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Light Trees
Post: #1

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Today, there is a general consensus that, in the near future, wide area networks (WAN)(such as, a nationwides backbone network) will be based on Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. One of the main advantages of a WDM WAN over other optical technologies, such as, Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) optical networks, is that it allows us to exploit the enormous bandwidth of an optical fiber (up to 50 terabits bits per second) with requiring electronic devices, which operate at extremely high speeds.

The concept of light tree is introduced in a wavelength routed optical network, which employs wavelength -division multiplexing (WDM).

Depending on the underlying physical topology networks can be classified into three generations:

? First Generation: these networks do not employ fiber optic technology; instead they employ copper-based or microwave technology. E.g. Ethernet.

? Second Generation: these networks use optical fibers for data transmission but switching is performed in electronic domain. E.g. FDDI.

? Third Generation: in these networks both data transmission and switching is performed in optical domain. E.g. WDM.

WDM wide area networks employ tunable lasers and filters at access nodes and optical/electronic switches at routing nodes. An access node may transmit signals on different wavelengths, which are coupled into the fiber using wavelength multiplexers. An optical signal passing through an optical wavelength-routing switch (WRS) may be routed from an output fiber without undergoing opto-electronic conversion.
Post: #2
The concept of a light-tree is introduced
in a wavelength-routed optical network. A light-tree is a
point-to-multipoint generalization of a lightpath. A lightpath is a
point-to-point all-optical wavelength channel connecting a transmitter
at a source node to a receiver at a destination node. Lightpath
communication can significantly reduce the number of hops (or
lightpaths) a packet has to traverse; and this reduction can, in turn,
significantly improve the networkâ„¢s throughput. We extend the
lightpath concept by incorporating an optical multicasting capability
at the routing nodes in order to increase the logical connectivity of
the network and further decrease its hop distance. We refer to such a
point-to-multipoint extension as a light-tree. Light-trees cannot only
provide improved performance for unicast traffic, but they naturally
can better support multicast traffic and broadcast traffic. In this
study, we shall concentrate on the application and advantages of
light-trees to unicast and broadcast traffic. We formulate the
light-tree-based virtual topology design problem as an optimization
problem with one of two possible objective functions: for a given
traffic matrix,
Post: #3
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