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The IMAX (Image Maximum) system has its roots in Canada where multi-screen films were the hit of the fair. A small group of Canadian filmmakers Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor and Robert Kerr decided to design a new system using a single, powerful projector, rather than the cumbersome multiple projectors used at that time. The result is the IMAX motion picture projection system, which would revolutionize the giantscreen cinema. IMAX delivers just that on a screen four times the size of conventional movie screens.
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can u give me the full seminars report on this topic....thanking you in advance
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IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canada's IMAX
Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than
conventional film display systems available at the time. A standard IMAX screen is 22 m wide
and 16.1 m high (72.6 ft x 52.8 ft), but can be larger. As of 2008, IMAX is the most widely used
system for large-format, special-venue film presentations. As of March 2007, there were 280
IMAX theatres in 38 countries (60% of these are located in Canada and the United States). Half
of these are commercial theatres and half are in educational venues. A variation of IMAX,
IMAX DOME (originally called OMNIMAX), is designed for projection on tilted dome screens.
Films can also be projected in 3D with IMAX 3D. Hyderabad, India IMAX has the world's
largest display screen. The biggest "IMAX Dome" is in the Liberty Science Center in Jersey
City, New Jersey. The world's largest IMAX 3D cinema screen is located in Sydney, Australia.
The difference between the IMAX sound system and the surround systems in
conventional theaters is that the typical IMAX screen is close to a conventional 4:3 aspect ratio,
but much, much bigger. So you have a great deal of vertical, which gives you the opportunity to
do a 'voice-of-God' loudspeaker. IMAX system power varies depending on the size of the room,
but it is typically in the range of 12,500 watts. The power is not there for the loudness; it's there
for clarity and freedom from distortion. The enclosures are three-way systems using components
custom-designed and manufactured to specifications and combines four low-frequency
loudspeakers in each cabinet with nested high- and mid-frequency horns

1.1 IMAX
IMAX (short for Image MAXimum) is a film format created by Canada's IMAX
Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than
conventional film display systems. A standard IMAX screen is 22 metres (72 ft) wide and
16.1 metres (53 ft) high, but can be larger. As of 2008, IMAX is the most widely used system for
large-format, special-venue film presentations. As of March 2007, there were 280 IMAX theatres
in 38 countries (60% of these are located in Canada and the United States). Half of these are
commercial theatres and half are in educational venues. A variation of IMAX, IMAX DOME
(originally called OMNIMAX), is designed for projection on tilted dome screens. Films can also
be projected in 3D with IMAX 3D 8
The IMAX system was developed by four Canadians: Graeme Ferguson, Roman
Kroitor, Robert Kerr and William C. Shaw.
During Expo ˜67 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, In the Labyrinth, their multi-projector
giant-screen system had a number of technical difficulties that led them to design a single-
projector/single-camera system. Tiger Child, the first IMAX film, was demonstrated at Expo '70
in Osaka, Japan. The first permanent IMAX system was set up in Toronto at Ontario Place in
1971, and is still in operation. During Expo '74 in Spokane, Washington, a very large IMAX
screen that measured 90 x 65 ft (27.3 x 19.7 m) was featured in the US Pavilion (the largest
structure in the expo). About 5 million visitors viewed the screen, which covered a person's total
field of vision when looking directly forward. This easily created a sensation of motion for
nearly everyone, and motion sickness in a few viewers. However, it was only a temporary screen
for the six-month duration of the Expo. Several years later, a standard size IMAX screen was
installed, and is still in operation at the renamed "Riverfront Park IMAX Theatre."
The first permanent IMAX Dome installation, the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and
Science Center, opened in San Diego's Balboa Park in 1973. The first permanent IMAX 3D
theatre was built in Vancouver, British Columbia for Transitions at Expo '86, and is still in use.
It is located at the tip of Canada Place, a Vancouver landmark.
Over the summer of 2006, IMAX's stock fell markedly (by as much as 60%) with the
announcement of an SEC investigation, falling again when the announced third quarter earnings
were behind the previous year's.
The desire to increase the visual impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox
introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm movie format, which quickly fell from use. In the
1950s, CinemaScope and VistaVision widened the projected image from 35 mm film, and there
were multi-projector systems such as Cinerama for even wider presentations. While impressive,
Cinerama was difficult to set up, and the seams between adjacent projected images were difficult
to hide. 9
The intent of IMAX is to dramatically increase the resolution of the image by using
much larger film stock at a resolution comparable to about 10000 x 7000 pixels (70 megapixels).
To do this, 70 mm film stock is run "sideways" through the cameras. While traditional 70 mm
film has an image area that is 48.5 mm wide and 22.1 mm tall (for Todd-AO), in IMAX the
image is 69.6 mm wide and 48.5 mm tall. In order to expose at standard film speed of 24 frames
per second, three times as much film needs to move through the camera each second.
Drawing the large-format film through the projector was a difficult technical problem
to solve; conventional 70 mm systems were not steady enough for the 586x magnification.
IMAX projection involved a number of innovations. William Shaw of IMAX adapted an
Australian patent for film transport called the "rolling loop" by adding a compressed air "puffer"
to accelerate the film, and put a cylindrical lens in the projector's "block" for the film to be
vacuumed up against during projection (called the "field flattener" because it served to flatten the
image field). Because the film actually touches the "field flattener" lens, the lens itself is twice
the height of the film and is connected to a pneumatic piston so it can be moved up or down
while the projector is running. This way, if a piece of dust comes off the film and sticks to the
lens, the projectionist can switch to the clean side of the lens at the push of a button. The lens
also has "wiper bars" made of a felt or brush-like material which can wipe the dust off the lens as
it moves up or down to keep the show clean. 10
IMAX projectors are pin stabilized, meaning 4 registration pins engage the sprockets
at the corners of the projected frame to ensure perfect alignment. Shaw added cam-controlled
arms to decelerate each frame to eliminate the microscopic shaking as the frame "settled" onto
the registration pins. The projector's shutter is also open for around 20% longer than in
conventional equipment and the light source is brighter. The largest 12-18 kW xenon arc lamps
have hollow, water-cooled electrodes. An IMAX projector is therefore a substantial piece of
equipment, weighing up to 1.8 tonnes and towering at over 70" [178 cm] tall and 75" [195 cm]
long. The xenon lamps are made of a thin layer of quartz crystal, and contain xenon gas at a
pressure of about 25 atmospheres; because of this, projectionists are required to wear protective
body armor when changing or handling these lamps because the flying shards of crystal (should
the lamp fall and crash) could be deadly when combined with the high pressure of the gas within.
IMAX uses a stronger "ESTAR" (Kodak's trade name for PET film) base. The reason
is not for strength, but precision. Developing chemicals do not change the size or shape of Estar,
and IMAX's pin registration (especially the cam mechanism) is intolerant of either sprocket-hole
or film-thickness variations. The IMAX format is generically called "15/70" film, the name
referring to the 15 sprockets per frame of 70 mm stock. The bulk of the film requires large
platters rather than conventional film reels.
In order to use more of the image area, IMAX film does not include an embedded
soundtrack. Instead the IMAX system specifies a separate six-channel 35 mm magnetic tape
synchronized to the film. (This original system--35 mm mag tape locked to a projector--was
commonly used to "dub" or insert studio sound into the mixed soundtrack of conventional films.)
By the early '90s, a separate digital 6-track source was synchronized using a more precise pulse
generator as a source for a conventional SMPTE timecode synchronization system. This 11
development presaged conventional theatrical multichannel sound systems such as Dolby Digital
and Digital Theater System. This digital source came in the form of a unit called a DDP (Digital
Disc Playback) in which the soundtrack was recorded onto multiple CD-ROM discs which
would play the sound which was recorded to the discs as a digital audio file. This DDP system
has been replaced in almost all theaters with the newer DTAC (Digital Theater Audio Control)
system which utilizes a computer running the IMAX's proprietary DTAC software. The software
works in a similar style as the DDP except that instead of the audio file being based on discs, it is
instead played directly off a hard drive in the form of a single uncompressed audio file
containing the 6 channels which are distributed directly to the amplifiers rather than using a
decoding method such as Dolby Digital. Many IMAX theaters place speakers directly behind the
screen as well as distributing the speakers around the theater to create a three-dimensional effect.
In the late 1960s the San Diego Hall of Science (now known as the Reuben H. Fleet
Science Center) began searching North America for a large-format film system to project on the
dome of their planned 76-foot tilted dome planetarium. One of the front-running formats was a
double-frame 35 mm system, until they saw IMAX. The IMAX projector was unsuitable for use
inside a dome because it had a 12-foot-tall lamp house on top. However, IMAX Corporation was
quick to cooperate and was willing to redesign its system. IMAX designed an elevator to lift the
projector to the center of the dome from the projection booth below. Spectra Physics designed a
suitable lamphouse that took smaller lamps (about 18 inches long) and placed the bulb behind
the lens instead of above the projector. Leitz of Canada developed a fisheye lens that would
project the image onto a dome instead of a flat screen. 12
The dome system, which the San Diego Hall of Science called OMNIMAX, uses a
fisheye lens on the camera that squeezes a highly distorted 180 degree field of view onto the 70
mm IMAX film. The lens is aligned below the center of the frame and most of the bottom half of
the circular field falls beyond the edge of the film. The part of the field that would fall below the
edge of the dome is masked off. When filming, the camera is aimed upward at an angle that
matches the tilt of the dome. When projected through a matching fisheye lens onto a dome, the
original panoramic view is recreated. OMNIMAX wraps 180 degrees horizontally, 100 degrees
above the horizon and 22 degrees below the horizon for a viewer at the center of the dome.
OMNIMAX premiered in 1973 at the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and Science Center
showing two OMNIMAX features, Voyage to the Outer Planets (produced by Graphic Films)
and Garden Isle (by Roger Tilton Films) on a double bill.
IMAX has since renamed the system IMAX Dome. Many theaters continue to call it
OMNIMAX. OMNIMAX theaters are now in place at a number of major American museums,
particularly those with a scientific focus, where the technical aspects of the system may be
highlighted as part of the theme interest. The projection room is often windowed to allow public
viewing and accompanied by informational placards like any exhibit. Inside the theatre, the
screen may be a permanent fixture, such as at the St. Louis Science Center (which also plays a
short educational video about the OMNIMAX system just before the feature film); or lowered
and raised as needed, such as at the Science Museum of Minnesota (where it shares an
auditorium with a standard IMAX screen). Before the feature begins, the screen is backlit to
show the speakers and girders behind the screen. IMAX Dome screens may also be found at
several major theme parks. While the majority of OMNIMAX theaters in museums focus on
educational and documentary films, on special occasions, as with the release of Charlie and the
Chocolate Factory at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry, major studio releases are also
The OMNIMAX experience is quite different from that of a regular IMAX theater.
The image wraps around both sides of the viewer and upwards as well, which can give the
impression one is actually inside the scene being projected. (A plain IMAX screen is large but 13
does not create such a natural feeling of immersion because the viewer is aware that the scene
ends where the rectangular walls and ceiling begin.)
Another use of IMAX Dome technology is to provide an immersive visual experience
to go with a ride simulator, as in The Simpsons Ride (replacing the older Back to the Future: The
Ride). IMAX Dome was also used in the former EPCOT attraction Horizons and another Disney
attraction, Soarin' Over California. "Soarin'" Featured at Disney's California Adventure and
3.1 IMAX 3D
To create the illusion of three-dimensional depth, the IMAX 3D process uses two
camera lenses to represent the left and right eyes. The two lenses are separated by an interocular
distance of 64mm/2.5", the average distance between a human's eyes. By recording on two
separate rolls of film for the left and right eyes, and then projecting them simultaneously,
viewers can be tricked into seeing a 3D image on a 2D screen. The IMAX 3D camera is
cumbersome, weighing over 113kg/250lbs. This makes it difficult to film on-location
There are two methods to creating the 3D illusion in the theatre. The first involves
polarization. During projection, the left and right eye images are polarized perpendicular to one
another as they are projected onto the IMAX screen. By wearing special eyeglasses with lenses
polarized in their respective directions to match the projection, the left eye image can be viewed
only by the left eye since the polarization of the left lens will cancel out that of the right eye
projection, and the right eye image can be viewed only by the right eye since the polarization of
the right lens will cancel out that of the left eye projection. Another method for 3D projection
involves LCD shutter glasses. These glasses contain LCD panels which are synchronised to the
projector which alternates rapidly at 96 frames per second between displaying the left and right
images which are momentarily viewed by the appropriate eye by allowing that eye's panel to
become transparent while the other remains opaque. While the panels within these active-shutter
3D glasses alternate at 96 frames per second, the actual film is displayed at 24 frames per
One particular problem that 3D movies face is that the 3D effect does not extend past
the boundaries of the physical screen. It is for this reason that the screen must be large enough to 15
cover as much of the viewer's peripheral vision as possible. Another problem with IMAX 3D
movies is due to an inherent difference between our eyes and the film format. Because of the
large negative, depth of field is dramatically reduced, causing an often distracting depiction of
the scene. Computer-generated imagery films do not have this problem as they are able to control
the depth of field in the images to allow everything to be in focus. While some may argue that
this is less artistic than regular 2D films that purposefully employ shallow depth of field for
aesthetic reasons, IMAX screens take up more of the viewer's vision than regular 2D films, and
therefore the viewer can be disoriented by seeing images that are out of focus. The biggest 3D
IMAX screen is located in Melbourne, Australia. The largest 3D IMAX screen in Asia is the San
Miguel-Coca Cola IMAX Theatre and is located at the SM Mall of Asia.
Improvements in the sound systems have included a 3D sound system and the
elliptical pattern speaker clusters. 16
Further improvements and variations on IMAX include the possibility of a faster 48
frames per second rate, known as IMAX HD. This system was tested in 1992 at the Canada
Pavilion of the Seville Expo '92 with the film Momentum. It was deemed too costly and
abandoned but not before many theaters were retrofitted to project at 48 frames, especially in
A theme park in Germany also used IMAX HD for a film in the mid-1990s. Soarin'
Over California, originally built at Disney's California Adventure before being replicated at
Epcot, features a modification of both IMAX HD and IMAX Dome, projecting in 48 frames per
second. 17
A new IMAX projection system slated for use in mid-2008 simulates a 3D view and
uses new digital technology. This will alleviate the need for the use of bulky film reels and
facilitate inexpensive distribution of IMAX features. Deals have already been signed with
Hollywood studios for such features, such as "Shrek Goes Fourth 3D".
IMAX is negotiating with Texas Instruments to use TI's Digital Light Processing
technology as part of IMAX's proprietary system. Originally, the company had been considering
using two Sony 4K projectors.
IMAX recently signed a deal with AMC to start utilizing this new technology
beginning July 2008. 18
Although IMAX is an impressive format from a technical perspective, its
popularity as a motion picture format has traditionally been limited. The expense and logistics of
producing and presenting IMAX films has dictated a shorter running time compared to
conventional movies for most presentations (typically around 40 minutes). The majority of films
in this format tend to be documentaries ideally suited for institutional venues such as museums
and science centers. IMAX cameras have been taken into space aboard the Space Shuttle, to
Mount Everest, to the bottom of the Atlantic ocean, and to the Antarctic to film such
documentaries. Although IMAX documentaries have been praised for their technical quality,
critics have also complained that many have poor narration.
Some IMAX theaters had shown conventional films (using conventional projection
equipment) as a sideline to the native IMAX presentations. In the late 1990s there was a wave of
interest in broadening the use of IMAX as an entertainment format. A few pure entertainment
IMAX short films have been created, notably T-Rex: Back to the Cretaceous (directed by Brett
Leonard), which had a successful run in 1998 and Haunted Castle, released in 2001 (both of
these were IMAX 3D films). In 1999, The Old Man and the Sea became the first fully-animated
film to be released on IMAX screens and proceeded to win an Oscar. The same year, Disney
produced Fantasia 2000, the first full-length animated feature released exclusively in the IMAX
format (the film would later have a conventional theatrical release). Disney would also release
the first 2D live action native IMAX entertainment film, Young Black Stallion, in late 2003.
In the fall of 2002, IMAX and Universal Studios released a new IMAX-format of the
1995 theatrical film Apollo 13. This release marked the first use of the IMAX proprietary
"DMR" (Digital Remastering) process that allowed conventional films to be upconverted into
IMAX format. Other theatrically released films would subsequently be rereleased at IMAX
venues using the DMR process. Because of a technical limitation on the size of the film reel,
these early DMR releases were edited to conform to a two-hour length limitation, causing certain 19
scenes to be cut. Specifically, and much to the frustration of many fans, this was the case with
Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Later releases did not have this limitation. Current
IMAX platters allow a run length of up to 150 minutes. Some films, such as Star Wars Episode
III: Revenge of the Sith, have been shown on IMAX screens using the standard 35 mm
projection, but have not undergone the DMR process.
Reviewers have generally praised the results of the DMR blowup process, which have
superior visual and auditory impact to the same films projected in 35 mm. Many large format
film industry professionals point out, however, that DMR blowups are not comparable to films
created directly in the 70 mm 15 perf IMAX format. They note that the decline of Cinerama
coincided roughly with the supersession of the original process with a simplified, reduced cost,
technically inferior version, and view DMR with alarm. IMAX originally reserved the phrase
"the IMAX experience" for true 70 mm productions, but now allows its use on DMR productions
as well. However, IMAX DMR versions of commercial Hollywood films are generally popular
with audiences, with many people choosing to pay more than standard admission to see the
IMAX version.
Since 2002 many other Hollywood films have been remastered for IMAX. Warner
Brothers has especially embraced the format with the two Matrix sequels, and since 2004 has
been releasing its Harry Potter film franchise in IMAX to strong financial success. Also in 2004
the company released the animated movie The Polar Express to IMAX in 3D. Express became
the most successful movie ever to be released in IMAX theaters, making at least a quarter of the
film total worldwide gross of $302 million from less than 100 IMAX screens; because of its
success, it has been re-released each holiday season since. In 2005 WB also released Batman
Begins simultaneously in IMAX, which buoyed the film's strong legs helping it reach $200M at
the domestic box office, and before the fourth Harry Potter film was released in IMAX format in
November had claimed the record for most box office by a DMR movie. In summer 2006 WB
released the highly anticipated Superman Returns remastered for IMAX and partially digitally
transformed into 3D (director Bryan Singer chose the only four action scenes in the film to show
in 3D). An IMAX exclusive film about the enormous, surprising success of the Mars Exploration 20
Rovers was released in 2006, titled Roving Mars and used exclusive data from the Rovers.
Spider-Man 3 broke the IMAX gross record in 2007 by a huge margin. In 2008, The Dark
Knight beat Spider-Man 3 for the IMAX gross record.
In 2008, the Rolling Stones released a concert film, Shine a Light, directed by Martin
Scorsese, in IMAX format.
The July 2008 Batman Begins sequel The Dark Knight features six sequences (a total
of 30 minutes) shot using IMAX technology, which the movie's press notes describe as the "first
time ever that a major feature film has been even partially shot using IMAX cameras". The film
broke box office records for IMAX, taking in about $6.3 million from 94 theaters in the U.S. and
Canada over the opening weekend.
Up to 2002, eight IMAX format films have received Academy Awards nomination
with one win, the animated short, The Old Man and the Sea in 2000.
Many IMAX films have been remastered into HDTV format for the MOJO HD
channel with limited commercial interruption. They can also occasionally be shown commercial
free on HDNet and with limited commercials on HD Theater. 21
In July 2005 the BFI IMAX Cinema in London became the first to host live music
concerts. IMAX theatre owners increasingly look to use the venue at varying times for
alternatives to films.
The Science Museum London and BFI IMAX Cinema have also hosted computer
game tournaments using digital projectors on the large IMAX screen. Other IMAX Theatres
have also followed suit with game tournaments on their screens as well. 22
IMAX (15/70)
¢ spherical lenses
¢ 70 mm film, 15 perforations per frame
¢ horizontal pulldown, from right to left (viewed from base side)
¢ 24 frames per second
¢ camera aperture: 70.41mm (2.772) by 52.63mm (2.072)
¢ projection aperture: at least 20.3mm (0.80) less than camera aperture on the vertical axis and at
least 0.016 less on the horizontal axis
¢ aspect ratio: 1.44:1
Same as IMAX except:
¢ special fisheye lenses
¢ lens optically centered 9.4mm (0.37) above film horizontal center line
¢ projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20 degrees below and 110 degrees above perfectly
centered viewers 23
- Norcenter, Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Sydney CBD, LG IMAX Theatre, Darling Harbour, Australia (largest cinema screen in the
- IMAX Theatre Melbourne
- IMAX Theatre, Telus World of Science, Edmonton
- Alcan OMNIMAX Theatre, Science World at Telus World of Science, Vancouver
- IMAX Theatre, UME Huaxing International Cineplex, Beijing
- OMNIMAX Theatre, Tycho Brahe Planetarium, Copenhagen
- IMAX Theatre, Disney Village, Paris
- Lahore IMAX Theatre, Lahore
- Coca-Cola IMAX, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
- Prasad 3D IMAX Theatre, Hyderabad (largest 3D screen)
- Gujarat Science City IMAX 3D Theatre, Ahmedabad
- IMAX Adlabs Multiplex, Wadala, Mumbai
- Pushpa Gujral Science City, Kapurthala, Punjab
- AEREN R IMAX at Adlabs Pacific Mall, Kaushambi, Ghaziabad
- Mani Square Complex, Kolkata 24
IMAX theater construction also differs significantly from conventional
theaters. The increased resolution allows the audience to be much closer to the screen; typically
all rows are within one screen height. (Conventional theaters seating runs 8 to 12 screen heights)
Also, the rows of seats are set at a steep angle (Up to 23 degrees in some domed theaters) so that
the audience is facing the screen directly. So, all in all, IMAX is the best way to watch and enjoy
a movie. 25
Post: #4
IMAX technology combines a variety of technological innovations: special cameras, special projectors, wide screens, specially-designed theatres with steeply raked seating, and films shot on 65mm negative stock.
IMAX technology uses the largest commercial film format in motion picture history -- 70mm, 15-perforation -- three times the size of regular 70mm, and ten times the size of conventional 35mm which you would see in a normal movie theatre.

It is projected on giant screens which extend beyond your peripheral vision -- so big, in fact, that a whale can appear life-size -- IMAX screens can be up to eight stories high. Because these screens fill your peripheral vision, you have the sense of being right in the action
It features the most advanced projector ever built using Imax's patented Rolling Loop technology. Each frame is positioned on fixed registration pins; the film is held firmly against the rear element of the lens by a vacuum. A 68 per cent shutter transmits one third more light than a conventional 50 per cent shutter. In 1997, Imax introduced a 3D projection system (IMAX 3D SR) designed for smaller markets which can be integrated into an existing multiplex.
IMAX theatres feature a patented digital audio technology with advanced circuits designed specifically to enhance sound clarity and depth of sound reproduction. IMAX sound also uses proprietary signal processing, amplification and loudspeaker design.

Large-format films are shown in specially-designed theatres where the seating decks are steeply raked, so that even a child's view is unobstructed and people can look up and down, as in real life.
IMAX 3D technology is acknowledged to be the best 3D in the world. Imax has developed a special 3D camera which incorporates two camera movements into one housing. It has adapted the Rolling Loop projector to project 3D and uses either IMAX 3D glasses with polarizing filters or electronic liquid-crystal shutter glasses

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