1.1 What is IP
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (Ipv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (Ipv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.
1.2 Introduction to IPv6
The current version of the Internet Protocol (known as IP version 4 or IPv4) has not been substantially changed since RFC 791 was published in 1981. IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of today's Internet. This is a tribute to its initial design.
IPv6 stands for Internet Protocol version 6. This technology is designed to replace the existing IPv4 with improved address space, service, and data. Internet Protocol version 6 is meant to allow anyone who wants to use the Internet the capability to do s
However, the initial design did not anticipate:
Â¢ The recent exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space. IPv4 addresses have become relatively scarce, forcing some organizations to use a network address translator (NAT) to map multiple private addresses to a single public IP address. While NATs promote reuse of the private address space, they do not support standards-based network layer security or the correct mapping of all higher layer protocols and can create problems when connecting two organizations that use the private address space. Additionally, the rising prominence of Internet-connected devices and appliances assures that the public IPv4 address space will eventually be depleted.
Â¢ The growth of the Internet and the ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables. Because of the way in which IPv4 network IDs have been and are currently allocated, there are routinely over 70,000 routes in the routing tables of Internet backbone routers. The current IPv4 Internet routing infrastructure is a combination of both flat and hierarchical routing.
Â¢ The need for simpler configuration. Most current IPv4 implementations must be configured either manually or through a stateful address configuration protocol such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). With more computers and devices using IP, there is a need for a simpler and more automatic configuration of addresses and other configuration settings that do not rely on the administration of a DHCP infrastructure.
Â¢ The requirement for security at the IP level.
Private communication over a public medium like the Internet requires encryption services that protect the data sent from being viewed or modified in transit. Although a standard now exists for providing security for IPv4 packets (known as Internet Protocol security or IPSec), this standard is optional and proprietary solutions are prevalent.
Â¢ The need for better support for real-time delivery of data (also known a quality of service). While standards for quality of service (QoS) exist for IPv4, real-time traffic support relies on the IPv4 Type of Service (TOS) field and the identification of the payload, typically using a UDP or TCP port. Unfortunately, the IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and has different interpretations. In addition, payload identification using a TCP and UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.
To address these concerns, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a suite of protocols and standards known as IP version 6 (IPv6). This new version, previously named IP-The Next Generation (IPng), incorporates the concepts of many proposed methods for updating the IPv4 protocol. IPv6 is intentionally designed for minimal impact on upper and lower layer protocols by avoiding the arbitrary addition of new features.
1.3 What will IPv6 do
IPv6 is technology with a main focus on changing the structure of current IP addresses, which will allow for virtually unlimited IP addresses. The current version, IPv4 is a growing concern with the limited IP addresses, making it a fear that they will run out in the future. IPv6 will also have a goal to make the Internet a more secure place for browsers, and with the rapid number of identity theft victims, this is a key feature.
The current version of the Internet Protocol IPv4 was first developed in the 1970s, and the main protocol standard RFC 791 that governs IPv4 functionality was published in 1981. With the unprecedented expansion of Internet usage in recent years - especially by population dense countries like India and China.
The impending shortage of address space (availability) was recognized by 1992 as a serious limiting factor to the continued usage of the Internet run on Ipv4
The following table shows a statistic showing how quickly the address space has been getting consumed over the years after 1981, when IPv4 protocol was published With admirable foresight, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) initiated as early as in 1994, the design and development of a suite of protocols and standards now known as Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), as a worthy tool to phase out and supplant IPv4 over the coming years. There is an explosion of sorts in the number and range of IP capable devices that are being released in the market and the usage of these by an increasingly tech savvy global population. The new protocol aims to effectively support the ever-expanding Internet usage and functionality, and also address security concerns.
IPv6 uses a128-bit address size compared with the 32-bit system used in IPv4 and will allow for as many as 3.4x1038 possible addresses, enough to cover every inhabitant on planet earth several times over. The 128-bit system also provides for multiple levels of hierarchy and flexibility in hierarchical addressing and routing, a feature that is found wanting on the IPv4-based Internet.
2.2 A brief recap
The major events in the development of the new protocol are given below:
Basic protocol (RFC 2460) published in 1998
Basic socket API (RFC 2553) and DHCPv6 (RFC 3315) published in 2003.
Mobile IPv6 (RFC 3775) published in 2004
Flow label specifications (RFC 3697) added 2004
Address architecture (RFC 4291) stable, minor revision in 2006
Node requirements (RFC 4294) published 2006
3. IPv6 Features
The massive proliferation of devices, need for newer and more demanding applications on a global level and the increasing role of networks in the way business is conducted are some of the pressing issues the IPv6 protocol seeks to cater to. The following are the features of the IPv6 protocol:
New header format designed to keep header overhead to a minimum - achieved by moving both non-essential fields and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. The streamlined IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers.
Large address space - IPv6 has 128-bit (16-byte) source and destination IP addresses. The large address space of IPv6 has been designed to allow for multiple levels of subnetting and address allocation from the Internet backbone to the individual subnets within an organization. Obviates the need for address-conservation techniques such as the deployment of NATs.
Efficient and hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure- based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet service providers.
Stateless and stateful address configuration both in the absence or presence of a DHCP server. Hosts on a link automatically configure themselves with link-local addresses and communicate without manual configuration.
Built-in security: Compliance with IPSec  is mandatory in IPv6, and IPSec is actually a part of the IPv6 protocol. IPv6 provides header extensions that ease the implementation of encryption, authentication, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). IPSec functionality is basically identical in IPv6 and IPv4, but one benefit of IPv6 is that IPSec can be utilized along the entire route, from source to destination.
Better support for prioritized delivery thanks to the Flow Label field in the IPv6 header
New protocol for neighboring node interaction- The Neighbor Discovery protocol for IPv6 replaces the broadcast-based Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), ICMPv4 Router Discovery, and ICMPv4 Redirect messages with efficient multicast and unicast Neighbor Discovery messages.
Extensibility- IPv6 can easily be extended for new features by adding extension headers after the IPv6 header.
IPv6 thus holds out the promise of achieving end-to-end security, mobile communications, quality of service (QoS), and simplified system management.
4. Why IPv6 ls needed
It is expected that some time in the years of 2006/2007 we will definitely run out of IPv4 address space. In Asia the available IPv4 address space is already exhausted. This is why many Asian ISPs have already begun to roll out IPv6 commercially. IPv4 offers less than one IP address per person living on this planet and therefore we need a new version with a larger address space. With the new types of services that we will have in the future we will not only need IP addresses for personal computers and servers, but for all sorts of devices, like mobile phones, cars, refrigerators, TV-sets, sensor systems, home games and many more. The answer to that challenge is IPv6.
IPv6 offers a new, clean, well designed protocol stack which implements all the features of security (IPsec), Quality of service (Diffserv and intserv (flowlabel)) and configuration (auto-configuration). All applications that are known on IPv4 can be ported to IPv6, with additional features if required. IPv6 is also designed taking into account the mobile networks, which are expected to be ubiquitous networks of the future providing always on-line, anytime and anywhere. IPv6 is considered to be the backbone of the future information society.
Here is a list of facts and reasons for IPv6:
Â¢ No IPv4 addresses available anymore (will happen sometimes between 2006 and 2010 in Europe)
Â¢ The number of mobile devices and devices with embedded Internet stacks will grow by magnitudes over the following years (the ongoing use of IPv4 would create poorly interconnected islands of IP networks with limited mobility and security between them)
Â¢ IPv6 is MANDATORY for the 3GPP UMTS IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) in release 5
Â¢ IPv6 brings better support for security, quality of service and mobility
Â¢ IPv6 reduces OPEX of IP networks through better design and the auto configuration features
Â¢ IPv6 enables ubiquitous networks of the future providing always on-line, anytime and anywhere
Â¢ IPv6 enables ubiquitous/pervasive computing and with this a huge amount of new business opportunities and changes in existing business models
Â¢ IPv6 is considered as the backbone of the future information society
Â¢ (And last but not least) IPv6 is here, supported in all kinds of devices and ready to be used! And it will (soon) come and it's better to be prepared for it!
5.1 Capabilities of IPv4 Multihoming
The following capabilities of current IPv4 multihoming practices
Should be supported by an IPv6 multihoming architecture.
By multihoming, a site should be able to insulate itself from certain failure modes within one or more transit providers, as well a failures in the network providing interconnection among one or moretransit providers.
Infrastructural commonalities below the IP layer may result in connectivity which is apparently diverse, sharing single points of failure. For example, two separate DS3 circuits ordered from different suppliers and connecting a site to independent transit providers may share a single conduit from the street into a building; in this case, physical disruption (sometimes referred to as "backhoe-fade") of both circuits may be experienced due to a single incident in the street. The two circuits are said to "share fate".
The multihoming architecture should accommodate (in the general case, issues of shared fate notwithstanding) continuity of connectivity during the following failures:
- Physical failure, such as a fiber cut, or router failure,
-Logical link failure, such as a misbehaving router interface,
- Routing protocol failure, such as a BGP peer reset,
-Transit provider failure, such as a backbone-wide IGP failure
- Exchange failure, such as a BGP reset on an inter-provider
5.1.2 Load Sharing
By multihoming, a site should be able to distribute both inbound and outbound traffic between multiple transit providers. This goal is for concurrent use of the multiple transit providers, not just the usage of one provider over one interval of time and another providerover a different interval.
Interconnection T1-T2. The process by which this is achieved should be a manual one. A multihomed site should be able to distribute inbound traffic from particular multiple transit providers according to the particular address range within their site which is sourcing or sinking the traffic.
A customer may choose to multihome for a variety of policy reasons beyond technical scope (e.g., cost, acceptable use conditions, etc.) For example, customer C homed to ISP A may wish to shift traffic of a certain class or application, NNTP, for example, to ISP B as matter of policy. A new IPv6 multihoming proposal should provide support for site-multihoming for external policy reasons.
As any proposed multihoming solution must be deployed in real networks with real customers, simplicity is paramount. The current multihoming solution is quite straightforward to deploy and maintain. A new IPv6 multihoming solution should not be substantially more complex to deploy and operate (for multihomed sites or for the rest of the Internet) than current IPv5 multihoming practices.
5.1.6 Transport-Layer Survivability
Multihoming solutions should provide re-homing transparency for
transport-layer sessions; i.e., exchange of data between devices onthe multihomed site and devices elsewhere on the Internet may proceed
with no greater interruption than that associated with the transient packet loss during the re-homing event. New transport-layer sessions should be able to be created following a re-homing event.Transport-layer sessions include those involving transport-layer protocols such as TCP, UDP and SCTP over IP. Applications which communicate over raw IP and other network-layer protocols may also enjoy re-homing transparency.
5.1.7 Impact on DNS
Multi-homing solutions either should be compatible with the observed dynamics of the current DNS system, or the solutions should demonstrate that the modified name resolution system required to support them is readily deployable.
5.1.8 Packet Filtering
Multihoming solutions should not preclude filtering packets wit forged or otherwise inappropriate source IP addresses at the administrative boundary of the multihomed site, or at the administrative boundaries of any site in the Internet
5.2 Additional Requirements:
Current IPV5 multihoming practices contribute to the significant growth currently observed in the state held in the global inter- provider routing system; this is a concern, both because of the hardware requirements it imposes, and also because of the impact on the stability of the routing system. This issue is discussed in great detail in .
A new IPv6 multihoming architecture should scale to accommodate orders of magnitude more multihomed sites without imposing unreasonable requirements on the routing system.
5.2.2Impact on Routers
The solutions may require changes to IPv6 router implementations, but these changes should be either minor, or in the form of logically separate functions added to existing functions.
Such changes should not prevent normal single-homed operation, any routers implementing these changes should be able to interoperatefully with hosts and routers not implementing them.
5.2.3Impact on Hosts
The solution should not destroy IPv6 connectivity for a legacy host implementing RFC 3513 , RFC 2460 , RFC 3493 , and basic IPv6 specifications current in April 2003. That is to say, a host can work in a single-homed site, it should still be able to work in a multihomed site, even if it cannot benefit from site multihoming.
It would be compatible with this goal for such a host to lose connectivity if a site lost connectivity to one transit provider,
despite the fact that other transit provider connections were still operational.
If the solution requires changes to the host stack, these changes
should be either minor, or in the form of logically separate functions added to existing functions.
If the solution requires changes to the socket API and/or the transport layer, it should be possible to retain the original socket API and transport protocols in parallel, even if they cannot benefit from multihoming.The multihoming solution may allow host or application changes if that would enhance transport-layer survivability.
5.2.4 Interaction between Hosts and the Routing System
The solution may involve interaction between a site's hosts and its
routing system; such an interaction should be simple,scalable and securable.
5.2.5 Cooperation between Transit Providers
A multihoming strategy may require cooperation between a site and its transit providers, but should not require cooperation (relating specifically to the multihomed site) directly between the transit providers. The impact of any inter-site cooperation that might be required to facilitate the multihoming solution should be examined and assessed from the point of view of operational practicality.
5.2.6 Multiple Solutions
There may be more than one approach to multihoming, provided all approaches are orthogonal (i.e., each approach addresses a distinc segment or category within the site multihoming problem). Multiple solutions will incur a greater management overhead, however, and the adopted solutions should attempt to cover as many multihoming scenarios and goals as possible.
An Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) data packet comprises of two main parts: the header and the payload. The first 40 bytes/octets (40x8 = 320 bits) of an IPv6 packet comprise of the header (see Figure 1) that contains the following fields:
Source address (128 bits) The 128-bit source address field contains the IPv6 address of the originating node of the packet. It is the address of the originator of the IPv6 packet.
Destination address (128 bits) The 128-bit contains the destination address of the recipient node of the IPv6 packet. It is the address of the intended recipient of the IPv6 packet.
Version/IP version (4-bits) The 4-bit version field contains the number 6. It indicates the version of the IPv6 protocol. This field is the same size as the IPv4 version field that contains the number 4. However, this field has a limited use because IPv4 and IPv6 packets are not distinguished based on the value in the version field but by the protocol type present in the layer 2 envelope.
Packet priority/Traffic class (8 bits) The 8-bit Priority field in the IPv6 header can assume different values to enable the source node to differentiate between the packets generated by it by associating different delivery priorities to them. This field is subsequently used by the originating node and the routers to identify the data packets that belong to the same traffic class and distinguish between packets with different priorities.
Flow Label/QoS management (20 bits) The 20-bit flow label field in the IPv6 header can be used by a source to label a set of packets belonging to the same flow. A flow is uniquely identified by the combination of the source address and of a non-zero Flow label. Multiple active flows may exist from a source to a destination as well as traffic that are not associated with any flow (Flow label = 0).
Payload length in bytes(16 bits) The 16-bit payload length field contains the length of the data field in octets/bits following the IPv6 packet header. The 16-bit Payload length field puts an upper limit on the maximum packet payload to 64 kilobytes. In case a higher packet payload is required, a Jumbo payload extension header is provided in the IPv6 protocol. A Jumbo payload (Jumbogram) is indicated by the value zero in the Payload Length field. Jumbograms are frequently used in supercomputer communication using the IPv6 protocol to transmit heavy data payload.
Next Header (8 bits) The 8-bit Next Header field identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header and located at the beginning of the data field (payload) of the IPv6 packet. This field usually specifies the transport layer protocol used by a packet's payload. The two most common kinds of Next Headers are TCP (6) and UDP (17), but many other headers are also possible. The format adopted for this field is the one proposed for IPv4 by RFC 1700. In case of IPv6 protocol, the Next Header field is similar to the IPv4 Protocol field.
Time To Live (TTL)/Hop Limit (8 bits) The 8-bit Hop Limit field is decremented by one, by each node (typically a router) that forwards a packet. If the Hop Limit field is decremented to zero, the packet is discarded. The main function of this field is to identify and to discard packets that are stuck in an indefinite loop due to any routing information errors. The 8-bit field also puts an upper limit on the maximum number of links between two IPv6 nodes. In this way, an IPv6 data packet is allowed a maximum of 255 hops before it is eventually discarded. An IPv6 data packet can pas through a maximum of 254 routers before being discarded.
In case of IPv6 protocol, the fields for handling fragmentation do not form a part of the basic header. They are put into a separate extension header. Moreover, fragmentation is exclusively handled by the sending host. Routers are not employed in the Fragmentation process.
7. IPv6 Addressing:
7.1 The IPv6 Address Space
The most obvious distinguishing feature of IPv6 is its use of much larger addresses. The size of an address in IPv6 is 128 bits, which is four times the larger than an IPv4 address. A 32-bit address space allows for 232 or 4,294,967,296 possible addresses. A 128-bit address space allows for 2128 or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (or 3.4^1038 or 340 undecillion) possible addresses.
With IPv6, it is even harder to conceive that the IPv6 address space will be consumed. To help put this number in perspective, a 128-bit address space provides 655,570,793,348,866,943,898,599 (6.5^1023) addresses for every square meter of the Earthâ„¢s surface.
It is important to remember that the decision to make the IPv6 address 128 bits in length was not so that every square meter of the Earth could have 6.5^1023 addresses. Rather, the relatively large size of the IPv6 address is designed to be subdivided into hierarchical routing domains that reflect the topology of the modern-day Internet. The use of 128 bits allows for multiple levels of hierarchy and flexibility in designing hierarchical addressing and routing that is currently lacking on the IPv4-based Internet.
The IPv6 addressing architecture is described in RFC 4291.
7.2 IPv6 Address Syntax
IPv4 addresses are represented in dotted-decimal format. This 32-bit address is divided along 8-bit boundaries. Each set of 8 bits is converted to its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. For IPv6, the 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries, and each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit hexadecimal number and separated by colons. The resulting representation is called colon-hexadecimal.
The following is an IPv6 address in binary form:
The 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries:
0010000000000001 0000110110111000 0000000000000000 0010111100111011 0000001010101010 0000000011111111 1111111000101000 1001110001011010
Each 16-bit block is converted to hexadecimal and delimited with colons. The result is:
IPv6 representation can be further simplified by removing the leading zeros within each 16-bit block. However, each block must have at least a single digit. With leading zero suppression, the address representation becomes:
7.3 Compressing Zeros
Some types of addresses contain long sequences of zeros. To further simplify the representation of IPv6 addresses, a contiguous sequence of 16-bit blocks set to 0 in the colon hexadecimal format can be compressed to ::, known as double-colon.
For example, the link-local address of FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 can be compressed to FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2. The multicast address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 can be compressed to FF02::2.
Zero compression can only be used to compress a single contiguous series of 16-bit blocks expressed in colon hexadecimal notation. You cannot use zero compression to include part of a 16-bit block. For example, you cannot express FF02:30:0:0:0:0:0:5 as FF02:3::5. The correct representation is FF02:30::5.
To determine how many 0 bits are represented by the ::, you can count the number of blocks in the compressed address, subtract this number from 8, and then multiply the result by 16. For example, in the address FF02::2, there are two blocks (the FF02 block and the 2 block.) The number of bits expressed by the :: is 96 (96 = (8 â€œ 2)16).
Zero compression can only be used once in a given address. Otherwise, you could not determine the number of 0 bits represented by each instance of ::.
The prefix is the part of the address that indicates the bits that have fixed values or are the bits of the subnet prefix. Prefixes for IPv6 subnets, routes, and address ranges are expressed in the same way as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation for IPv4. An IPv6 prefix is written in address/prefix-length notation. For example, 21DA
3::/48 and 21DA
3:0:2F3B::/64 are IPv6 address prefixes.
Note IPv4 implementations commonly use a dotted decimal representation of the network prefix known as the subnet mask. A subnet mask is not used for IPv6. Only the prefix length notation is supported.
8. IPv6 vs. IPv4
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), sometimes called the "next generation" IP protocol (IPng), is designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 ("IPv4"), which is now more than twenty years old. Most of today's network uses IPv4 and it is beginning to have problems, for example, the growing shortage of IPv4 addresses.
IPv6 fixes manyshortages in IPv4, including the limited number of available IPv4 addresses. It also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas. The key benefits of introducing IPv6 are:
Â¢ 340 undecillion IP addresses for the whole world network devices
Â¢ Plug and Play configuration with or without DHCP
Â¢ Better network bandwidth efficiency using multicast and anycast without broadcast
Â¢ Better QOS support for all types of applications
Â¢ Native information security framework for both data and control packets
Â¢ Enhanced mobility with fast handover, better route optimization and hierarchical mobility
The following table compares the key characters of IPv6 vs. IPv4:
Subjects IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 Advantages
Address Space 4 Billion Addresses 2^128 79 Octillion times the IPv4 address space
Configuration Manual or use DHCP Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) with or without DHCP Lower Operation Expenses and reduce error
Broadcast / Multicast Uses both No broadcast and has different forms of multicast Better bandwidth efficiency
Anycast support Not part of the original protocol Explicit support of anycast Allows new applications in mobility, data center
Network Configuration Mostly manual and labor intensive Facilitate the re-numbering of hosts and routers Lower operation expenses and facilitate migration
QoS support ToS using DIFFServ Flow classes and flow labels More Granular control of QoS
Security Uses IPsec for Data packet protection IPsec becomes the key technology to protect data and control packets Unified framework for security and more secure computing environment
Mobility Uses Mobile IPv4 Mobile IPv6 provides fast handover, better router optimization and hierarchical mobility Better efficiency and scalability; Work with latest 3G mobile technologies and beyond.
Few in the industry would argue with the principle that IPv6 represents a major leap forward for the Internet and the users. However, given the magnitude of a migration that affects so many millions of network devices, it is clear that there will be an extended period when IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist at many levels of the Internet
IETF protocol designers have expended a substantial amount of effort to ensure that hosts and routers can be upgraded to IPv6 in a graceful, incremental manner. Transition mechanisms have been engineered to allow network administrators a large amount of flexibility in how and when they upgrade hosts and intermediate nodes. Consequently, IPv6 can be deployed in hosts first, in routers first, or, alternatively, in a limited number of adjacent or remote hosts and routers. Another assumption made by IPv6 transition designers is the likelihood that many upgraded hosts and routers will need to retain downward compatibility with IPv4 devices for an extended time period. It was also assumed that upgraded devices should have the option of retaining their IPv4 addressing. To accomplish these goals, IPv6 transition relies on several special functions that have been built into the IPv6 standards work, including dual-stack hosts and routers and tunnelling IPv6 via IPv4.
Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6
Â¢ Source and destination addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) in length.
Â¢ IPSec support is optional.
Â¢ IPv4 header does not identify packet flow for QoS handling by routers.
Â¢ Both routers and the sending host fragment packets.
Â¢ Header includes a checksum.
Â¢ Header includes options.
Â¢ Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) uses broadcast ARP Request frames to resolve an IP address to a link-layer address.
Â¢ Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) manages membership in local subnet groups.
Â¢ ICMP Router Discovery is used to determine the IPv4 address of the best default gateway, and it is optional.
Â¢ Broadcast addresses are used to send traffic to all nodes on a subnet.
Â¢ Must be configured either manually or through DHCP.
Â¢ Uses host address (A) resource records in Domain Name System (DNS) to map host names to IPv4 addresses.
Â¢ Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IN-ADDR.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv4 addresses to host names.
Â¢ Must support a 576-byte packet size (possibly fragmented).
Â¢ Source and destination addresses are 128 bits (16 bytes) in length.
Â¢ IPSec support is required.
Â¢ IPv6 header contains Flow Label field, which identifies packet flow for QoS handling by router.
Â¢ Only the sending host fragments packets; routers do not.
Â¢ Header does not include a checksum.
Â¢ All optional data is moved to IPv6 extension headers.
Â¢ Multicast Neighbor Solicitation messages resolve IP addresses to link-layer addresses.
Â¢ Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages manage membership in local subnet groups.
Â¢ ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages are used to determine the IP address of the best default gateway, and they are required.
Â¢ IPv6 uses a link-local scope all-nodes multicast address.
Â¢ Does not require manual configuration or DHCP.
Â¢ Uses host address (AAAA) resource records in DNS to map host names to IPv6 addresses.
Â¢ Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IP6.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv6 addresses to host names.
Â¢ Must support a 1280-byte packet size (without fragmentation).
9. Potential Benefits and Uses of IPv6
9.1 Increased Address Space
Before delving into how IPv6 might make use of its increased address space, it is very important to reflect on some key elements of the original IPv4 architecture. All the early papers and practice on the Internet architecture stress that each computer attached to the Internet will have a globally unique IP address.
Thus, if one speaks of the IPv4 architecture, it is understood that globally unique IP addresses per host is part of that architecture. Further, the applications-level flexibility provided by globally unique addresses helps explain the ongoing vitality of applications innovation within the Internet. If, for example, a hard decision had been made at the outset of the Internet that some hosts would be clients and others would have been servers, then this would have constrained and ultimately weakened the early work on voice over IP, on person-to-person chats, and on teleconferencing. The original IPv4 address space cannot sustain the original IP addressing architecture, given the dramatic growth in the number of devices capable of performing as IP hosts, now or soon including PDAs, mobile phones, and other appliances. Given this growth in the number of hosts, we must either expand the number of addresses or change the architecture. IPv6 implements the former option, while the widespread deployment of NATs as the solution implements the latter. We therefore argue that the deployment of IPv6 is architecturally conservative, in that it maintains the essence of the Internet architecture in the presence of an increasing number of hosts, while NAT deployment is architecturally radical, in that it changes the essence of the
Internet architecture. By taking this architecturally conservative approach, IPv6 retains the ability of the Internet to enjoy its classic strength of applications innovation. While it is difficult to predict exactly what forms future applications innovation might take, a few examples will help.
Â¢The new generation of SIP-based interpersonal communications applications, including voice over IP, innovative forms of messaging, presence, and conferencing, make effective use of central servers to allow users to locate each other, but then also makes effective use of direct host-to-host communications in support of the actual communications. This enables applications flexibility and allows for high performance.
Â¢Other conferencing applications, such as VRVS, also require direct host-to-host
communications and break when either user is placed behind a NAT.
Â¢The new Grid computing paradigm supports high-speed distributed computing by allowing flexible patterns of computer-to-computer communications. The performance of such systems would be crippled were it required for servers to be involved in these computer-to-computer communications. The point to be stressed, however, is the difficulty of anticipating such applications.
NATs, the widespread deployment of NATs is architecturally radical and interferes with application innovation by removing the ability of one host to initiate direct communication with another host. Instead, all applications must be ediated by a central server with a global IP address. Apart from this major negative impact on application innovation, there are other negative impacts on performance and network management. The performance problems stem from the need to change the IP address and port numbers within the IP header and the TCP headers of packets. The resulting complexity will be a difficult-to-diagnose source of performance problems.
More dangerously, however, NATs destroy both global addressability and end-to-end transparency, another key Internet architectural principle. According to the principle of end-to-end transparency, all the routers and switches between a pair of communicating hosts simply pass IP packets along and do not modify their contents (apart from decrementing the TTL
field of the IP header at each hop along the path). This principle is key to the support for new applications, and it also eases the task of debugging an application between a pair of hosts. When NAT and other middleboxes modify the contents of the packets, it becomes more difficult for applications developers to understand how to get new applications (those not known when the given middlebox was designed) to work. NAT boxes also break a number of tools, such as ping and traceroute, that depend on adherence to the classic Internet architecture and which are key to diagnosing network problems. Both expert ISP engineers and ordinary users have their time wasted trying to debug network problems either caused by the NAT boxes or made more difficult to diagnose by the NAT boxes.
Finally, note that NATs are deployed in a wonderfully incremental manner. This is a kind of strength, but it also makes it difficult to project the picture that will emerge if continued reliance on them continues. If IPv6 is not deployed so that our reliance on NATs as the solution to address scaling problems increases, we will begin to cascade NATs behind NATs and may eventually find ourselves one day in a situation like that reported by an ISP engineer from India who recently stated that they connected customers by cascading NATs five deep. The progressive difficulty of diagnosing performance and other network problems in this context will be severe.
9.2 Purported Security Improvements
While significant, IPv6's strengths in improving security should not be overstated or hyped. Careful distinction needs to be made with respect to several points.
IPsec is important for security. This work will be key to scalable secure communications as the Internet continues to grow and as we continue to rely on it more and more.
IPsec is important both for pure host-to-host and for support by gateways in a variety of ways.
IPv6 was designed to support IPsec and complete implementations of IPv6 will include IPsec.
When no NATs are in the path, IPv4 can also provide quite good support for IPsec. Thus, statements of the form IPv4 supports IPsec almost as well as IPv6 does are correct.
But when NATs present in the path, IPv4 will not be able to support IPsec well. Although we expect NATs to be less important in the IPv6 infrastructure, IPv6 NATs are conceivable and, when actually present, they would also defeat support for IPsec. Thus, the key issue is not so much IPv4 vs IPv6 per se, but rather classic IP vs NATted IP.
9.3 End User Applications
IPv6 provides somewhat better support for changing the address blocks assigned to a set of hosts and, thus, will improve the ease with which address assignment within a site can be maintained. This will result in eventual reduced operational costs and better performance for end hosts with more appropriate address assignments. IP mobility is quite a bit cleaner in an IPv6 context than in an IPv4 context. The number of steps involved is similar, but once achieved the path is more direct than with IPv4. This will help improve end-to-end performance in mobile contexts and will also remove sources of instability in these mobile IP contexts.
The IP header in an IPv6 packet contains a flow field that can help provide improved support QoS. There are many uncertainties here, however, and this advantage should not be overstated.
The basic problems are common to both IPv4 and IPv6. Again, in either case, the presence of NATs would complicate deployment of QoS and thus this adds to the broader notion of transparent and globally addressable IP (whether v4 or v6) as far stronger than either in a NATted environment.
For any given such device or application, this statement might possibly be true. Generally, though, two patterns emerge:
The value of the device or application is reduced, since its usefulness requires such aworkaround
The workaround generally involves adding yet another middlebox or proxy server, thus increasing the complexity and/or cost and also usually reducing the performance and robustness of the application.
Thus, while it's hard to argue a negative, the apology for NATs here is very weak. The specific problems mentioned will have the general effect of inhibiting the development and deployment and use of the devices and applications referred to.
9.4 Network Evolution
Taken positively, this assertion is true. That is, without undercutting the value of the 'other capabilities' (such as somewhat stronger support for IPsec, IP mobility, address renumbering, and QoS), the deep value of permitting the Internet to grow while retaining the strengths of global addressability and end-to-end transparency at the core of the classic IP architecture must not be underestimated. The real issue is not IPv4 vs IPv6, but IP with transparency vs IP with NATs along almost all paths.
9.5 Other Benefits and Uses
As with other points in section II, the issue is not IPv4 vs IPv6, but rather transparent IP vs NATted IP. With classic IP with end-to-end transparency and global addressability, SIP-based VoIP will be able to benefit from servers for the purpose of allowing users to identify and connect to each other, but then, when the actual voice packets begin to flow, those voice packets can go directly from source to destination without needing to go through an intermediate server. And, in this setting, once the voice packets begin to flow, any instability in that intermediate server will not cause the voice flow to fail. Thus, both performance and robustness will benefit. Again, this would be true for either IPv4 or IPv6, provided that no NATs are in the path between the two endpoints. But, of course, the widespread deployment of VoIP would require just the kind of massive increase in the number of IP devices that the limited 32-bit IPv4 address space cannot support. Thus, this becomes a case for IPv6.
Without giving a complete answer (which would be beyond my scope of expertise), I would point out that VoIP using the IEEE 802.11b 'WiFi' protocols are being experimented on at least one Internet2 member campus, and experience with that will likely help us over time to judge the answers. Note that, even apart from any issues of VoIP, university campuses are ideal places for deploying 802.11b/g in support of laptop and PDA uses. As IPv6 support in these environments begins to emerge, it appears very likely that various forms of VoIP will be explored on our campuses.
Finally, it should be stressed that IPv6 is likely to be important internationally. Moreover, since our international colleagues, especially in the Asia/Pacific and the European regions, suffer from address shortage much more than we do, they are moving forward on IPv6 technology development and on IPv6 deployment at a vigorous rate. To the degree that strong IPv6 infrastructure, IPv6-based applications, and content reachable via IPv6 infrastructure is of value in the United States, this should motivate our work on IPv6. It should be noted, at least in passing, that IPv6 developers all over the world have benefitted greatly from IPv6 software development done overseas.
The current IP-based network will gradually migrate from IPv4 to IPv6. Signalling interworking will need to be supported between the IPv6 network and the existing IPv4 network. Mapping of signalling between IPv6 and IPv4 is required. From the deployment point of view, there are three stages of evolution scenarios:
Â¢ First stage (stage 1): IPv4 ocean and IPv6 island;
Â¢ Second stage (stage 2): IPv6 ocean and IPv4 island;
Â¢ Third stage (stage 3): IPv6 ocean and IPv6 island.
There are several migration mechanisms from the IPv4 protocol to IPv6 protocol. The most discussed techniques are:
I. Dual stack â€œ to allow IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist in the same devices and networks;
II. Tunnelling â€œ to avoid order dependencies when upgrading hosts, routers or regions;
III. Translation â€œ to allow IPv6 only devices to communicate with IPv4 only devices.
Most of these techniques can be combined in a migration scenario to permit a smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6. In the following subsections these three techniques are described briefly.
I. Dual Stack Technique
In this method it is proposed to implement two protocols stacks in the same device. The protocol stack used for each link depends on the device used at the other end of the link. Figure 4 shows this arrangement.
Figure : Dual stack operation
Tunnelling techniques are used in two phases in the migration to a fully IPv6 network. In the first phase the core of the network uses the IPv4 protocol and there are only small islands IPv6. Figure 5 shows this phase. The IPv6 protocol is encapsulated in IPv4 tunnels.
Figure : IPv4 Tunnelling with islands of IPv6 in and IPv4 core network (phase 1)
In a second phase, when many nodes in the core of the network have already changed to IPv6, the situation is reversed and
IPv4 is encapsulated in IPv6 tunnels. The following figure shows this second phase.
Figure : IPv6 Tunnelling with islands of IPv4 in and IPv6 core network (phase 2)
III. Translation Techniques
This technique uses a device, the NATPT (Network Address Translation â€œ Protocol Translation) that translates in both directions between IPv4 and IPv6 at the boundary between an IPv4 network and an IPv6 network. Figure 7 shows this arrangement.
Figure : The arrangement with Network Address Translation â€œ Protocol Translation
This the new IPv6 protocol suite by comparing, where possible, the IPv6 protocol suite to similar features or concepts that currently exist in IPv4. This paper discussed how IPv6 resolves IPv4 protocol design issues, the new IPv6 header and extension headers, ICMPv6 (the replacement for ICMP for IPv4), MLD (the replacement for IGMP for IPv4), IPv6 Neighbor Discovery processes that manage interaction between neighboring IPv6 nodes, IPv6 address autoconfiguration, and IPv6 routing. While not in prevalent use today, the future of the Internet will be IPv6-based. It is important to gain an understanding of this strategic protocol to begin planning for the eventual transition to IPv6.
1.1 What is IP Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦...6
1.2Introduction to Ipv6Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.....6
1.3 What will IPv6 do Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.........8
2.2 Brief recapÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.10
4.Why Ipv6 is neededÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.13
5.1 capabilities of Ipv6Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦...15
5.2 Additional RequirementÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..17
7.1 Adderess spaceÂ¦..Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦21
7.2 Adderess syntaxÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..21
7.3 compressing zeroÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..Â¦22
7.4 Ipv6 prefixesÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦..Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦23
8.IPv6 vs IPv4Â¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.24
9.Potential Benefits & uses of IPv6Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦..28
9.1Incressed Address spaceÂ¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.28
9.2 Security improvementÂ¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦30
9.3 End user applicationsÂ¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦30
9.4 Network evolutionÂ¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦...31
9.5 Other Benefits & usesÂ¦Â¦.Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦Â¦.Â¦....31