Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
geostationary satellites full report
Post: #1


What Is a Satellite?

A satellite is something that goes around and around a larger something, like the earth or another planet. Some satellites are natural, like the moon, which is a natural satellite of the earth. Other satellites are made by scientists and technologists to go around the earth and do certain jobs.
Some satellites send and receive television signals. The signal is sent from a station on the earth's surface. The satellite receives the signal and rebroadcasts it to other places on the earth. With the right number of satellites in space, one television program can be seen all over the world.
Some satellites send and receive telephone, fax, and computer communications. Satellites make it possible to communicate by telephone, fax, Internet, or computer with anyone in the world.
Other satellites observe the world's weather, feeding weather information into giant computer programs that help scientists know what the weather will be. The weather reporters on your favorite TV news program get their information from those scientists.
Still other satellites take very accurate pictures of the earth's surface, sending back images that tell scientists about changes that are going on around the world and about crops, water, and other resources.
This is one kind of satellite”a Boeing 376, built by Boeing Satellite Systems. The Boeing 376 is used mostly for broadcast television and cable television.
This is another, larger kind of satellite”the Boeing 601. The Boeing 601 is used for many purposes, including direct broadcast TV. Direct broadcast TV is a system for receiving television using a very small satellite dish. The Boeing 601 also relays telephone, fax, and computer communications.
The most powerful commercial satellite in the world is the Boeing 702.
What is an orbit?
When a satellite is launched, it is placed in orbit around the earth. The earth's gravity holds the satellite in a certain path as it goes around the earth, and that path is called an "orbit." There are several kinds of orbits. Here are three of them.
LEO, or Low Earth Orbit
A satellite in low earth orbit circles the earth 100 to 300 miles above the earth's surface. Satellites in low earth orbit travel about 17,500 miles per hour. These satellites can circle the whole earth in about an hour and a half.
MEO, or Medium Earth Orbit
Communications satellites that cover the North Pole and the South Pole are placed in a medium altitude, oval orbit. Instead of making circles around the earth, these satellites make ovals. They orbit 6,000 to 12,000 miles above the earth.
GEO, or Geostationary Earth Orbit
A satellite in geosynchronous orbit circles the earth in 24 hours”the same time it takes the earth to rotate one time. Satellites in GEO orbit 22,282 miles above the earth. In this high orbit, GEO satellites are always able to "see" the receiving stations below, and their signals can cover a large part of the planet.

How Does a Satellite Get Into Space?
A satellite is launched on a launch vehicle. The satellite is packed carefully into the vehicle and carried into space, powered by a rocket engine.
Satellites are launched from only a few places in the world, primarily Cape Canaveral, Florida;French Guiana; Xichang, China, and Kazakstan. The best places to launch satellites are near the ocean, so that when the launch vehicle falls away, it lands in the water and not on people.
At launch, the launch vehicle's rockets lift the satellite off the launch pad and carry it into space, where it circles the earth in a temporary orbit. Then the spent rockets and the launch vehicle drop away, and one or more motors attached to the satellite move it into its permanent geosynchronous orbit. A motor is started up for a certain amount of time, sometimes just one or two minutes, to push the satellite into place. When one of these motors is started, it's called a "burn." It may take many burns, over a period of several days, to move the satellite into its assigned orbital position.
When the satellite reaches its orbit, a motor points it in the right direction and its antennas and solar panels deploy”that is, they unfold from their traveling position and spread out so the satellite can start sending and receiving signals.

What Does a Satellite Do?
Satellites do many things for people. Their most important job is helping people communicate with other people, wherever they are in the world.
¢ A satellite can carry a camera as it travels in its orbit and take pictures of the whole earth. Mapmakers can use these pictures to make more accurate maps. Satellite pictures can also help experts predict the weather, because from the satellite, the camera can actually see the weather coming.
¢ Satellites in orbit can send messages to a special receiver carried by someone on a ship in the ocean or in a truck in the desert, telling that person exactly where he or she is.
¢ A satellite can relay your telephone call across the country or to the other side of the world. If you decide to telephone your friend in Mexico City, your call can be sent up in space to a satellite, then relayed to a ground station in Mexico and sent from there to your friend's telephone.
¢ A satellite can relay your computer message, your fax message, or Internet data as well. With the help of satellites, we can fax, e-mail, or download information anyplace in the world. When the satellite sends a message from your computer or fax to another computer or fax, it's called data transmission.
¢ A satellite can transmit your favorite TV program from the studio where it is made to your TV set”even if the studio is in Japan and your TV set is in Inglewood. From the studio where it is made, a TV program is broadcast to a satellite. This is called an uplink. Then it is rebroadcast from the satellite to another place on the earth. This is called a downlink.
¢ When words or pictures or computer data are sent up to a satellite, they are first converted to an invisible stream of energy, called a signal. The signal travels up through space to the satellite and then travels down from the satellite to its destination, where it is converted back to a voice message, a picture, or data, so that the receiver can receive it.
How Big Is a Satellite?
Different kinds of satellites are used in different situations, for different purposes. To talk about the sizes of satellites, we'll use two examples: the Boeing 601, which is used mostly for direct broadcast TV and business communication networks, and the Boeing 702, which is used mostly for video distribution, satellite telephone and Internet services, and digital radio.
The Boeing 601 has a box-shaped center with several antenna reflectors that look like big dinner plates. Long, wing-like structures attach on two sides. These are the solar panels. The outside of the solar panels or wings is covered with solar cells, which convert the sun's energy to electricity.
The typical Boeing 702 is a larger, more powerful satellite. With a 702, you can put two or three satellites' worth of communication electronics in orbit using one satellite and one launch. When the Boeing 702 is stowed for launch, it is 23 feet (7 meters) high..
Who Owns the Satellites?
Satellites are usually owned by companies or countries. The companies that own satellites usually want to make money by renting out part of the satellite to other companies. The countries or government agencies that own satellites want to make people's lives better by improving the communication networks in their countries.
For example, Indonesia is a country made up of 13,677 islands whose people speak more than 250 languages. Imagine how much time and money it would take to connect them all with wires and telephone poles. Using satellites, Indonesia bridged all the islands at once and helped people learn the national language.
Many large companies also own and operate satellites. They may rent space on the satellite to other companies and businesses. For example, a large communication company might buy a satellite and then rent space on the satellite to television companies, telephone companies, Internet service companies, and businesses that want to do business in other parts of the world
The area of the earth's surface covered by a satellite's signal is called the satellite's footprint.
What's Inside a Satellite?
A satellite has seven subsystems, and each one has its own work to do.
1. The propulsion subsystem includes the electric or chemical motor that brings the spacecraft to its permanent position, as well as small motors that help keep the satellite in its assigned place in orbit.
2. The power subsystem generates electricity from the solar panels on the outside of the spacecraft. The solar panels also store electricity in storage batteries, which provide power when the sun isn't shining on the panels.
3. The communications subsystem handles all the transmit and receive functions. It receives signals from the earth, amplifies or strengthens them, and transmits (sends) them to another satellite or to a ground station.
4. The structures subsystem distributes the stresses of launch and acts as a strong, stable framework for attaching the other parts of the satellite.
5. The thermal control subsystem keeps the active parts of the satellite cool enough to work properly. It does this by directing the heat that is generated by satellite operations out into space, where it won't interfere with the satellite.
6. The attitude control subsystem maintains the communications "footprint" in the correct location. Satellites can't be allowed to jiggle or wander, because if a satellite is not exactly where it belongs, pointed at exactly the right place on the earth, the television program or the telephone call it transmits to you will be interrupted.
7. The telemetry and command subsystem provides a way for people at the ground stations to communicate with the satellite.
Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) Satellites
GEO Satellite Definition:
A satellite in geosynchronous (or geostationary) are positioned a fixed point at approximately 35,786 kilometers above the earth's surface. At this fixed height, the satellite matches the Earthâ„¢s rotation speed and allows the satellites a full-disc view at a stationary positionTo stay over the same spot on earth, a geostationary satellite also has to be directly above the equator. Otherwise, from the earth the satellite would appear to move in a north-south line every day.
GEO satellites primary purpose is weather imagery to optimize forecasting. In addition to weather imagery, these satellites include instrumentation used in environmental monitoring communications via a relay system. The world network of GEO satellites used with weather imagery and environemental monitoring communications are as follows:
Purpose of GEO Satellites
GEO satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. By orbiting the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation, these satellites can continuously over one position on the surface. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric "triggers" for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop these GEO satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements.
The GEO satellite functions as a repeater of the data back to an earth ground stations. Stevens also designs and manufactures a GEO receive system called a Direct Readout Ground Station (DRGS) and also provides an alternative Internet Access to the GOES data.
Advantages of GEO Satellite Telemetry
¢ Low communications cost (Free for GOES)
¢ Low maintenance
¢ Ideal for remote locations
¢ Data easily shared among government users
¢ Very reliable data transmissions as system is supported governmental agencies
¢ Available for environmental or home-land security monitoring applications

Disadvantages of GEO Satellite Telemetry
¢ Scheduled transmission times assigned by governmental agency and based on Channel/Time availability
¢ Interference detection difficult
¢ Troubleshooting capabilities minimal
¢ Data is available to Government and public
¢ Hardware cost more expensive than other telemetry costs
¢ One-way transmissions
¢ No acknowledgement of successful data transmission.
¢ If a transmission fails, it cannot be repeated at a later time.
¢ Primarily available only to Federal, state or local governmental agencies or government sponsored environmental monitoring applications.
Size Trends
During the past five years, there has been a renewed emphasis on providing satellite-based services to consumers. The acceptance of these services is determined to a great degree by cost to the consumer, including the cost of the equipment as well as monthly service charges. Consumer electronics benefits from competition as well as cost decreases associated with volume manufacturing and distribution and this is vividly demonstrated by the rapid decrease in the cost of DBS home equipment. The power of the signal from the satellite is a critically important factor in the determination of the cost of the ground equipment or terminals. The more the power from the satellite, the less the cost of the terminal. The size of the antennas and the cost of the amplifiers decrease as the power from the satellite increases. Business customers benefit from this increased power for the same reasons.
The need for more power and bandwidth from commercial satellites is obvious to all the satellite manufacturers. Typically, you would expect that increasing the power and bandwidth from the satellite would require a larger, and thus heavier, satellite. However, increasing the weight of the satellite adds to the cost of the launch.
Thus today the increased demand for power is the dominant factor in driving the development and utilization of new GEO satellite technology, especially to meet these weight and cost constraints. Bandwidth per satellite has been increasing as combined C and Ku-band satellites become more common. The need for more bandwidth is especially evident for the new data applications, which are expected to be met with Ka-band and possibly V-band satellites. Here again, more total power is needed to meet power per channel (or Hertz) requirements.

(How the weight of the typical GEO satellite has increased over the past 30 years.)
Other factors driving the increased size and weight of the satellite are the needs for larger antennas, onboard processing electronics, and intersatellite links.
The demand for increased microwave power from the satellite is probably the most important factor in driving the insertion of new technology into modern GEO satellites. Higher power at the customers' antenna translates into lower cost equipment and the availability of new services and thus the need for the manufacture of more satellites and their associated launches. The demand for more power from satellites is driving the development of considerable new technology, with the requirement that this new technology does not add to the cost of the satellite or its weight, which translates into increased launch costs.
The power subsystem is composed of the solar array (solar cells on the supporting structure including pointing devices), batteries and the power conditioning electronics. Considerable progress has been made in the last five years.
Satellites are uniquely suited to certain applications. These include (1) broadcasting, (2) service to mobile users (including ships, aircraft, land mobile and emergency services), and (3) providing nearly "instant infrastructure" in underserved areas. This last feature is the basis for a large number of recent filings in the United States for Ka-band systems, many of which seek to offer global or nearly global service
This Section discusses three telecommunication trends that are fueling interest in satellite systems. These are direct-to-the-home television (DTH) broadcasting, or direct broadcast satellite (DBS); the enormous growth in wireless hand-held phone usage (cellular, personal communication services (PCS) and paging); and the growth in the number of personal computers (PC's) in the world, increasing numbers of which are multimedia ready and are being used to interconnect with the Internet and/or collect information from the World Wide Web. These three topics are treated in turn in the sections that follow.
Direct Broadcast Satellite
The distribution of TV signals via satellite began in the United States as an inexpensive means of delivering program material (e.g., CNN news) to several hundred cable head-ends spread over the country. This service began at C-band and caused satellite manufacturers (such as Hughes) to launch powerful domestic satellites carrying many transponders so that many cable systems could receive all of their program material with a single earth-station antenna. In time, a cottage industry developed, selling C-band receive-only systems (with typically 2 or 3 meter (8 or 10') diameter antennas) to consumers to eavesdrop on these broadcasts. The number of such installations is now thought to be around 2 million.
It is widely believed that a small size receiving antenna-something that can readily be mounted on the side of a house, for example-is necessary to reach a large subscriber base. Hughes has been the first to approach this market. In 1994 it launched a high-power (~120 watts/transponder) 16-transponder satellite (DBS-1) capable of beaming over 100 digitally-compressed TV channels to viewers, who receive the signals with a 45 cm (18") diameter antenna and set top box converter costing initially about $700. (Prices have since dropped because the service providers have begun to subsidize the purchase). Further capacity increases were achieved with the launches of DBS-2 and DBS-3, and this service (known as DirecTV) was expecting to have over 3 million subscribers by the end of 1997. Hughes DirecTV and Stanley Hubbard's United States Satellite Broadcasting (USSB) both use these satellites.
Primestar, which is owned by the five biggest U.S. cable companies (COMCAST, Continental Cablevision, Cox, TCI, and Time Warner) offers a competing service via a GE Americom satellite placed in service in January 1997. Primestar's subscribers must use a large 1 m (3') dish, but do not have to purchase the equipment whose cost is recovered via the rental agreement. At year-end 1997, Primestar had over 1.9 million subscribers and Echostar had close to one million subscribers. It should be noted that there are currently 2.2 million subscribers to the C-band backyard systems.
MCI and News Corp. won the rights (at a cost of $682.5 million) to occupy the last Ku-band slot from which to broadcast over 200 channels across the nation via a partnership known as American Sky Broadcasting (ASkyB), but MCI has since indicated its desire to scale back its involvement. This forced Time News to seek a merger with Echostar, which is due to receive its powerful Echostar III satellite (being built by Lockheed Martin) in 1998. In addition, TCI plans to inaugurate DBS service at the end of 1997 with a high-power satellite launched into an orbital slot it already controlled, and to use digital compression to deliver Primestar programming to smaller dishes, as well as to cable head ends for distribution on existing cable networks that have limited capacity. Current expectations are that U.S. DBS subscribers will number about 6 million by the end of 1997 and could be double this number by the end of the year 2000.
DBS has enjoyed an even more solid growth in Europe, in part from an earlier start, and in part from the poorer penetration of cable systems. A French media group based in Paris, (Canal+) launched a direct TV service in 1995 via the Luxembourg-based Astra satellites. The British Sky Broadcasting Group offers DBS to 5 million U.K. subscribers. In all, it is estimated that there are 25 million European su
Satellite PCS
In 1996, the United States had almost 40 million cellular telephone subscribers, while Western Europe had a little over 30 million, Japan perhaps 15 million and Latin America only 5 million. In the United States the expectation is that the number of subscribers to wireless phone services will double by 2000, with less than half being served by the older analog (Amps) service and the rest being served by newer digital ones (CDMA and TDMA) as well as personal communications (PCS, which is offered at higher frequencies). By 2005, the number of subscribers to these services is expected to exceed 250 million world-wide with the largest concentrations in Asia, the United States and Europe in that order.
For a small number of channels this can be raised to 11 dB.
The Iridium system is being built by Motorola, together with subcontractors (e.g., Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, COM DEV). It consists of a fleet of 66, low earth orbiting satellites at 780 kilometer altitude. Eleven satellites will be equally spaced in each of six, circular, nearly polar orbits. Subscribers access the satellites via L-band spot beams (each satellite can activate up to 48) using a TDMA scheme for transmitting voice, coded at 2.4 kbps, or data. Each satellite can handle up to 1,100 simultaneous calls. TDMA packets arriving at a satellite are demodulated and, depending on their destination, routed (at 20 GHz) to a gateway earth station (if one is in view), or (at 23 GHz) to the satellite ahead or behind in the same orbital plane, or the satellite to the east or west in the adjacent orbital plane.
Satellites for Fixed Services
Several factors are driving an explosion of interest in fixed satellite service (FSS) systems. These include:
¢ Strong growth in demand for telecommunications services worldwide, and especially for data service (fueled by use of the Internet)
¢ Liberalization of telecommunications markets through deregulation and through the WTO agreements
¢ The ability of satellites to provide "instant infrastructure" requiring little in the way of civil works (which can be expensive)
¢ A number of large U.S. aerospace companies looking for new opportunities in the commercial sector, with the end of the Cold War
¢ The fact that large players, such as Motorola, have chosen to enter the market
Proposed services include voice, data, video, imaging, video teleconferencing, interactive video, TV broadcast, multimedia, global Internet, messaging, and trunking. A wide range of applications is planned through these services, including distance learning, corporate training, collaborative workgroups, telecommuting, telemedicine, wireless backbone interconnection (i.e., wireless LAN/WAN), video distribution, direct-to-home video, and satellite news-gathering, as well as the distribution of software, music, scientific data, and global financial and weather information.

Satellite-based multimedia service for the consumer is an important part of the business plans of many of the Ka-band systems now under construction. This has developed as an important activity since the 1992/1993 study. Research programs like ACTS, Japan's program in highly intelligent communications, Italy's ITALSAT, and the European DIGISAT, ISIS and MMIS projects, demonstrate that the feasibility of satellite-based interactive multimedia services, are laying the necessary groundwork. The development of portable and mobile terminals for these applications should proceed rapidly along an evolutionary path since--except for reducing terminal size and cost--few hardware innovations are involved.

The increased use of commercial satellites to meet the burgeoning worldwide market for telecommunications has placed increased demands on the launch service industry. The capacity of this industry will not be adequate to meet the needs of all the proposals for new satellites. Even though not all the proposals will get to the marketplace, there appears to be a shortage of launch capacity. In addition, this industry has new challenges to meet. In contrast to the past when most of the commercial satellites were placed into GEO, new satellites will also be placed into LEO and MEO. These latter orbits will be used by constellations of satellites requiring the launch of numerous satellites at a time and the launch of satellites to replace failed satellites, with little lead time. In addition, there is considerable pressure on the launch industry to make a considerable decrease in the price of entrance into space as well as to increase the reliability of the launches, a point that has been watched with considerable interest by the investment banking community.
Ten GEO launches per year were adequate to satisfy the satellite communications business a few years ago. It is now up to thirty and appears that it will increase to almost 100 during the next decade. Launching to LEO will soon exceed launches to GEO. Constellations composed of many satellites, in some cases over one hundred, will put pressures on the industry for timely launches. The launch of commercial satellites is no longer the sole province of the United States. Europe (Arianespace), Russia, China, Japan and the Ukraine have entered this business, with Arianespace replacing the United States as the dominant launch provider. No longer do satellite manufacturers and service providers purchase a launch at a time. They purchase blocks of launches from numerous vendors to ensure the availability of launches when needed. The launch industry has then responded positively to these assured future orders by upgrading the capability of existing rockets and by proposing new launch systems. An example of bulk ordering is the 1997 Hughes purchase of 5 launch options aboard the Chinese Long March rocket. Hughes followed this up with the purchase of 10 launches from Japan's Rocket System Corporation. Space Systems Loral followed a similar path and purchased several launches on the Proton from International Launch Services. The inaugural contracts by Hughes have been important factors in establishing the viability of the Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) Delta III and Sea Launch as well as the Japan H-IIA and the upgrading of the Proton launch facilities. The July 1997 Motorola RFP to provide launch services for its new Celestri system (since cancelled), Iridium replacements, Iridium follow-ons and other satellites totaled 516 satellites, quite an impressive number.
Satellites must cope with the high temperatures of sitting in direct sunlight, and the near absolute-zero temperatures they drop down to in the shadow of the earth. The very fact that they move rapidly between the two extremes in temperature means their lifespans are very short. As if this were not enough, they must cope with the solar wind, which creates a buildup of static electricity on the satellite.
All these factors contribute to requiring that the components of the satellite be very durable and therefore very, very expensive. This is why very few companies and governments operate satellites, and only a handful of companies build them.
Post: #2


Satellites are used almost everyday by everyone. Satellites are used for many things such as communication, oceanography, astronomy, surveillance, and a variety of other things as well. Without satellites we would be lost. We wouldn't know what the weather is going to be tomorrow. We wouldn't know what the world looked like. Without satellites we wouldn't even know how to travel. Satellites really help us out in every day life and we depend on them. Every one of us need to have a general information about satellites, its types ,orbits and uses..


A satellite is any object that orbits another object. The Earth's Moon is a satellite and the Earth itself is a satellite of the Sun.
Artificial satellites are machines that are placed into orbit around Earth, other planets, or the Sun

History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. After three months , it was destroyed while reentering the atmosphere.That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race.
Sputnik helped to identify the upper atmospheric layer's density, through measuring the satellite's orbital changes. It also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Pressurized nitrogen, in the satellite's body, provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection. If a meteoroid penetrated the satellite's outer hull, it would be detected by the temperature data sent back to Earth.


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the first telephone and television satellite, AT&T™s Telstar 1, in 1962. The U.S. Department of Defense launched Syncom 3 in 1964. Syncom 3 was the first communication satellite to use a geostationary orbit”that is, an orbit that keeps the satellite over the same spot above Earth™s equator. Communication satellites work non-stop 24 hours a day to keep the entire world linked together. These communication satellites are used for things like an overseas phone call or beaming 150 channels into your living room.


Navigation satellites can help locate the position of ships, aircraft, and even automobiles that are equipped with special radio receivers. A navigation satellite sends continuous radio signals to Earth. These signals contain data that a special radio receiver on Earth translates into information about the satellite™s position. The receiver further analyzes the signal to find out how fast and in what direction the satellite is moving and how long the signal took to reach the receiver. From this data, the receiver can calculate its own location. Some navigation satellite systems use signals from several satellites at once to provide even more exact location information. The U.S. Navy launched the first navigation satellite, Transit 1B, in 1960.

The U.S. Air Force operates a system, called the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), that consists of 24 satellites that can provide position information with an accuracy from 100 m (about 300 ft) to less than 1 cm (less than about 0.4 in)
The Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) of the Russian Federation consists of 24 satellites and provides accuracy similar to GPS.
In December 2005 the European Union (EU) launched the first of 30 satellites that will make up a civilian satellite navigation system called Galileo. The system will have an accuracy of about 1 m (3.3 ft) and will become operational in 2009.


Weather satellites carry cameras and other instruments pointed toward Earth™s atmosphere. They can provide advance warning of severe weather and are a great aid to weather forecasting. NASA launched the first weather satellite, Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) 1, in 1960. TIROS 1 transmitted almost 23,000 photographs of Earth and its atmosphere. NASA operates the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, which are in geostationary orbit. GOES provides information for weather forecasting, including the tracking of storms.


Many military satellites are similar to commercial ones, but they send encrypted data that only a special receiver can encode. Military surveillance satellites take pictures just as other earth-imaging satellites do, but cameras on military satellites usually have a higher resolution.
The U.S. military operates a variety of satellite systems. The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) consists of five spacecraft in geostationary orbit that transmit voice, data, and television signals between military sites. The Defense Support Program (DSP) uses satellites that are intended to give early warning of missile launches. DSP was used during the Persian Gulf War (1991) to warn of Iraqi missile launches.


Earth-orbiting satellites can provide data to map Earth, determine the size and shape of Earth, and study the dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere. Scientists also use satellites to observe the Sun, the Moon, other planets and their moons, comets, stars, and galaxies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a general-purpose observatory launched in 1990. Some scientific satellites orbit bodies other than Earth. The Mars Global Surveyor, for example, orbits the planet Mars.

Placing a satellite into orbit requires a tremendous amount of energy, which must come from the launch vehicle, or device that launches the satellite. The satellite needs to reach an altitude of at least 200 km (120 mi) and a speed of over 29,000 km/h (18,000 mph) to lift into orbit successfully. Satellites receive this combination of potential energy (altitude) and kinetic energy (speed) from multistage rockets burning chemical fuels.

. The first stage lifts the entire launch vehicle”with its load of fuel, the rocket body, and the satellite”off the launch pad and into the first part of the flight. After its engines use all their fuel, the first stage portion of the rocket separates from the rest of the launch vehicle and falls to Earth
The second stage then ignites, providing the energy necessary to lift the satellite into orbit.

The rest of the launch depends on the satellite™s mission. For example, if the mission requires a geostationary orbit, which can be achieved only at a distance of about 35,000 km (22,000 mi) above Earth, a third rocket stage provides the thrust to lift the satellite to its final orbital altitude. After the satellite has reached the final altitude, another rocket engine fires and gives the satellite a circular orbit. All rocket-engine burns occur at a precise moment and last for a precise amount of time so that the satellite achieves its proper position in space.


POWER-A The most common source of power for Earth-orbiting satellites is a combination of solar cells (Solar Energy) with a battery backup.
ORIENTATION-Methods of maintaining orientation include small rocket engines, known as altitude thrusters; large spinning wheels that turn the satellite; and magnets that interact with Earthâ„¢s magnetic field to correctly orient the satellite.
The electronic equipment on the satellite also creates heat that can cause damage. With no air flowing over the satellite to transfer heat by convection and no body to which the satellite can conduct heat, the satellite must radiate heat to control temperature. Often satellites use radiators including panels that open and close to adjust the amount of radiating surface area.
COSMIC RADIATION AND MICROMETEOROIDS PROTECTION-Satellites have to endure the effects of radiation and of continuous, damaging micrometeoroid hits, especially during long-term missions. A satellite,needs shielding for its computers

Geostationary Equatorial Orbit-Satellites in geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) orbit Earth around the equator at a very specific altitude that allows them to complete one orbit in the same amount of time that it takes Earth to rotate once. As a result, these satellites stay above one point on Earth™s equator at all times. The altitude of GEO is about 5.6 times the radius of Earth, or about 35,800 km (about 22,200 mi).Direct-broadcast television satellites ,Earth-surveillance missions, including military surveillance and weather tracking missions, also use GEO.
Low Earth Orbit-A satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) orbits at an altitude of 2,000 km (1,200 mi) or less. A low Earth orbit minimizes the amount of fuel needed. In addition, a satellite in LEO can obtain clearer surveillance images and can avoid the Van Allen radiation belts, containing harmful high-energy particles. It needs less powerful signals to communicate with Earth than satellites with higher orbits. A signal to or from a low Earth orbit also reaches its destination more quickly.

Medium Earth Orbit-Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites orbit at an altitude about 10,000 km (about 6,000 mi) and balance the benefits and problems between LEO and GEO. The most common uses of MEO are by navigation and communication satellites. The U.S. navigation system NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and Odyssey, a private U.S. communications satellite program all use MEOs.
Polar Orbits-Satellites in polar orbits orbit around Earth at right angles to the equator over both the North and South poles. Polar orbits can occur at any altitude, but most satellites in polar orbits use LEOs. Two polar satellites belonging to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provide weather information for all areas of the world every six hours.

ORBITS (cont¦)
Sun-Synchronous Orbits -A satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit always passes over a certain point of Earth when the Sun is at the same position in Earth™s sky. A Sun-synchronous satellite moves clockwise around Earth, orbits in a low Earth orbit, and orbits at a specific angle with respect to Earth™s equator (about 98°). The satellite stays synchronized with the location of the Sun relative to Earth. Sun-synchronous orbits are useful for satellites photographing Earth, because the Sun will be at the same angle each time the satellite passes over a point on Earth.


CHANDRAYAAN 1(Indiaâ„¢s first unmanned spacecraft mission to the moon,launcher PSLV-C11,launched on Nov 2008)
The primary objectives of Chandrayaan-1 are: 1. To expand scientific knowledge about the moon by remote sensing. 2. To upgrade India's technological capability 3. To provide challenging opportunities for planetary research to the younger generation of Indian scientists




Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please


So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page
Popular Searches: list of indian satellites ppt, 1997 s10, inposttitle satellites, planetary orbits, ppts on leo satellites, satellites image military ppt, seminarios franciscanos en mexico,

Quick Reply
Type your reply to this message here.

Image Verification
Image Verification
(case insensitive)
Please enter the text within the image on the left in to the text box below. This process is used to prevent automated posts.

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread: Author Replies: Views: Last Post
  wireless charging through microwaves full report project report tiger 90 53,994 27-09-2016 04:16 AM
Last Post: The icon
  Transparent electronics full report seminar surveyer 7 12,522 13-04-2016 10:35 AM
Last Post: dhanyavp
  Wireless Power Transmission via Solar Power Satellite full report project topics 30 38,837 30-03-2016 03:27 PM
Last Post: dhanyavp
  surge current protection using superconductors full report computer science technology 13 16,951 16-03-2016 12:03 AM
Last Post: computer science crazy
  paper battery full report project report tiger 56 49,994 16-02-2016 11:42 AM
Last Post: Guest
  IMOD-Interferometric modulator full report seminar presentation 3 3,551 18-07-2015 10:14 AM
Last Post: [email protected]
  digital jewellery full report project report tiger 36 53,152 27-04-2015 01:29 PM
Last Post: seminar report asees
  LOW POWER VLSI On CMOS full report project report tiger 15 13,332 09-12-2014 06:31 PM
Last Post: seminar report asees
  eddy current brake full report project report tiger 24 23,374 14-09-2014 08:27 AM
Last Post: Guest
  dense wavelength division multiplexing full report project reporter 3 3,338 16-06-2014 07:00 PM
Last Post: seminar report asees