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intel centrino mobile technology seminar report
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[attachment=950][attachment=951][attachment=952][attachment=953] ABSTRACT

Intel Centrino mobile technology connect without wires. The new Intel Centrino mobile technology allows users to work, play and connect without wires and choose from a whole new generation of thin and light notebook PCs that are designed to enable extended battery life. With Intel Centrino mobile technology, three components work together to deliver a breakthrough in freedom and capability “ to work, learn and play on the go. These components include :
Intel Pentium-M Processor
Intel 855 chipset family
Intel PRO / Wireless network connection
The Intel Pentium-M processor is manufactured on Intelâ„¢s advanced 0.13 micron process Technology. In the Highest Frequency Mode (HFM), the notebook PC can achieve high performance and in the Lowest Frequency Mode (LFM) the power consumption is reduced and enables extended battery life. Some key features of the Intel Pentium-M processor Micro-architecture includes Micro-op Fusion, Advanced Instruction Prediction and SpeedStep technology.
The Intel 855 chipset family was designed in tandem with Intel Pentium-M processor. The chipset offers support for DDR memory technology and 400 MHz system bus, providing the latest graphics support through 1.5V AGP4X technology and Integrated high speed USB 2.0. The Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection has 802.11b Wi-Fi Certified WLAN capability which enables wireless connectivity from Wi-Fi Certified WLAN networks - including thousands of hotspots worldwide.

The world of mobile computing has seldom been so exciting. Not, at least, for last 3 years when all that the chip giants could think of was scaling down the frequency and voltage of the desktop CPUs, and labeling them as mobile processors. Intel Centrino mobile technology is based on the understanding that mobile customers value the four vectors of mobility: performance, battery life, small form factor, and wireless connectivity. The technologies represented by the Intel Centrino brand will include an Intel Pentium-M processor, Intel 855 chipset family, and Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection .
The Intel Pentium-M processor is a higher performance, lower power mobile processor with several micro-architectural enhancements over existing Intel mobile processors. Some key features of the Intel Pentium-M processor Micro-architecture include Dynamic Execution, 400-MHz, on-die 1-MB second level cache with Advanced Transfer Cache Architecture, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology. The Intel Centrino mobile technology also includes the 855GM chipset components GMCH and the ICH4-M. The Accelerated Hub Architecture is designed into the chipset to provide an efficient, high bandwidth, communication channel between the GMCH and the ICH4-M.The GMCH component contains a processor system bus controller, a graphics controller, and a memory controller, while providing an LVDS interface and two DVO ports.
The integrated Wi-Fi Certified Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 Network Connection has been designed and validated to work with all of the Intel Centrino mobile technology components and is able to connect to 802.11b Wi-Fi certified access points. It also supports advanced wireless LAN security including Cisco LEAP, 802.1X and WEP. Finally, for comprehensive security support, the Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 Network Connection has been verified with leading VPN suppliers like Cisco, CheckPoint, Microsoft and Intel NetStructure.

1. Pentium-M Processor
The Intel Pentium-M processor is a high performance, low power mobile processor with several micro-architectural enhancements over existing Intel mobile processors. The following list provides some of the key features on this processor:
Supports Intel Architecture with Dynamic Execution
High performance, low-power core
On-die, 1-MByte second level cache with Advanced Transfer Cache Architecture
Advanced Branch Prediction and Data Prefetch Logic
Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2)
400-MHz, Source-Synchronous processor system bus
Advanced Power Management features including Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology
Micro-FCPGA and Micro-FCBGA packaging technologies
The Intel Pentium-M processor is manufactured on Intelâ„¢s advanced 0.13 micron process technology with copper interconnect. The processor maintains support for MMX technology and Internet Streaming SIMD instructions and full compatibility with IA-32 software. The high performance core features architectural innovations like Micro-op Fusion and Advanced Stack Management that reduce the number of micro-ops handled by the processor. This results in more efficient scheduling and better performance at lower power. The on-die 32-kB Level 1 instruction and data caches and the 1-MB Level 2 cache with Advanced Transfer Cache Architecture enable significant performance improvement over existing mobile processors. The processor also features a very advanced branch prediction architecture that significantly reduces the number of
mispredicted branches. The processorâ„¢s Data Prefetch Logic speculatively fetches data to the L2 cache before an L1 cache requests occurs, resulting in reduced bus cycle penalties and improved performance.
The Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2) enable break-through levels of performance in multimedia applications including 3-D graphics, video decoding/encoding, and speech recognition. The Intel Pentium-M processorâ„¢s 400-MHz processor system bus utilizes a split-transaction, deferred reply protocol. The 400-MHz processor system bus uses Source-Synchronous Transfer (SST) of address and data to improve performance by transferring data four times per bus clock (4X data transfer rate, as in AGP 4X).
The processor features Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology, which enables real-time dynamic switching between multiple voltage and frequency points instead of two points supported on previous versions of Intel SpeedStep technology. This results in optimal performance without compromising low power. The processor features the Auto Halt, Stop-Grant, Deep Sleep, and Deeper Sleep low power states. The Intel Pentium-M processor utilizes socketable Micro Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) and surface mount Micro Flip-Chip Ball Grid Array (Micro-FCBGA) package technology. The Micro-FCPGA package plugs into a 479-hole, surface-mount, Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) socket, which is referred to as the mPGA479M socket.
Features of Pentium-M
1.1 Clock Control and Low Power States
The Intel Pentium M processor supports the AutoHALT, Stop-Grant, Sleep, Deep Sleep, and Deeper Sleep states for optimal power management. See Figure.1 for a visual representation of the processor low-power states.
1.1.1 Normal State
This is the normal operating state for the processor.
1.1.2 AutoHALT Powerdown State
AutoHALT is a low-power state entered when the processor executes the HALT instruction. The processor will transition to the Normal state upon the occurrence of SMI#, INIT#, LINT [1:0] (NMI, INTR), or PSB interrupt message.
1.1.3 Stop-Grant State
When the STPCLK# pin is asserted, the Stop-Grant state of the processor is entered 20 bus clocks after the response phase of the processor-issued Stop-Grant Acknowledge special bus cycle. Since the AGTL+ signal pins receive power from the system bus, these pins should not be driven (allowing the level to return to VCCP) for minimum power drawn by the termination resistors in this state.

1.1.4 HALT/Grant Snoop State
The processor will respond to snoop or interrupt transactions on the system bus while in Stop-Grant state or in AutoHALT Power Down state. During a snoop or interrupt transaction, the processor enters the HALT/Grant Snoop state. The processor will stay in this state until the snoop on the system bus has been serviced or the interrupt has been latched.
1.1.5 Sleep State
The Sleep state is a low power state in which the processor maintains its context, maintains the phase-locked loop (PLL), and has stopped all internal clocks. The Sleep state can only be entered from Stop-Grant state. Once in the Stop-Grant state, the processor will enter the Sleep state upon the assertion of the SLP# signal. The SLP# pin should only be asserted when the processor is in the Stop-Grant state.
1.1.6 Deep Sleep State
Deep Sleep state is a very low power state the processor can enter while maintaining context. Deep Sleep state is entered by asserting the DPSLP# pin while in the Sleep state. BCLK may be stopped during the Deep Sleep state for additional platform level power savings. BCLK stop/restart timings on Intel 855PM and Intel 855GM chipset-based platforms are as follows:
Deep Sleep entry - DPSLP# and CPU_STP# are asserted simultaneously. The platform clock chip will stop/tristate BCLK within 2 BCLKs +/- a few nanoseconds.
Deep Sleep exit - DPSLP# and CPU_STP# are deasserted simultaneously. The platform clock chip will drive BCLK to differential DC levels within 2-3 ns and starts toggling BCLK 2-6 BCLK periods later.
1.1.7 Deeper Sleep State
The Deeper Sleep state is the lowest power state the processor can enter. This state is functionally identical to the Deep Sleep state but at a lower core voltage. The control signals to the voltage regulator to initiate a transition to the Deeper Sleep state are provided on the platform.
1.2 Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology
The Intel Pentium-M processor features Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology. Unlike previous implementations of Intel SpeedStep technology, this technology enables the processor to switch between multiple frequency and voltage points instead of two. This will enable superior performance with optimal power savings. Switching between states is software controlled unlike previous implementations where the GHI# pin is used to toggle between two states. The following are the key features of Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology:
Multiple voltage/frequency operating points provide optimal performance at the lowest power.
Voltage/Frequency selection is software controlled by writing to processor MSRâ„¢s (Model Specific Registers) thus eliminating chipset dependency.
Improved Intel Thermal Monitor mode.
When the on-die thermal sensor indicates that the die temperature is too high, the processor can automatically perform a transition to a lower frequency/voltage specified in a software programmable MSR.
The processor waits for a fixed time period. If the die temperature is down to acceptable levels, an up transition to the previous frequency/voltage point occurs.
An interrupt is generated for the up and down Intel Thermal Monitor transitions enabling better system level thermal management.
1.3 400 MHz System Bus with low power features
The Intel Pentium-M processor supports Intelâ„¢s highest performance mobile system bus by delivering 3.2 GB of data per second into and out of the processor .this is accomplished through a physical signaling scheme of quad pumping the data transfers over a 100-MHz clocked system bus and a buffering scheme allowing for sustained 400-MHz data transfer .the system bus features the following low power enhancement:
Low voltage swing
Intelligent disabling of data, address and control signal buffers
Dynamic on-die termination disabling
1.4 1MB Level 2 Advanced Transfer Cache
The Level 2 Advanced Transfer Cache (ATC) is 1MB in size and delivers an extremely high data throughput channel between the level 2 Cache and the processor core. The Advanced Transfer Cache transfers data on each core clock. Features of the ATC include:
Non-blocking, full speed, on-die Level 2 Cache
8-way set associativity
data clocked into and out of the cache every clock cycle

1.5 Advanced Branch Prediction and Data Prefetching
The Intel Pentium M processor features an advanced branch prediction architecture that combines three types of predictors - Global, Bi-Modal and Loop Detector. The processor automatically selects the most optimal algorithm to use,
significantly reducing the number of mis-predicted branches. The processor also features an advanced data prefetcher that can track up to 8 upstream and 4 downstream operations simultaneously. Data is prefetched from main memory to the L2 cache in advance, resulting in higher performance by reducing the need to access system memory.
1.6 Streaming SIMD Extensions 2(SSE2)

The Intel Pentium M processor supports the complete SSE2 instruction set. These instructions include 128-bit SIMD integer arithmetic and 128-bit SIMD double-precision floating-point operations. These instructions reduce the overall number of instructions required to execute a particular program task and as a result can contribute to an overall performance increase.

2. Intel 855GM Chipset GMCH

As the next step in the evolution of the Intel Hub Architecture for the notebook PCs using Intel Centrino mobile technology, the Intel 855GM chipset was designed in tandem with Intel Pentium-M processor.
The Intel 855GM Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) delivers support for either PC1600 and PC2100 DDR memory technology and a 400 Mhz system bus, providing the latest graphics support through 1.5V AGP4X technology. Together these features deliver the highest total bandwidth capabilities to the PC platform. The enhanced 82801DBM I/O Controller Hub 4 (ICH4-M) delivers twice the I/O bandwidth over traditional bridge architecture and provides dedicated data paths to fully optimize the additional bandwidth. The ICH4-M has reduced core voltage from previous generation of I/O hub architecture chipsets. The ICH4-M makes a direct connection from the graphics and memory for faster access to peripherals and provides the features and bandwidth required for a high performance notebook PC.
2.1 Intel 855GM Chipset GMCH Product Features
¢ Processor/Host Bus Support
Intel® Pentium® M processor
2x address, 4x data
Supports system bus at 400 MHz
Supports 64-bit host bus addressing
Supports Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology

¢ Memory System
Directly supports one DDR SDRAM channel, 64-bits wide
Supports 200/266-MHz DDR SDRAM devices with max of two, double-sided SO-DIMMs four rows populated) with unbuffered PC1600/PC2100 DDR SDRAM.
¢ Video Stream Decoder
Improved hardware motion compensation for MPEG2
All format decoder (18 ATSC formats) supported
Software DVD at 60 Fields/second and 30 frames/second full screen
Support for standard definition DVD
¢ Multiple hardware color cursor support (32-bit with alpha and legacy 2-bpp mode)
¢ Accompanying I2C and DDC channels provided through multiplexed interface
¢ Display
Analog display support
o 350-MHz integrated 24-bit RAMDAC that can drive a standard progressive scan analog monitor with pixel resolution up to 1600x1200 at 85 Hz and up to 2048x1536 at 75 Hz
Dual independent pipe support
o Concurrent: Different images and native display timings on each display device
o Simultaneous: Same images and native display timings on each display device
DVO (DVOB and DVOC) support
o Digital video out ports DVOB and DVOC with 165-MHz dot clock on each 12-bit interface; two 12-bit channels can be combined to form one dual channel 24-bit interface with an effective dot clock of 330-MHz
o The combined DVO B/C ports as well as individual DVO B/C ports can drive a variety of DVO devices (TV-Out Encoders, TMDS and LVDS transmitters, etc.) with pixel resolution up to 1600x1200 at 85 Hz and up to 2048x1536 at 72 Hz.
o Compliant with DVI Specification 1.0
Dedicated LFP (local flat panel) LVDS interface
o Single- or dual-channel LVDS panel support up to UXGA panel resolution with frequency range from 25 MHz to 112 MHz (single channel/dual channel)
o LCD panel power sequencing compliant with SPWG timing specification
o Compliant with ANSI/TIA/EIA “644-1995 spec
Tri-view support through LFP interface, DVO B/C port, and CRT
¢ Internal Graphics Features
Up to 64 MB of dynamic video memory allocation
Display image rotation
Graphics core frequency
Display core frequency at 133 MHz or 200 MHz
Render core frequency at 100 MHz,133 MHz, 200 MHz
2D graphics engine
o Optimized 128-bit BLT engine
o Ten programmable and predefined monochrome patterns
3D graphics engine
o 3D setup and render engine
o High quality performance texture engine
o DirectX and OpenGL pixelization rules
Hub Interface to ICH4-M
o 266 -MB/s point-to-point Hub Interface to ICH4-M
o 66-MHz base clock
Power Management
o APM Rev 1.2 compliant power management
o Supports Suspend to System Memory (S3), Suspend to Disk (S4) and Soft Off (S5)
o ACPI 1.0b, 2.0 support
o Enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology support
o 732-pin Micro-FCBGA (37.5 x 37.5 mm)
¢ Additional
o Support for Hi-Speed Universal Serial Bus (USB 2.0) with backward compatibility with USB 1.1
o AC97 2.2 Interface with support for a third codec to provide 20 bit resolution.
o LAN Connect Interface (LCI) provides flexible network solutions such as home phone line, 10/100 Mbps Ethernet, and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet with LAN manageability
o Dual Ultra ATA-100 controllers support the fastest IDE interface for transfers to storage devices
2.2. System Architecture
The Intel 855GM GMCH component provides the processor interface, DDR SDRAM interface, display interface, and Hub interface in an Intel 855GM chipset based system.
The GMCH is in a 732-pin Micro-FCBGA package and contains the following functionality:
Optimized for the Intel Pentium M processor
Supports a single channel of DDR SDRAM memory
Supports the fourth generation Mobile I/O Controller Hub (ICH4-M) to provide the features required by a mobile platform
Contains advanced power management logic
Supports a single Intel Pentium M processor configuration at 400-MHz or 3.2 GB/s
1.05-V AGTL+ host bus supporting 64-bit host addressing with Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology support
Up to 1 GB (with 512-Mb technology and two SO-DIMMs) of PC1600/2100 DDR and up to 2 GB (high density using 512-Mb technology)
Integrated graphics capabilities, including 3D rendering acceleration and 2D hardware acceleration
Deeper Sleep state support
2.3. Processor Host Interface
The GMCH is optimized for the Intel Pentium M processor. Key features of the Intel Pentium M processor system bus (PSB) are:
Source synchronous double pumped address
Source synchronous quad pumped data
System bus interrupt delivery
Low voltage swing (Vtt = 1.05 V)
2.4. Intel 855GM GMCH Host Bus Error Checking
The Intel 855GM GMCH does not generate nor check parity on Data, Address/Request, and Response signals on the PSB.

2.5. Intel 855GM GMCH System Memory Interface
The GMCH System Memory Controller directly supports the following:
One channel of PC1600/2100 SO-DIMM DDR SDRAM memory
Maximum System Memory with two, double-sided SO-DIMMs (four rows populated) supporting up to 1 -GB system memory, and high density supporting up to 2-GB system memory
The GMCH System Memory interface supports a thermal throttling scheme to selectively throttle reads and/or writes. Throttling can be triggered either by the on-die thermal sensor, or by preset write bandwidth limits. Read throttle can also be triggered by an external input pin. The memory controller logic supports aggressive Dynamic Row Power Down features to help reduce power and supports Address and Control line Tri-stating when DDR SDRAM is in an active power down or in self refresh state.
2.6. Intel 855GM GMCH Internal Graphics
The GMCH IGD provides a highly integrated graphics accelerator delivering high performance 2D, 3D, and video capabilities. With its interfaces to UMA using a DVMT configuration, an analog display, a LVDS port, and two digital display ports (e.g. flat panel), the GMCH can provide a complete graphics solution. The GMCH uses Tiling architecture to increase System Memory efficiency and thus maximize effective rendering bandwidth. The Intel 855GM GMCH also improves 3D performance and quality with 3D Zone Rendering technology. The GMCH has four display ports, one analog and three digital. These provide support for a progressive scan analog monitor, a dedicated dual channel LVDS LCD panel, and two DVO devices. Each port can transmit data according to one or more protocols.
3. Wireless Connectivity
The Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection is the integrated Wireless LAN (WLAN) solution for Intel Centrino mobile technology. The Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection works in concert with the other Intel Centrino mobile technology components to provide freedom and flexibility to work and play on the go without searching for a phone jack, network cable, or plugging in a special card. To access the Internet wirelessly, a laptop uses radio signals to communicate with a wireless LAN via base band circuitry, a media access controller, and a radio. A wireless LAN operates with one of two IEEE standard protocols finalized in 1997 and differing in data rate and signal frequency. The two standards are the 802.11a and 802.11b, the latter often called Wi-Fi. The 802.11a operates at 5 GHz and can transmit data at up to 54 Mb/s. The 802.11b operates at 2.4 GHz and transmits data at 11 Mb/s. A newer protocol, IEEE 802.11g, is being finalized and should be out this summer. It has the same data rate as 802.11a but operates on the same frequency as 802.11b and is compatible with it.
The Intel Centrino mobile technology is based upon four major categories: Security, Performance, Ease-of-use, and Verification.
¢ Security
Intel Centrino mobile technology has been Intel-tested for industry standards-based WLAN security support (802.1X, WEP and WPA). Cisco Compatible Extensions (such as LEAP and CKIP) support is available on certain models. Subject to PC manufacturerâ„¢s availability and validation, this enables interoperability with Cisco Aironet wireless LAN infrastructure.
¢ Performance
With 802.11b support and speeds up to 11Mbps, Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection enables fast network connections. It includes per-packet antenna selection to enable optimized WLAN performance. Support for Intel Wireless Coexistence System helps enables reduced interference between Intel PRO/Wireless and certain Bluetooth devices.

¢ Ease-of-use
Available Intel PROSet software allows for multiple profile setup and switching between profiles for simplified wireless access as you move between different access points with the advanced profile management feature. This also allows for setting security options.
¢ Verification
Intel Centrino mobile technology is verified with leading VPN infrastructure products. Intel is working with hardware and software developers and wireless service provides to deliver a reliable and integrated wireless mobile computing experience.
Additional highlights of the Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 Network Connection include :
Single band support, providing the ability to connect to 802.11b networks
Industry standard and extended wireless security support (WEP, 802.1X and Cisco LEAP)
Available Intel PROSet software with automatic WLAN switching support enables automatic switching between wired and wireless LAN connections
Available Intel PROSet software supports Cisco, CheckPoint, Microsoft and Intel VPN connections
Intel Wireless Coexistence System support enables reduced interference between Intel PRO/Wireless and certain Bluetooth devices
Per-packet antenna selection enables optimized WLAN performance
Intel Intelligent Scanning Technology, reduces power by controlling the frequency of scanning for access points
Power Save Protocol (PSP) is a user selectable feature with five different power states, which allows the user to make their own power versus performance choice when in battery mode.

4. Key Benefits
4.1 Breakthrough Mobile Performance

Intel Centrino mobile technology is designed to meet the users needs of multi-tasking, constant-computing lifestyle - and to work with the performance demands of future applications. Intel Centrino mobile technology also features advanced instruction prediction to eliminate CPU process replication, and second-generation Streaming SIMD Extensions (Streaming SIMD Extensions 2) with instructions integrated into the software to enhance performance. With support for USB 2.0, there is an increased performance with the peripherals and backward compatibility with USB 1.0 devices.

4.2 Extended Battery Life
Intel Centrino mobile technology can work longer by eliminating significant inefficiencies in power usage. Ground-breaking developments include:
Intelligent power distribution - focuses the system power where the processor needs it most
New power-optimized logic design - optimizes consumption and dissipation levels for lower CPU average power to immediately
Intel Centrino mobile technology also enhances the ability to work and play on the go with the latest generation of enhanced Intel SpeedStep technology, which dynamically optimizes application performance and power usage. And when we are working on less computing-intensive programs, Intel Centrino mobile technology automatically adjusts and "powers down" to preserve battery life whenever possible. So the notebook gets every opportunity to save precious battery life - extending its performance.

4.3 Thinner and Lighter Designs
Intel Centrino mobile technology uses leading-edge Micro FCPGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array) and Micro FCBGA (Flip Chip Ball Grid Array) packaging technology. This technology is optimized for a range of thinner, lighter notebook PC designs that can be less than one inch thick. As important as Intel Centrino mobile technology's smaller components are, thermal management is equally essential to enabling thinner, lighter form factors.
Other technology features that enable computer makers to design sleeker, smaller notebooks, sub-notebooks and tablet PCs include the special Low Volt (LV) and Ultra Low Volt (ULV) options. These options set the processor to run at a lower voltage specification, which is critical to lowering thermal power in tablet designs and extra-slim notebooks that are less than one inch thick.
4.4 Integrated Wireless LAN capability
With Intel Centrino mobile technology, the laptop is ready to be connected to the Internet or a corporate network without wires or an add-on adapter card, thanks to integrated 802.11b wireless-LAN (WLAN) capability. WLAN uses radio waves to wirelessly connect computers to each other, to the Internet or to wired networks. The corporate-oriented 802.11a standard provides faster connections--up to 54 megabits per second maximum, 20 mbps average--compared to a maximum of 11 mbps, or 6 mbps average, for 802.11b. The two technologies operate in different frequency ranges, so a .11b-compliant notebook can't tap into a .11a access point and vice versa. A third Wi-Fi variant, the up-and-coming 802.11g, delivers the same speed as .11a, but it's backwards compatible with .11b.
Intel Centrino mobile technology has 802.11b Wi-Fi CERTIFIED WLAN capability which enables wireless connectivity from Wi-Fi CERTIFIED WLAN networks - including thousands of hotspots worldwide. An increasingly popular way to work and play on the go, hotspots provide WLAN service, for free or for a fee, from a wide variety of public meeting areas, including coffee shops, airport lounges and convention centers. In support of Intel Centrino mobile technology, Intel is actively working with various industry leaders to help accelerate wireless LAN infrastructure deployment and expand content and service capabilities to deliver a more compelling mobile experience. Importantly, Intel Centrino mobility technology is built from the ground up for mobility, supporting a wide range of industry wireless-LAN security standards and leading third party solutions now and in the future.
5. Conclusion
Although the wireless package is less than ideal, Centrino shines at improving battery life and performance. Power consumption is less than 60 percent that of the mobile version of Intelâ„¢s Pentium IV, while performance is better by 15 percent, as measured by the notebook PC benchmark Mobile Mark 2002.
These pluses are largely due to Centrinoâ„¢s centerpiece, the Pentium-M processor, which was designed to save power by weighing the benefits of each processor function against its power consumption. Also, an enhanced version of Intelâ„¢s SpeedStep technology, included in the processor, saves power by stepping the operating voltage and frequency up or down to match the processing demands of the application running on the processor.
Power is also saved by turning off clocks and circuits when they are not needed and running the secondary on chip cache more slowly than the processor. The laptop batteries can last much longer on a single charge. For example, The Tecra M1 can run up to an eye-popping 7 hours-6 minutes and the IBM ThinkPad an impressive 6 hours-33 minutes. The low power consumption can also do away with the need for fans, allowing notebook makers to design slimmer, lighter notebooks. Using truly mobile notebook computers can change the way people live. With notebooks based on Intel Centrino mobile technology, a business traveler can check office email or read the hometown newspaper online while waiting for a flight at the airport, and still have battery life left to watch a DVD movie on the plane ride home. Certainly Intel Centrino mobile technology provides a breakthrough in mobile computing, and changes the way people work and live.

6. References

Introduction 01
1. Pentium-M Processor 02
1.1. Clock Control and Low Power States 03
1.2. Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology 06
1.3. 400 MHz System Bus with low power features 07
1.4. 1MB Level 2 Advanced Transfer Cache 07
1.5. Advanced Branch Prediction and Data Prefetching 07
1.6. Streaming SIMD Extensions 2(SSE2) 08
2. Intel 855GM Chipset GMCH 10 2.1 Intel 855GM Chipset Features 10
2.2 System Architecture 13
2.3 Processor Host Interface 14
2.4 Intel 855GM GMCH Host Bus Error Checking 14
2.5 Intel 855GM GMCH System Memory Interface 15
2.6 Intel 855GM GMCH Internal Graphics 15
3. Intel PRO/Wireless 2100 Network 16
4. Key Benefits 19
4.1. Extended battery Life 19
4.2. Thinner and Lighter Designs 20
4.3. Breakthrough Mobile performance 20
4.4. Integrated wireless LAN capability 21

5. Conclusion 22
6. References 23

I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Agnisarman Namboodiri, Head of Department of Information Technology and Computer Science , for his guidance and support to shape this paper in a systematic way.
I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Saheer H. and
Ms. S.S. Deepa, Department of IT for their valuable suggestions in the preparation of the paper.
In addition I would like to thank all staff members of IT department and all my friends of S7 IT for their suggestions and constrictive criticism.

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