POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT AUTOMOTIVE DRIVE TRIAN WITH HYBRID CAPABILITIES: The fact that the rotorâ„¢s surfaces do not touch each other or the casing causes a minimal amount of friction. The shaft for the rotors has bearings but this friction is also minimal. The friction of the movement of the air is vastly less than the friction of a standard automotive engine where 600-750 RPMs are required to overcome its own friction and compression. Once started the electric starter motor switches from a starter to a generator. The generator can switch back to an electric motor to add to the energy input of the system if the auto is equipped with extra batteries. The extra batteries store energy when the auto is braking or as a load when required for downhill engine braking. There could be an electric clutch between the combustor and the expander to drive both without the aid of fuel. There would be a minimum amount of friction for operating both, without combustion or with any combination of both. Combustion air can also be stored in tanks so the starting process can be via stored compressed air or added back later to reduce energy required by the combustor. The combustor and expander could be used as an air pump to add drag on downhill driving and the compressed air could be stored and reused.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT JET TURBINE: The drive train consists of two modules. Module one is a hot gas generator called the combustor. In the case of the combustor, it could be described as a positive displacement varying geometry jet turbine. It consists of a number of impellers referred to as pump rotors. The varying geometry in combination with a number of pump rotors allows for a multiplication factor in the total displacement per revolution. The more rotors the greater the multiplication factor for volumetric efficiency. The rotors pull high vacuum. The slippage of the rotors is small. The vacuum pulled can be over 95% depending on moisture content and speed of rotation. With each 360 degree turn of the rotors, the ambient air is transported through the intake pushed by the vacuum created by the intake rotors. As the mixture enters the intake, the rotors seal off discrete units of the mixture and then transport them, not unlike a sealed conveyer belt, to the output under ambient pressure conditions. Upon being deposited at the output, the ambient air pressure has its volume readjusted to the output pressure. The output pressure is determined by how much volume is allowed to enter and exit the next two stages. Stage one is the combustion chamber and stage two is the exhaust rotors. If the output of the exhaust rotors is shutoff, the pump would (a) continue to rotate and deposit more air until the pressure rose to a point where the drive torque was no longer sufficient to allow rotation or (b) the slippage was sufficient to cause a balance between rotation and the output pressure. Before either point is reached © sufficient pressure is obtained to allow the injectors to inject the fuel and a spark causes the combustible mixture to burn at a continuous rate with optimum energy conversion.
The flow sequence is: (1) to the impeller rotors and (2) to a large cavity that is used as the combustion chamber. Before the combustion, some pressurized air goes to (3) a second set of rotors. These rotors have 3 times the volume capacity of the input and the same diameter as the input rotors, but are 3 times as deep. (4) The output of these stages goes to an accumulator with two variable orifices, an input and output orifice. Initially both orifices are closed. When the chamber pressure exceeds 150 PSI, the fuel is injected and a spark ignites the combustible mixture. The volume, temperature and pressure rise dramatically. The input and output orificesâ„¢ openings are adjusted until the desired pressure and temperature is achieved in the combustor and the accumulator. In this case, we pre-set it to roughly 700 PSI or whatever temperature and air fuel mixture that is required to maintain the pressure used in the virtual road test. In this case the output volume was 74 feet cubed and 3750 RPMs. The temperature and pressure was set at the optimum burn rate for the fuel being used. This continuous burn allowed for the optimum efficiency in the conversion of the fuel to pressurized gas. The pressurized gas now exits into the second set of rotors. The second set allows the gas to expand by a factor determined by the number, depth and diameter of the rotors. The increased area for the gas to push against maintains the combustion process and drives the generator. The generator also doubles as the starter motor.
The commonality of design for all applications of the GREEN ENGINE revolves around the rotor. The volume of the rotor is determined by the area between the surface of each adjacent rotor and the depth of that rotor. Rotors have equally spaced cavities. Upon one single 360 degree rotation, the volume at the output for a single cavity is multiplied by a factor of 1.333 times the volume for that single cavity. It would seem to defy logic that if there are a number of cavities, and each is subjected to one revolution, then the output would and must be equal to the volume of each cavity, not 1.333 times more. This is where the geometrical patterns and the interplay between them cause the multiplication of the volume. Other rotors could be added to accentuate the multiplication factor as stated above. The blades of each rotor are continually exposed to input air on one side and air being delivered to the output on the other and they intermittently supply a seal to prevent the output from being exposed to the input. This is not unlike a gear pump, but there are extreme differences in the geometry of a gear and the varying geometry of the GREEN ENGINE rotors. (See the next paragraph for more details) A fundamental understanding of how the energies in the Universe maintain a constant equilibrium and energy sum of zero, while internally having vast differences, was essential in formulating the design of this engine. The actual details of how this was accomplished are proprietary.
The arrangement of the rotors can be all parallel, horizontal, vertical, rectangular, box shaped and even circular as the most efficient. With large commercial units the removal and replacement of units needing repair or overhaul is simplified. Imagine being able to take a part of the engine offline within minutes and restarting with parts removed or in the process of being removed while the balance of the engine continues energy production.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT GREEN PUMP: A gear pump has two gears. If a third or more gears were added, the gear pump would cease to function. The Green Pump, with two or more gears (We term them rotorsâ„¢ in the Green Pump) produces a multiplication of volumetric efficiency. In both type pumps input and output can be reversed. If the pump was directly attached to a drive wheel instead of a rear end, forward, neutral and reverse could be accomplished by reversal of the input and output function. Neutral could be accomplished by directly connecting the input to the output. In the GREEN ENGINE this pump module in the drive train is called the expander unit. The pressurized gas from the combustor unit travels to the expander unit through an accumulator with input and output orifices. In the Prius comparison road test, the expander unit had the same cross-sectional area as the combustor, but the rotors were 12.500 inches deep. Increasing the number of rotors decreases the depth of the rotors required. Care is exercised to minimize any heat loss to the atmosphere. The pressure and the volume of the pressurized gas over a period of time fixes the theoretical limit for the HP that can be converted from the combination. In the GREEN ENGINE, the combustion process is continuous so that the maximum efficiency can exceed 95% of the mixture being converted. The extreme volumetric efficiency of the GREEN ENGINE allows this and more while maintaining a small case size. Normally this would be counterproductive as parts required to receive the reduced pressure with equally greater volume must have an equivalently larger surface area. This surface area in normal automotive engines is two-dimensional as in the pistonâ„¢s surface area. In the GREEN ENGINE the expander unit is volume operated so doubling its size gives 4 times the area to receive the expansion. This allows the expander to be relatively smaller. Some gases can be allowed to expand in the accumulator without loss of energy as the act of expansion does not mean a loss of energy if the area that produces the torque also increases in proportion. Another energy saving feature is that the slippage on a low pressure expander is substantially less than a high pressure one with the same RPMs when both units are made to the same tolerances. Depending on design and application a radiator may still be needed. The main high temperature generating area is small in comparison to standard auto engines and double the thermal efficiency meaning a smaller radiator may be required.
Now comes the best part. When the auto is stopped the combustor stops. When the accelerator pedal is pushed down after the stop, the combustor raises the pressure. Even if the stop lasts a number of minutes, hot gases can be stored in the accumulator which is sealed at both ends when the vehicle is stopped preventing a time lag. The accumulator allows fast input to the expander chamber and pushes on the rotors. Since the rotors are not turning and the displacement is very positive, the pressure builds up to that allowed by the design. When the pressure exceeds the required torque, this causes the rotors to rotate therefore moving the vehicle and reducing the pressure. The pressure loss is quickly replaced from the accumulator and subsequently that lost pressure is replaced by the combustor. The depression of the accelerator pedal determines the actual RPMs at the wheel. The amount of torque that can be produced can exceed the structural strength of the drive components, so safety limitations are imposed. A 5 HP combustor and properly sized expander can move a fully loaded semi-truck, just very slowly. This is one of the great energy saving features. You only need to pay for the energy required and do not need to feed a large cubic inch conventional engine.
On a small scale the pump would make a great heart pump as the blood being pumped is always being pushed away in a wiping action from the sealing areas. The pump also has massive volumetric efficiency. The wiping action would help prevent damage to the blood cells which are normally pinched or crushed.
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUPERCHARGER: The expanderâ„¢s input and output could be reversed and the pump could be used as a supercharger with extreme volumetric efficiency. Due to the positive displacement, the PSI per stage is higher than conventional superchargers. Stacking the pumps above each other will greatly increase the amount of pressure that can be created in fewer stages, such as in a dry SCUBA compressor.
GENERATOR: The basic drive train could be used as a generator with the same efficiency. To save fuel when low load conditions prevail, the pressure can be greatly reduced without the need to reduce RPMs. If one chooses to also reduce the RPMs with no load conditions, the accumulator can very quickly accelerate the RPMs to obtain 50 or 60 CPS, as well as the watts required to do the job.
WIND TURBINE: Wind turbines typically generate electricity with an electrical generator attached to the propeller through a transmission with variable blade pitch. The main problem is that the wind does not blow continually and the price you get per KWH is fixed when the wind blows. It can only be considered as an additional source of energy, not a primary one. If we use the GREEN PUMP as a compressed air generator, it can become a primary source of energy available 24/7/365. The high pressure air can be stored in abandoned oil or gas wells. Gas companies store extra natural gas supplies in this way with no discernable loss factors. These stored supplies can be used to run an expander unit that turns an electrical generator. One would need enough compressed air generators to store sufficient supplies of extra compressed air to keep electricity flowing in low or non-wind periods. The extra stored supplies could also be sold when the price is higher.