EFFICIENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR WIRELESS MULTICAST - MOBILE COMPUTING
In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-efficient multicast mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks. We reduce the bandwidth cost of a IP multicast tree by adaptively selecting the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host to join the multicast group. Our mechanism enables more mobile hosts to cluster together and lead to the use of fewer cells to save the scarce wireless bandwidth. Besides, the paths in the multicast tree connecting to the selected cells share more common links to save the wireline bandwidth. Our mechanism supports the dynamic group membership and offers mobility of group members. Moreover, our mechanism requires no modification on the current IP multicast routing protocols. We formulate the selection of the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host in the heterogeneous wireless networks as an optimization problem. We use Integer Linear Programming to model the problem and show that the problem is NP-hard. To solve the problem, we propose an distributed algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation and a network protocol based on the algorithm. The simulation results show that our mechanism can effectively save the wireless and wireline bandwidth as compared to the traditional IP multicast.
Technology to use:.NET
Efficient Resource Allocation for Wireless Multicast
The success of wireless and mobile communications in the 21st century has resulted in a large variety of wireless technologies such as second and third-generation cellular, satellite, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. The heterogeneous wireless networks combine various wireless networks and provide universal wireless access. The leading wireless companies in some countries have operated networks with multiple wireless technologies, such as T-Mobile in the United States, British Telecom in the United Kingdom, Orange Telecom in France, NTT DoCoMo in Japan, and Chunghwa Telecom in Taiwan. The number of such Companies would increase because the standards for operators to provide seamless services in networks with multiple wireless technologies have been proposed by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) . In addition, users in the heterogeneous wireless networks are usually covered by more than one cell to avoid connection drop and service disruption. More mobile terminals in the wireless networks are likely to own multiple wireless technologies. Therefore, the heterogeneous wireless networks provide the mobile hosts with many choices for the cells and wireless technologies to access the Internet.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:
The main aim of the project is to reduce the bandwidth cost of the multicast tree.
The bandwidth cost is reduced by finding the shortest path. We implement Lagrangean
Algorithm to find the shortest path.
We have the following module to prove the effective resource allocation. They are as follows.
• Add nodes
• Resource allocation
• Source and Destination
• Lagrangean path
In this module we provide number of nodes we required in the network. Once our requirement is provided group of nodes get arranged in each cell randomly. Each cell accesses the nodes according to its capability.
The resource allocation will find the nearest tower to the mobile. Then we will find the nearest tower to that. The main advantage of finding this is to use the available bandwidth. And by this way we will connect the mobile to the nearest tower. And by this way we will maintain good band width usage.
Source and Destination:
In this module we are going to choose the source and destination nodes. Once the source node is entered, its position and the cell which contains the node is stored. Similarly the position of destination node is found in order to find the shortest path.
In this module we divide the problem into two sub problems. With the help of first sub problem we find the method of accessing the nearest cell. With the help of second sub problem the consumption of bandwidth is found. Finally the Lagrangean iteration process provides the shortest path to access the mobile.
MODULE INPUT AND OUTPUT:
We provide the number of nodes we required. Then the source and destination nodes are provided.
The expected output of the module is to show the shortest path between the source and destination mobile.
i want the project documentation and source code?
wat are tht h/w requirments and s/w requirements?
R.B. Phani Kishore
T. Dinesh Kumar
In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-efficient multicast mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks. We reduce the bandwidth cost of an Internet protocol (IP) multicast tree by adaptively selecting the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host to join the multicast group. Our mechanism enables more mobile hosts to cluster together and leads to the use of fewer cells to save the scarce wireless bandwidth. Besides, the paths in the multicast tree connecting to the selected cells share more common links to save the wireline bandwidth. Our mechanism supports the dynamic group membership and offers mobility of group members. Moreover, our mechanism requires no modification to the current IP multicast routing protocols. We formulate the selection of the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host in the heterogeneous wireless networks as an optimization problem. We use integer linear programming to model the problem and show that the problem is NP-hard. To solve the problem, we propose a distributed algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation and a network protocol based on the algorithm. The simulation results show that our mechanism can effectively save the wireless and wireline bandwidth as compared to the traditional IP multicast.
In computer networking, multicast is the delivery of a message or information to a group of destination computers simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network elements, such as routers, only when the topology of the network requires it.
Multicast is most commonly implemented in IP multicast, which is often employed in Internet Protocol (IP) applications of streaming media and Internet television. In IP multicast the implementation of the multicast concept occurs at the IP routing level, where routers create optimal distribution paths for datagrams sent to a multicast destination address.
At the Data Link Layer, multicast describes one-to-many distribution such as Ethernet multicast addressing, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) point-to-multipoint virtual circuits (P2MP) or Infiniband multicast.
Heterogeneous wireless network
A heterogeneous network is a network connecting computers and other devices with different operating systems and/or protocols. For example, local area networks (LANs) that connect Microsoft Windows and Linux based personal computers with Apple Macintosh computers are heterogeneous. The word heterogeneous network is also used in wireless networks using different access technologies. For example, a wireless network which provides a service through a wireless LAN and is able to maintain the service when switching to a cellular network is called a wireless heterogeneous network.
A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network, the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network
Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (Circuit switching) , electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology.
In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes, typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router's memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time, but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths.
Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks, and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet, though bridging is still widely used within localized environments.