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FPAA for Analog Circuit Design
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FPAA for Analog Circuit Design

Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA) have ability to:

Ø Translate complex analog circuits to a simple set of low-level functions giving the analog equivalent of a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), providing a basis for the development of dynamically reconfigurable analog/digital hardware.

Ø Place analog functions under real-time software control within the system.

Ø By providing the analog equivalent of logic gates, FPAAs give designers the ability to describe analog functions such as gain stages and filters without reference to op amps, capacitors, resistors.

FPAA Technology:

Ø A (FPAA), built in CMOS technology, contains:

§ operational amplifiers

§ switches

§ banks of programmable switched capacitors

§ filters for analog signals

Ø The chip is divided into 20 identical, configurable analog blocks (CABs), each composed of an operational amplifier, five capacitor banks, and switches that can be used to interconnect the cell components and determine their operation.

Ø FPAA technology has four main elements:

1. FPAA Software

2. Configurable Analog Modules (CAM)

3. FPAA silicon

4. Configurable Analog Blocks (CAB)

Ø Trends from the digital to analog design:

Ø EDA tools and design modules for complete analog design automation “ remove the complexity

Ø Pre-built and pre-tested FPAAs “ reduce analog implementation from months to minutes

Ø Reconfigurability and real-time updating of the FPAA during operation “ allows one piece of silicon to continually adapt to maintain precision and/or perform new functions

FPAA Software:

It develops a FPAA synthesis tool, synthesizes behavioral level analog descriptions into its implementations. This synthesis flow, consists of four major phases:
Function decomposition
Macro-cell synthesis
Placement and Routing
Post-placement simulation

l. Function decomposition

The high level description of analog functions can be cataloged into two groups as:
logic description
transfer functions
ll. Macro-cell synthesis
The sub-routine of macro-block generation maps the decomposed transfer functions into SC ckts, fit in the structure of (CAB) in the targeted FPAA chip making design space large .

lll. Placement and Routing

Maps the synthesized analog circuit into the FPAA chip

reducing the performance degradation caused by the

parasitic effects in the interconnection networks using

parameters like cost function © & signal sensitivity (S).

2.Configurable Analog Modules (CAM):

CAMs move the design process from the component level to the functional level. All of these functions are available:

Ø Filter stages

Ø Gain stages

Ø Summing /difference stage

Ø Voltage multiplication

all having user-programmable attributes.

Applications of FPAA:

ü Integrating analog functionality and saving up to 90% development time.

ü Calibrating or repurposing the FPAA during operation.

ü Integrating the analog I/O around processor- and/or DSP-based systems.

ü The ability of the FPAA to be changed dynamically.

FPAA Product Overview (AN10E40 ):

Ø Drag and drop circuit design

Ø User parameterizable CAMs/IP Modules pre-package common analog functions.

Ø Single-ended switched capacitor as FPAA base.

Ø Architecture with analog switch fabric

Ø Input/output structure with Single-ended 13 analog I/O cells

Ø Performs Bandwidth DC to 250 kHz & Broadband SNR up to 65 dB

Ø Silicon platform

Ø Static FPAA reconfigurability

Ø Use of EDA tools

The FPAA technology offers a device with very attractive and universal features, which can be used and exploited in various applications. The FPAA can be very easily and inexpensively utilized in studentâ„¢s laboratories such as:

Ø The IDT interface provides virtual wiring (drag and drop) and removes the requirement for linking of hardware components,

Ø Students can quickly build complex analog hardware,

Ø Students can see the relationship between analog and digital signal processing, can experience design work, and hardware testing, etc.,

Ø Students are stimulated to perform additional experiments and develop new features of FPAA for practical use.

FPAA will find more applications because of its flexibility, low cost and ease of programming.

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