronic control unit to reduce the emissions.

Electronic throttle control are also known as throttle-by-wire systems.
Basic components of throttle-by-wire systems are
A position sensor on the accelerator pedal that determines the driver requirements.
An electronically controlled throttle body with a small electric motor to open/close the throttle.
An electronic control unit determines and positions the air valve the appropriate position through the use of a motor.

A potentiometer registers the exact position of accelerator module.
A high degree of precision is guaranteed.
In automotive electronics, electronic control unit (ECU) is a generic term for any embedded system that controls one or more systems in a motor vehicle.
Electronic control unit controls the cylindrical charge, fuel ignition, ignition timing and the idle speed control system.
Throttle position sensor is a feedback device that informs the ECU about the rate of throttle opening and relative throttle position
TPS is a variable resistor that changes resistance as the throttle opens and signals the ECU which then richens the fuel mixture to maintain proper air/fuel mixture.
Antilock braking systems ABS are electronic systems that monitor and control wheel slip during vehicle braking.
ABS can improve vehicle control during braking, and reduce stopping distances on slippery road surfaces by limiting wheel slip and minimizing lockup.
Rolling wheels have much more traction than locked wheels.
Reducing wheel slip improves vehicle stability and control during braking, since stability increases as wheel slip decreases.
Wheel speed sensor constantly monitors and sends electronic pulses to the ECU at a rate proportional to wheel speed.
During rapid deceleration ,the ECU signals the modulator valves to reduce brake pressure to the wheels to avoid locking of wheels.
The ECU acts to modulate the brake pressure to achieve maximum braking without wheel lock-up.
ABS can modulate the pressure on the brake as high as 18 times per second.
ABS reduces braking distances on dry and slippery roads.
ABS adjusts the brake pressure much faster and more accurately than car drivers as electronic components are perform faster operation.
Increases steering ability and vehicle stability when braking.
If the electrical/electronic system fails, the ABS is shut off, returning the vehicle to normal braking.
Reduced the risk of multiple vehicle crashes by 18 percent.
Reduced the risk of run off-road crashes by 35 percent.
It is costly.
Maintenance of a car equipped with ABS is very costly.
Drive-by-wire technology might allow a car to become completely separate from its controls, meaning that a car of the future might theoretically be controlled by any number of different control systems: push buttons, joysticks, steering wheels, or even voice commands.
Drive-by-wire technology will change the way people drive.
The technology will increase fuel economy and will reduce engine emissions.
The main question is that is this technology safe?
The sensors on a brake-by-wire system could make an error in calculation, causing an accident.
As the fly-by-wire technology has become a success, it’s likely that experience and product testing could bring more drive-by-wire systems safely to everyday cars.
Post: #7


Introduction and Background

For the past 25 years, by-wire systems have been used in the most advanced Flying machines known to man. Fly-by-wire is where each mechanism is controlled electronically. The mechanical linkages are removed and every movement is communicated through electric signals alone. The use of electronic motors to control movement has proven to be more responsive and a more efficient use of space and energy. Thus the by-wire control is now setting the stage for better, faster vehicles in the air and on land.

The Brakes-By-Wire

In future automobiles will serve as the vehicle for high speed applications. Therefore it was very important to make a vehicle that has a reliable and effective brake. As discussed in the background chapter, there are two ways that brakes can be electronically controlled: electrohydraulic braking and electromechanical braking. First, the car must be capable of being manually operated. So, one guideline was to make sure the hardware installed in the car does not interfere with the driver’s space. Secondly, the hardware must be installed in such a way that a person can drive the vehicle without having to move any components of the by-wire system. Thirdly, the by-wire system must be robust and durable. Actuators should not interfere with the driver’s space on the floor. In addition, since the actuator is mounted inside the vehicle, the actuator is protected from the elements.

Control of the Brakes System

This section will explain how the brake is controlled:-
a) The control architecture will be explained.
b) An overview of the software programs used will be presented.
c) All other control considerations such as calibration of the motor and motor feedback will be discussed.

The Steer-By-Wire

This section will focus on describing the steer-by-wire system in the drive by system. First recruitment of the steer-by-wire system must be reliable and responsive. The car Controller must consistently demonstrate complete control of the steering system. Also, a responsive vehicle will be able to change directions on Command. If the car is not responsive to controller inputs, vehicle control will be compromised and is not safe. The vehicle must also be accurately controlled Accuracy is a necessity especially for high speed applications and the heading of the vehicle must be reliable and accurate. Furthermore, accurate steering control will help ensure that the vehicle is safe.

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