INTEGRATED GUIDED MISSILE DEFENCE PROGRAMME (IGMDP)
IGMDP â€œ INTEGRATED GUIDED MISSILE DEFENSE PROGRAMME
The Integrated Guided Missile Defense System (IGMDP) is the most advanced technology in the field of ballistic war faring. Perfectly pin pointing enemy missiles and striking them airborne forms the essence of this technology. Precision and accuracy are the most inevitable factors that have to be ensured here. This system makes use of several stages comprising of different equipments and the integration of these makes this a state of art technology. When an enemy missile gets airborne, within no time the Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) has to be deployed, the trajectory has to be aligned or preset such that the mishap could be avoided by any means. The system has to ensure the threat is played down with utmost precision and exactitude. It makes use of satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), RADARS, and ABMs at the basic levels. Even if the enemy missile changes its course due to the proximity of ABM, this system makes sure that the countered missile gets defused in the atmosphere itself.
The high end technology which is machined into a feasible platform does point out severe challenges, which need to be dealt with in an earnest way. Here, the major point of concern is the accuracy. When two ballistic missiles cross each other at 12 mach relatively, the time to act upon is highly limited. More over, if the airborne missile changes by its course of action even by a degree, do make a creditable change in its trajectory.
An approaching enemy weapon with a deadly warhead, presumably nuclear, has to be fused out at outer atmosphere itself. The chance of missing it is hence suicidal. So a new collage of concepts has to be introduced into this system for fool proofing this and hence making this reliable to the core. The envisaged concept makes use of deploying multiple ABMs which act as specialized Exo atmospheric Kill Vehicles (EKV) .These EKVs consist of penetrating type of explosives which at greater velocities of nearly 7 mach will surely destroy the approaching ICBMs. Later self destruction of ABMs will pull the curtains to the programme. The main advantage of this system is that the working range of the ABMs is pretty large which ensures preventing any minute levels of errors which could be fatal in the context. Existing Arrow missile defense technology can be employed as the suited ABM for this particular defense programme because of unquestionable target acquisition and supreme precision rates of it.
This entire project is inspired by and dedicated to Hon. President of India Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam.
HISTORY OF MISSILES
Rockets were invented in medieval China (1044 AD) but its first practical use for serious purpose took place in 1232 AD by the Chinese against the Mongols. There after Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan (Sultan of Mysore in south India) perfected the rocket's use for military purposes, very effectively using it in war against British colonial armies. Tipu Sultan had 27 brigades and each brigade had a company of rocket men. In the Second Anglo-Mysore war in 1780 Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan achieved a grand victory, whereby the whole British detachment was destroyed.
At the Battle of Seringapatanam in 1792, Indian soldiers launched a huge barrage of rockets against British troops, followed by a huge massacre of British forces. Although the Indian rockets were primitive by modern standards, their sheer numbers, noise and brilliance were said to have been quite effective at disorienting British soldiers. The bursting rockets were usually followed by a deadly shower of rockets aimed directly at the soldiers. Sharp bamboo was typically affixed to the rockets, which were designed to bounce along the ground to produce maximum damage. Two of the rockets fired by Indian troops in 1792 war are on display at the Royal Artillery Museum in London.
Portrait of Tipu Sultan
Sultan of Mysore, present day Karnataka, India
Unlike contemporary rockets whose combustion chamber was made of wood (bamboo), Tipu's rockets (weighing between 2.2 to 5.5 kg) used iron cylinder casings that allowed greater pressure, thrust and range (1.5 to 2.5 Km). The British were greatly impressed by the Mysorean rockets using iron tubes.
ROCKETRY IN MODERN INDIA
After regaining independence in 1947, India focused all its energy in nation building, primarily on economic and industrial development fully understanding the key role of science and technology. Indian rocketry was reborn, thanks to the farsighted technological vision of Prime Minister Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru. Professor Vikram Sarabhai took the challenge of realizing this dream. Professor Sarabhai was an able leader and visionary who gave shape to modern Indian rocketry and space endeavors. Hon. President of India Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam played a key engineering role in realizing both the Indian SLV-3 space launcher as well as the Prithvi and Agni missiles. Initial missile programs like Project Devil (a theatre ballistic missile) and Project Valiant (an intercontinental ballistic missile) were scattered and stymied by many issues. But the success of all our missile programs including BRAHMOS makes up for the shelved old projects.
WHAT ARE MISSILES?
The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, literally meaning "to send". They are basically rockets which are meant for destructive purposes only. Rocket-powered missiles are known as rockets if they lack post-launch guidance or missiles or guided missiles if they are able to continue tracking a target after launch. Cruise missiles typically use some form of jet engine for propulsion.
Missiles are often used in warfare as a means of delivering destructive force (usually in the form of an explosive warhead) upon a target. Aside from explosives, other possible types of destructive missile payloads are various forms of chemical or biological agents, nuclear warheads, or simple kinetic energy (where the missile destroys the target by the force of striking it at high speed). Sometimes missiles are used to deliver payloads designed to break infrastructure without harming people. For example, in the Persian Gulf War cruise missiles were used to deliver reels of carbon filament to electricity stations and switches, effectively disabling them by forming short circuits.
Missiles which spend most of their trajectory in un-powered flight, and which don't use aerodynamics to alter their course, are known as ballistic missiles (because their motion is largely governed by the laws of ballistics). These are in contrast to cruise missiles, which spend most of their trajectory in powered flight.
Guided missiles are made up of a series of subassemblies. The major sections are carefully joined and connected to each other. They form the complete missile assembly.
The major components of a missile are:
Â¢ The guidance and control section
Â¢ The target detector section
Â¢ The rocket motor section.
Â¢ Armament Section
Â¢ Propulsion Section
MISSILE â€œ A CLOSE SHOT
The target detector (TD) is a narrow-beam, active-optical, proximity fuze system. The purpose of the TD is to detect the presence of an air target within the burst range of the missile warhead and generate an electrical firing signal to the S&A device. They detect the presence of a target and determine the moment of firing. When subjected to the proper target influence, both as to magnitude and change rate, the device sends an electrical impulse to trigger the firing systems.
ROCKET MOTORING SECTION
The rocket motor consists of components that propel and stabilize the rocket in flight. Not all rocket motors are identical, but they do have certain common components. These components are the motor tube, propellant, inhibitors, stabilizing rod, igniter, and nozzle and fin assembly. The motor tube supports the other components of the rocket. Presently, all motor tubes are aluminum,. The forward end contains the head closure and threaded portion for attachment of the warhead. The center portion of the motor tube contains the propellant. The section is the combustion chamber and contains the igniter, propellant grain, stabilizing rod, and associated hardware. The nozzle and fin assembly attaches to the aft end by a lock wire in a grove inside the tube. The aft end of the motor tube is threaded internally to accept the nozzle and fin assembly.
The armament system contains the payload (explosives) and fuzing.
The warhead is an annular blast fragmentation warhead that consists of a case assembly, two booster plates, an initiator, high explosive, and fragmentation rods. Detonation of the booster pellets placed inside the warhead system produces high explosion, causing warhead detonation.
The fusing and firing system is normally located in or next to the missile's warhead section. It includes those devices and arrangements that cause the missile's payload to function in proper relation to the target. There are two general types of fuzes used in guided missilesâ€proximity fuzes and contact fuzes.
Guided missiles use some form of jet power for propulsion. There are two basic types of jet propulsion power plants used in missile propulsion systemsâ€the atmospheric (air-breathing) jet and the thermal jet propulsion systems. The basic difference between the two systems is that the atmospheric jet engine depends on the atmosphere to supply the oxygen necessary to start and sustain burning of the fuel. The thermal jet engine operates independently of the atmosphere by starting and sustaining combustion with its own supply of oxygen contained within the missile.
MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS
Missile Defense is a term referring to systems, weapon programs, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. As an open-ended term, its precise meaning has changed over the years and been modified by specialized communities. The term originally and still often refers to defense against nuclear-armed ICBMs. However it can also mean defense against shorter-ranged non-nuclear tactical and theater missiles. Most frequently the term implies a missile-based defense - an anti-ballistic missile, ABM.
MISSILE DEFENSE CATEGORIES
Missile Defense can be divided into categories based on various characteristics: type/range of missile intercepted, the trajectory phase where the intercept occurs, and whether intercepted inside or outside earth's atmosphere.
CLASSIFIED BY TYPE/RANGE OF MISSILE INTERCEPTED
The types/ranges are strategic, theater and tactical. Each entails unique requirements for intercept, and a defensive system capable of intercepting one missile type frequently cannot intercept others.
STRATEGIC MISSILE DEFENSE: Targets long-range ICBMs, which travel at about 7 km/s (15,700 mph). Example of currently active systems: Russian A-135 system which defends Moscow.
THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: Targets medium-range theater ballistic missiles, which travel at about 3 km/s (6,700 mph) or less. In this context the term "theater" means the entire localized region for military operations, typically a radius of several hundreds miles. Defense range of theater defensive systems is usually on this order. Examples of deployed or soon-to-be deployed theater missile defenses: THAAD, Airborne laser.
TACTICAL MISSILE DEFENSE: Targets short-range tactical ballistic missiles, which usually travel at less than 1.5 km/s (3,400 mph). Tactical ABMs have short ranges, typically 20-80 km (12-50 miles).
CLASSIFIED BY TRAJECTORY PHASE
Ballistic missiles can be intercepted in three regions of their trajectory: boost phase, midcourse phase or terminal phase.
Â¢ BOOST PHASE-Intercepting the missile while its rocket motors are firing, usually over the launch territory. Advantages: bright, hot rocket exhaust makes detection, discrimination and targeting easier. Decoys cannot be used during boost phase. Disadvantages: difficult to geographically position interceptors to intercept missiles in boost phase, limited time period for intercept (typically about 180 seconds).
Â¢ MID-COURSE PHASE-Intercepting the missile in space after the rocket burns out. The coast period through space before reentering the atmosphere can be several minutes, up to 20 minutes for an ICBM. Advantages: extended decision/intercept time, very large geographic defensive coverage, potentially continental. Disadvantages: requires large/heavy anti-ballistic missiles, sophisticated powerful radar often augmented by space-based sensors, must handle potential space-based decoys.
Â¢ TERMINAL PHASE-Intercepting the missile after it reenters the atmosphere. Advantages: smaller/lighter anti-ballistic missile required, balloon decoys won't work, smaller, less sophisticated radar required. Disadvantages: very limited reaction time, possibly less than 30 seconds, less defended geographic coverage. Possible blanketing of target area with hazardous materials in the case of nuclear warheads.
CLASSIFIED BY INTERCEPT LOCATION RELATIVE TO THE ATMOSPHERE
Missile defense can take place either inside (endoatmospheric) or outside (exoatmospheric) the earth's atmosphere. The trajectory of most ballistic missiles takes them inside and outside the earth's atmosphere, and they can be intercepted either place. There are advantages and disadvantages to either intercept technique.
Â¢ ENDOATMOSPHERIC-Anti-Ballistic Missiles are usually shorter ranged. Advantages: physically smaller/lighter, easier to move and deploy, endoatmospheric intercept means balloon-type decoys won't work. Disadvantages: limited range and defended area, and limited decision and tracking time for the incoming warhead. Example: MIM-104 Patriot.
Â¢ EXOATMOSPHERIC-Anti-Ballistic Missiles are usually longer ranged. Advantages: more decision and tracking time, larger defended area with fewer missiles. Disadvantages: larger/heavier missiles required, more difficult to transport and emplace than smaller missiles, must handle decoys. Example: Ground-Based Midcourse Defense.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM
BASIC COMPONENTS OF MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM
RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE- The satellites in their orbits do all the required investigation jobs needed. The military as well as spy satellites scan deep into probable zones of launching and help as early warning centers of the defense system.
RADARS â€œ The existing systems of Radars form a collective network of surveillance over a zone parallel to the topography. The desired system is a collection of Radars forming a grid over zones of allocated topography oriented in a vertical axis to the land. They hence form an early warning system too.
LAUNCHING SYSTEM OF ABM â€œ An automated fire and forget system is advisable because of rapidness of the action needed.
ANTI BALLISTIC MISSILE - An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. The term anti-ballistic missile describes any antimissile system designed to counter ballistic missiles. However the term is more commonly used for ABM systems designed to counter long range, nuclear-armed Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).Only two ABM systems have previously been operational against ICBMs, the U.S. Safeguard system, which utilized the Spartan and Sprint missiles, and the Russian A-35 system which used the Galosh interceptor. Safeguard was only briefly operational; the Russian system has been improved and is still active, now called A-135.
EXO ATMOSPHERIC KILL VEHICLE (EKV) - The spear head of ABM. This gets detached from the ABM and traverse to the incoming ICBMâ„¢s trajectory. EKV is the colliding component of the ABM.
TRACKING AND MONITORING CENTRE â€œ The launched ABMâ„¢s track has to be verified and certified authentically at every instant as there is literally no room for any errors. A control system has to be there to perform such operations. Control and Co- ordination centers hence have a pivotal role in this system.
CHALLENGES FACED BY THE PRESENT MDPs
There are still technological hurdles blocking deployment of an effective defense against any ballistic missile attack. Intercepting midcourse (rather than launch or reentry stage) ballistic missiles traveling at several times the speed of sound with a "kinetic kill vehicle" has been characterized as trying to hit a bullet with a bullet; despite this difficulty, there have been several successful test intercepts. Moreover, the warheads or payloads of ballistic missiles can be concealed by a number of different types of decoys.
Defending against cruise missiles is similar to defending against hostile, low-flying manned aircraft. As with aircraft defense counter measures such as chaff, flares and low altitude can complicate targeting and missile interception. High-flying radar aircraft such as AWACS can often identify low flying threats by using Dopplar radar.
The main villain in this case is Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs). These are missiles with multiple warheads with just single propulsion system. All these warheads emanate from the incoming missile at once, which makes the defense programs highly difficult.
WORKING STAGES OF AN MIRV
1. The missile launches out of its silo by firing its 1st stage boost motor (A).
2. About 60 seconds after launch, the 1st stage drops off and the 2nd stage motor (B) ignites. The missile shroud is ejected.
3. About 120 seconds after launch, the 3rd stage motor © ignites and separates from the 2nd stage.
4. About 180 seconds after launch, 3rd stage thrust terminates and the Post-Boost Vehicle (D) separates from the rocket.
5. The Post-Boost Vehicle maneuvers itself and prepares for re-entry vehicle (RV) deployment.
6. The RVs, as well as decoys and chaff, are deployed during back away.
7. The RVs and chaff re-enter the atmosphere at high speeds and are armed in flight.
8. The nuclear warheads detonate, either as air bursts or ground bursts.
REVOLUTIONIZING THE ABM CONCEPTSÂ¦
The main hurdle faced is to make use of the ABM effectively and successfully in countering incoming missile with multiple warheads. It is highly difficult to have a system being set for this sole purpose in the present condition. If it is possible, then for sure any ICBM can be defused airborne. The query of the moment is, How to have such a system which is presently unseen or not devised? . A small change is made here, from Ëœno whereâ„¢ to Ëœnow hereâ„¢.
The Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs) can be faced only if we could track and put them under a cover of stringent counter measures. The pivotal role here is to be played by the ABM getting launched instantaneously. As said above, if the approaching ICBM is MIRV in nature, then a single ABM is not sufficient to act upon them. Obviously multiple ABMs get fired out. But that also donâ„¢t put a full stop to the script.
Before entering into the story, it is quite necessary to say something about the Exo atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV).
EXO ATMOSPHERIC KILL VEHICLE
The Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) is a small flying device located in the tip of a Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) missile. It is designed to separate from the GBI in flight, punch through the Earthâ„¢s atmosphere, and smash into an incoming ballistic missile in its midcourse phase, i.e. while the missile is at its highest trajectory. Each EKV will include a range of sophisticated devices: infrared sensors, an internal navigational system, antennas, thruster engines, a cryogenic cooling system, and a small computer. Even with all its components, the entire device can fit comfortably on a kitchen table.
In the event that an enemy missile is detected, the GMD command center will give the launch command and the GBI missile will climb toward the targetâ„¢s predicted location, receiving in-flight updates from ground-based radars and satellites along the way. As the EKV closes in on its target, the combined velocity of the kill vehicle and the incoming missile will approach 15,000 miles per hour (four miles per second, or five times the speed of a bullet), leaving little room for last minute maneuvers.
Each interceptor will carry an EKV in its tip. Almost immediately after its launch, the EKV will begin its cryogenic cooling process. Krypton gas will surround its infrared sensors; allowing ice cubes to form that will cool the sensors to hundreds of degrees below zero. Even though a midcourse-phase ballistic missile will not have heat-producing rocket plumes, its warhead will remain relatively warm against the ice-cold background of space. The EKVâ„¢s cooled infrared sensors will be capable of detecting even the smallest amounts of heat radiation.
DETAILS OF WORKING
Three minutes into its flight (approximately 1,400 miles from its target) the EKV will separate from the GBI. Dozens of cables will be blown off and four springs will propel the kill vehicle forward. The EKV will immediately bank sharply to either the right or the left to avoid being hit from behind by the booster. From this point forward, the kill vehicle will proceed to the target on its own momentum.
Approximately 100 seconds before impact, the EKVâ„¢s infrared sensors will switch on and begin tracking the incoming ballistic missile. To achieve complete threat neutralization, the EKV will collide with the warheadâ„¢s sweet spot, an area just a few centimeters wide where the missileâ„¢s payload is located. In the event of a precise hit, the kinetic energy of the EKV and the missile will pulverize the warhead and destroy any nuclear, chemical, or biological agents it might be carrying.
EKV HEADING ON TO MIRV
From above it is pretty much clear that countering MIRV is a hectic operation. Employing EKVs are also a matter of concern because they are needed in huge numbers to act upon the incoming ICBMs. Here a comparison is made with the warheads from an (or supposedly many) enemy missile and required numbers of counter weapons needed. For five incoming warheads, we need a total of twenty EKVs for completing the mission.
Many stumbling blocks are there in the pathway of employing such a system. The cost per EKV, complexity of controlling such massive tracking and guidance systems, ensuring the precision of the entire defense system etc increases the difficulties by many folds.
Looking at the present scenario, the missile defense system seems incapable to tackle the MIRVs. The demand for an alternate option is simply irresistible. As the use of multiple EKVs is never a feasible option, a single ABM to take up on multiple warheads is the only option to embark on. The following proposed notion could be considered a very exciting technology in the race for missile defense supremacy.
MAKING MDP A FOOL PROOF SYSTEM
In the era of nuclear war fare, a single slip from a defense missile could spell disaster for mankind. During the Gulf War, firing of missiles by the US Patriot Missile battery got delayed by 0.3 seconds .By this time the SCUD, which was the offensive missile traveled half a kilometer closer to itâ„¢s target. This incident cost the lives of 23 US soldiers.
While looking for an effective alternate solution we should consider that the range of an ABM is well within 35 to 100 km. So the ABMs should have pin point accuracy. It is hard to achieve this precision using the existing EKVs. If the incoming ICBM is made exposed to a shield where all the multiple warheads can be defused at an instant, the missile defense system become more credible. From the descriptions of MIRVs it is pretty clear that, we would be able to calculate the exact instant at which the multiple warheads are released. The intention here is to hit the MIRVs before the releasing of multiple warheads.
The shield set for this purpose consists of small pointed bullet like structures (specially designed for this purpose) named ARMORED CYSTICERCUS which is released at high velocities to hit the intended MIRV.
It is fascinating to know that the technology is derived from commonly used ground warfare weapon know as the CLAYMORE MINE. The M18A1 Claymore is an anti-personnel mine used by the U.S. military. It was named after the large Scottish sword by its inventor, Norman A. MacLeod. The Claymore fires shrapnel, in the form of steel ball-bearings, out to about 100 meters across a 60Ã‚Â° arc in front of the device. It is used primarily in ambushes and as an anti-infiltration device against enemy infantry
The claymore mine concept can be adapted in the proposed MDP scenario. A similar device like the claymore mine is used here as the warhead of the EKV. When the EKV approaches the ICBM, the war head of EKV detonates which then creates the shield in the course of incoming missile. Here instead of using steel ball bearing, ARMORED CYSTICERCUS is used to generate the shield.
The material used for the armored cysticercus is high speed steel (HSS). Since the outer tube of the missile is made of aluminum and its alloys, HSS can effectively penetrate. The shield generated has a shape of three dimensional cone with its axis aligned with the trajectory of incoming ICBM. This further eliminates the threat of multiple warheads as even the released warheads get engulfed in this shield.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF SPIKE BALLS (CYSTICERCUS)
HOW EFFECTIVE THE SHIELD IS?
As the average speed of an ICBM is 2.5 km/s, the shield could be proved effective. At these high speeds even a minute perforation made at the missile surface could either defuse it or at least change its course. This can be explained on grounds of heat generated at surface of an ICBM.
The nose cone of an ICBM during itâ„¢s journey, suffers a temperature of around 3600 degree Celsius. As we move down the ICBM, the temperature increases well beyond 4000 degree Celsius at the nozzle. For the proper functioning and detonation of ICBM, the temperature inside it must be below 60 degree Celsius. This is provided by the efficient cooling system within itself. Any penetration made on the missile surface will affect the cooling system and raises its internal temperature. This temperature hike ceases the guidance and detonation systems. Once any of these systems get destroyed, the ICBM becomes ineffective.
The scopes of IGMDP as an authentic and reliable system of first line defence remains alive. The chances and future of it can be commented on after a series of tests and analysis.
Incorporating the core concept can make a definite improvement to the existing system of missile defence.
We heartily express our sincere gratitude to Prof. E M Somasekharan Nair (Head of the Department, Mechanical), Mr. Sajeev John (Asst. Professor,Dept. of Mechanical) and to Mr. Sanal (Lecturer, Dept. of Mechanical) of SCMS School of Engineering and Technology, for their guidance, advice and true support without which this presentation would not have been possible.
Journals and Books:
Â¢ Force, Defence Magazine
Â¢ Raj Chengappa, Weapons of Peace: The Secret Story of India's Quest to be a Nuclear Power. (New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India Pvt. Ltd., 2000).
Â¢ Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam, Wings of Fire