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 maglev train full report
Post: #1

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.INTRODUCTION
Magnetic levitation is the latest in transportation technology and has been the interest of many countries around the world. The idea has been around since 1904 when Robert Goddard, an American Rocket scientist, created a theory that trains could be lifted off the tracks by the use of electromagnetic rails. Many assumptions and ideas were brought about throughout the following years, but it was not until the 1970â„¢s that Japan and Germany showed interest in it and began researching and designing.
The motion of the Maglev train is based purely on magnetism and magnetic fields. This magnetic field is produced by using high-powered electromagnets. By using magnetic fields, the Maglev train can be levitated above its track, or guideway, and propelled forward. Wheels, contact with the track, and moving parts are eliminated on the Maglev train, allowing the Maglev train to essentially move on air without friction.
FIGURE[1]
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MAGLEV TRAIN
Maglev can be used for both low and high speed transportation. The low speed Maglev is used for short distance travel. Birmingham, England used this low speed transportation between the years of 1984 and 1995. However, engineers are more interested in creating the high-speed Maglev vehicles. The higher speed vehicle can travel at speeds of nearly 343mph or 552 km/h. Magnetic Levitation mainly uses two different types of suspension, which are Electromagnetic Suspension and Electrodynamic Suspension. However, a third suspension system (Intuctrack) has recently been developed and is in the research and design phase. These suspension systems are what keep the train levitated off the track.
PROPULSION SYSTEM
Electrodynamic Propulsion is the basis of the movement in a Maglev system. The basic principle that electromagnetic propulsion follows is that opposite poles attract each other and like poles repel each other. This meaning that the north pole of a magnet will repel the north pole of a magnet while it attracts the south pole of a magnet. Likewise, the south pole of a magnet will attract the north pole and repel the south pole of a magnet. It is important to realize these three major components of this propulsion system. They are:
Â¢ A large electrical power source
Â¢ Metal coils that line the entire guideway
Â¢ Guidance magnets used for alignment
The Maglev system does not run by using a conventional engine or fossil fuels. The interaction between the electromagnets and guideway is the actual motor of the Maglev system. To understand how Maglev works without a motor, we will first introduce the basics of a traditional motor. A motor normally has two main parts, a stator and a rotor. The outer part of the motor is stationary and is called the stator. The stator contains the primary windings of the motor. The polarity in the stator is able to rapidly change from north and south. The inner part of the motor is known as the rotor, which rotates because of the outer stator. The secondary windings are located within the rotor. A current is applied to the secondary wingings of the rotor from a voltage in the stator that is caused by a magnetic force in the primary windings. As a result, the rotor is able to rotate.
Now that we have an understanding of how motors work, we can describe how Maglev uses a variation on the basic ideas of a motor. Although not an actual motor, the Maglevâ„¢s propulsion system uses an electric synchronous motor or a linear synchronous motor. The Maglev system works in the same general way the compact motor does, except it is linear, meaning it is stretched as far as the track goes. The stators of the Maglev system are usually in the guiderails, whereas the rotors are located within the electromagnetic system on the train. The sections of track that contain the stators are known as stator packs. This linear motor is essential to any Maglev system. The picture below gives an idea of where the stator pack and motor windings are located.
FIGURE[2]
PARTS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEM
The guideway for Maglev systems is made up of magnetized coils, for both levitation and propulsion, and the stator packs. An alternating current is then produced, from the large power source, and passes through the guideway, creating an electromagnetic field which travels down the rails. As defined by the Encarta Online dictionary, an alternating current is a current that reverses direction. The strength of this current can be made much greater than the normal strength of a magnet by increasing the number of winds in the coils. The current in the guideway must be alternating so the polarity in the magnetized coils can change. The alternating current allows a pull from the magnetic field in front of the train, and a push from the magnetic field behind the train. This push and pull motion work together allowing the train to reach maximum velocities well over 300 miles per hour.
FIGURE[3]
PROPULSION SYSTEM IN EDS
This propulsion is unique in that the current is able to be turned on and off quickly. Therefore, at one instance there can be a positive charge running through a section of the track, and within a second it could have a neutral charge. This is the basic principle behind slowing the vehicle down and breaking it. The current through the guiderails is reversed causing the train to slow, and eventually to competely stop. Additionally, by reversing the current, the train would go in the reverse direction. This propulsion system gives the train enough power to accelerate and decelerate fairly quickly, allowing the train to easily climb steep hills.
The levitation, guidance, and propulsion of the electromagnetic suspension system must work together in order for the Maglev train to move. All of the magnetic forces are computer controlled to provide a safe and hazard free ride. The propulsion system works hand in hand with the suspension system on the Maglev system.
MAGNETIC LEVITATION SYSTEM
Magnetic levitation means to rise and float in air. The Maglev system is made possible by the use of electromagnets and magnetic fields. The basic principle behind Maglev is that if you put two magnets together in a certain way there will be a strong magnetic attraction and the two magnets will clamp together. This is called "attraction". If one of those magnets is flipped over then there will be a strong magnetic repulsion and the magnets will push each other apart. This is called "repulsion". Now imagine a long line of magnets alternatively placed along a track. And a line of alternatively placed magnets on the bottom of the train. If these magnets are properly controlled the trains will lift of the ground by the magnetic repulsion or magnetic attraction. On the basis of this principle, Magnetic Levitation is broken into two main types of suspension or levitation,
1. Electromagnetic Suspension.
2. Electrodynamic Suspension.
A third type of levitation, known an Inductrack, is also being developed in the United States.
.ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION SYSTEM(EMS)
Electromagnetic Suspension or EMS is the first of the two main types of suspension used with Maglev. This suspension uses conventional electromagnets located on structures attached to the underside of the train; these structures then wrap around a T-shaped guiderail. This guiderail is ferromagnetic, meaning it is made up of such metals as iron, nickel, and cobalt, and has very high magnetic permeability. The magnets on the train are then attracted towards this ferromagnetic guiderail when a current runs through the guiderail and the electromagnets of the train are turned on. This attraction lifts the car allowing it to levitate and move with a frictionless ride. Vehicle levitation is analyzed via on board computer control units that sample and adjust the magnetic force of a series of onboard electromagnets as they are attracted to the guideway.
The small distance of about 10mm needs to be constantly monitored in order to avoid contact between the trainâ„¢s rails and the guiderail. This distance is also monitored by computers, which will automatically adjust the strength of the magnetic force to bring this distance back to around 10mm, if needed. This small elevation distance and the constant need for monitoring the Electromagnetic Suspension System is one of its major downfalls.
FIGURE[4]
CR0SS SECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION SYSTEM
The train also needs a way to stay centered above the guideway. To do this, guidance coils and sensors are placed on each side of the trainâ„¢s structures to keep it centered at all points during its ride, including turns. Again, the gap should be around 10mm, so computers are used to control the current running through the guidance magnets and keep the gap steady. In addition to guidance, these magnets also allow the train to tilt, pitch, and roll during turns. To keep all distances regulated during the ride, the magnets work together with sensors to keep the train centered. However, the guidance magnets and levitation magnets work independently.
There are several advantages to this system. First, the train interlocks with the guiderail making it impossible to derail. Noise is extremely limited with this system because there is no contact between the train and its track. In addition, there arenâ„¢t many moving parts, which reduces the noise and maintenance of the system. With fewer parts, there is less wear and tear on the system. The Maglev train is also able to travel on steep gradients and tight curves. Figure [4] shows the metal beams which attach to the underside of the train. An example of Electromagnetic Suspension is shown in Figure [5] below. Before a Maglev system can be made, a choice must be made between using this type of suspension or Electrodynamic Suspension.
FIGURE [5]
PHOTOGRAPH OF MALEV TRAIN(EMS)
.ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION SYSTEM
The second of the two main types of suspension systems in use is the Electrodynamic Suspension (EDS). EDS uses superconducting magnets (SCM) located on the bottom of the train to levitate it off of the track. By using super cooled superconducting magnets, the electrical resistance in superconductors allows current to flow better and creates a greater magnetic field. The downside to using an EDS system is that it requires the SCMs to be at very cold temperatures, usually around 5 K (-268Ã‚ÂºC) to get the best results and the least resistance in the coils. The Japanese Maglev, which is based on an EDS system, uses a cooling system of liquid nitrogen and helium.
To understand whatâ„¢s really going on here, letâ„¢s start from the inside out. The first major difference between EDS and EMS is the type of track. Whereas with EMS the bottom of the train hooks around the edges of the track, an EDS train literally floats on air, as shown in the figure [6].
FIGURE [6]
THE ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION SYSTEM
The outside guides act like the cushions used to prevent gutter balls in bowling only an EDS train has a magnetic safety net to keep the train centered, unlike your traditional bowling ally. If the train is knocked in the horizontal direction, the field on the side it shifts to becomes greater and the field on the opposite side weakens due to this increase in distance. Therefore, in order to restore equal magnetic forces from each side, the train is pushed back into the center of the guideway and the strength of the magnetic fields reduces to their normal strength. This is one reason why EDS is a much more stable suspension system. A second reason why the Electrodynamic Suspension system is more stable is that it is able to carry a much heavier weight load without having its levitation greatly affected. As the gap between the train and vehicle decreases, forces between the SCMs located on the train and the magnets on the track repel each other and increase as the train gets heavier. For example, if weight is added to the train, it is going to want to get closer to the track; however it cannot do so because repulsion forces grow stronger as the poles on the train sink closer to the similar poles on the guideway. The repulsive forces between the magnets and coils lift the train, on average, about 4 to 6 inches above the track, which virtually eliminates any safety issues regarding the train losing levitation and hitting its guideway. This brings us to the next thing we encounter as we move out from the center of the guideway. Levitation coils repel the SCMs underneath the train, providing the restoring forces to keep the train aligned.
Propulsion coils are located next. The propulsion system of the Electrodynamic Suspension system is quite similar to Electromagnetic propulsion, but does vary slightly. To propel the train, the guideway has coils running along the top and bottom of the SCMs. Induced current within these coils creates alternating magnetic fields that attract or repel the SCMs, sending the train in the forward or reverse direction. Because the trains are moving by magnetic waves that push and pull it forward, itâ„¢s virtually impossible for trains to collide since they are in essence riding the same magnetic waves.
No engine or other power source is required to keep the train moving except the initial speed that is required to begin levitation. Therefore wheels are required to keep the train moving until about 100 km/hr (65 mph) where it can then begin to levitate.
Finally, the guideway has rails that encompass the outside of the train. Within these rails are the propulsion coils and levitation coils needed to keep the train moving and levitating above the bottom of the track. Because the train has its own safety net of magnetic force to keep it centered, the rails simply provide a place for other coils to be located and used. This railway provides no other means of support for the train since the bulk of the train is floating above the entire track.
FIGURE[7]
NEW LEADING JAPANESE EDS CAR, MLX01-901
EDS suspension has several positive and negative aspects to it. To begin, initial costs are high and most countries do not have the money or feel the need to spend it on this kind of transportation. Once up and running however, an EDS Maglev runs only on electricity so there is no need for other fuels. This reduction in fuel will prove to be very important to the sustainability of Maglev. One huge disadvantage of the EDS system is the great cost and inconvenience of having to keep the super cooled superconductive magnets at 5K. Another drawback is that in the event of a power failure, a Maglev train using EDS would slam onto the track at great speeds. This is a second reason for the wheels that are primarily used to get the train moving quickly enough for levitation. The wheels would need to have a shock system designed to compensate for the weight of the car and its passengers as the train falls to the track. In Japan, where EDS Maglev is in its testing stage, trains average about 300 km/hr and have been clocked at 552 km/hr, which is a world record for rail speed. Compared to Amtrak trains in the United States, which travel at an average of 130 km/hr, Maglev can get people where they need in about half of the time. The EMS and EDS suspension systems are the two main systems in use, but there is a possibility for a third to soon join the pack.
.A NEW TRACK IN THE RUNNING
Engineers are constantly trying to improve on previous technology. Within the past few years the United States has been developing a newer style of Maglev called the Inductrack, which is similar to the EDS system. This system is being developed by Dr. Richard Post at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The major difference between the Inductrack and the Electrodymanic System is the use of permanent magnets rather than superconducting magnets.
This system uses an arrangement of powerful permanent magnets, known as a Halbach array, to create the levitating force. The Halbach array uses high field alloy magnetic bars. These bars are arranged so the magnetic fields of the bars are at 90Ã‚Âº angles to the bars on either side, which causes a high powered magnetic field below the array.
The Inductrack is similar to that of the EDS system in that it uses repulsive forces. The magnetic field of the Halbach array on the train repels the magnetic field of the moving Halbach array in the guideway. The rails in the system are slightly different. The guideway is made from two rows of tightly packed levitation coils. The train itself has two Halbach arrays; one above the coils for levitation and the other for guidance. As with the EMS and EDS system, the Inductrack uses a linear synchronous motor. Below is a picture of the Halbach array and a model of the Inductrack system.
FIGURE [8]
MODEL OF THE INDUCTRACK
A major benefit of this track is that even if a power failure occurs, the train can continue to levitate because of the use of permanent magnets. As a result, the train is able to slow to a stop during instances of power failure. In addition, the train is able to levitate without any power source involved. The only power needed for this system is for the linear synchronous motor and the only power loss that occurs in this system is from aerodynamic drag and electrical resistance in the levitation circuits.
Although this type of track is looking to be used, it has only been tested once on a 20-meter track. NASA is working together with the Inductrack team to build a larger test model of 100 meters in length. This testing could eventually lead to a workable Maglev system for the future. The Inductrack system could also be used for the launching of NASAâ„¢s space shuttles. The following picture displays side by side all three types of levitation systems.
FIGURE [9]
IMAGE OF THREE TYPES OF LEVITATION TECHNIQUES
LATERAL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
The Lateral guidance systems control the trainâ„¢s ability to actually stay on the track. It stabilized the movement of the train from moving left and right of the train track by using the system of electromagnets found in the undercarriage of the MagLev train. The placement of the electromagnets in conjunction with a computer control system ensures that the train does not deviate more than 10mm from the actual train tracks.
The lateral guidance system used in the Japanese electrodynamic suspension system is able to use one set of four superconducting magnets to control lateral guidance from the magnetic propulsion of the null flux coils located on the guideways of the track as shown in Fig.[10]. Coils are used frequently in the design of MagLev trains because the magnetic fields created are perpendicular to the electric current, thus making the magnetic fields stronger. The Japanese Lateral Guidance system also uses a semi-active suspension system. This system dampens the effect of the side to side vibrations of the train car and allows for more comfortable train rides. This stable lateral motion caused from the magnetic propulsion is a joint operation from the acceleration sensor, control devive, to the actual air spring that dampens the lateral motion of the train car.
FIGURE [10]
A SKETCH OF THE COMBINED LEVITATION, PROPULSION AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM
The lateral guidance system found in the German transrapid system(EMS) is similar to the Japanese model. In a combination of attraction and repulsion, the MagLev train is able to remain centered on the railway. Once again levitation coils are used to control lateral movement in the German MagLev suspension system. The levitation coils are connected on both sides of the guideway and have opposite poles. The opposites poles of the guideway cause a repulsive force on one side of the train while creating an attractive force on the other side of the train. The location of the electromagnets on the Transrapid system is located in a different side of the guideways. To obtain electro magnetic suspension, the Transrapid system uses the attractive forces between iron-core electromagnets and ferromagnetic rails. In addition to guidance, these magnets also allow the train to tilt, pitch, and roll during turns. To keep all distances regulated during the ride, the magnets work together with sensors to keep the train centered.
Magnetic Fields
Â¢ Intensity of magnetic field effects of Maglev is extremely low (below everyday household devices)
Â¢ Hair dryer, toaster, or sewing machine produce stronger magnetic fields
Energy Consumption
Â¢ Maglev uses 30% less energy than a highspeed train traveling at the same speed. (1/3 more power for the same amount of energy)
Speed ICE Train Maglev Train
200 km/hr 32 Wh/km 32 Wh/km
250 km/hr 44 Wh/km 37 Wh/km
300 km/hr 71 Wh/km 47 Wh/km
400 km/hr - 71 Wh/km
Noise Levels
Â¢ No noise caused by wheel rolling or engine
Â¢ Maglev noise is lost among general ambient noise
Â¢ At 100m - Maglev produces noise at 69 dB
Â¢ At 100m - Typical city center road traffic is 80 dB
Vibrations
Â¢ Just below human threshold of perception
Power Supply
Â¢ 110kV lines fed separately via two substations
Power Failure
Â¢ Batteries on board automatically are activated to bring car to next station
Â¢ Batteries charged continuously
Fire Resistance of vehicles
Â¢ Latest non-PVC material used that is non-combustible and poor transmitter of heat
Â¢ Maglev vehicle carries no fuel to increase fire hazard
Safety
Â¢ 20 times safer than an airplane
Â¢ 250 times safer than other conventional railways
Â¢ 700 times safer than travel by road
Â¢ Collision is impossible because only sections of the track are activated as needed. The vehicles always travel in synchronization and at the same speed, further reducing the chances of a crash.
Operation Costs
Â¢ Virtually no wear. Main cause of mechanical wear is friction. Magnetic Levitation requires no contact, and hence no friction.
Â¢ Components normally subjected to mechanical wear are on the whole replaced by electronic components which do not suffer any wear
Â¢ Specific energy consumption is less than all other comparable means of transportation.
Â¢ Faster train turnaround time means fewer vehicles
LIMITATIONS
There are several disadvantages with maglev trains. Maglev guide paths are bound to be more costly than conventional steel railways. The other main disadvantage is lack with existing infrastructure. For example if a high speed line
between two cities it built, then high speed trains can serve both cities but more importantly they can serve other nearby cities by running on normal railways that branch off the high speed line. The high speed trains could go for a fast run on the high speed line, then come off it for the rest of the journey. Maglev trains wouldn't be able to do that, they would be limited to where maglev lines run. This would mean it would be very difficult to make construction of maglev lines commercially viable unless there were two very large destinations being connected. Of the 5000km that TGV trains serve in France, only about 1200km is high speed line, meaning 75% of TGV services run on existing track. The fact that a maglev train will not be able to continue beyond its track may seriously hinder its usefulness.
A possible solution
Although it is not seen anywhere a solution could be to put normal steel wheels onto the bottom of a maglev train, which would allow it to run on normal railway once it was off the floating guideway.
.CONCLUSION
Railways using MagLev technology are on the horizon. They have proven to be faster than traditional railway systems that use metal wheels and rails and are slowed by friction. The low maintenance of the MagLev is an advantage that should not be taken lightly. When you donâ„¢t have to deal with the wear and tear of contact friction you gain greater longevity of the vehicle. Energy saved by not using motors running on fossil fuels allow more energy efficiency and environmental friendliness.
Maglev will have a positive impact on sustainability. Using superconducting magnets instead of fossil fuels, it will not emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Energy created by magnetic fields can be easily replenished. The track of a Maglev train is small compared to those of a conventional train and are elevated above the ground so the track itself will not have a large effect on the topography of a region. Since a Maglev train levitates above the track, it will experience no mechanical wear and thus will require very little maintenance.
Overall, the sustainability of Maglev is very positive. Although the relative costs of constructing Maglev trains are still expensive, there are many other positive factors that overshadow this. Maglev will contribute more to our society and our planet than it takes away. Considering everything Maglev has to offer, the transportation of our future and our childrenâ„¢s future is on very capable tracks.
.REFERENCES
Sawada, Kazuo, "Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Technologies 1. Supderconducting Maglev Developed by RTRI and JR Central", Japan Railway & Transport Review, No. 25, 58-61.
He, J. L., Coffey, H. T., Rote, D.M. "Analysis of the Combined MagLev Levitation, Propulsion, and Guidance System", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol 31, No. # 2, March 1995, pp 981-987.
Zhao, C. F., Zhai, W. M., "MagLev Vehicle/Guideway Vertical Random Response and Ride Quality", Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol 38, No # 3., 2002, pp 185-210.
Cassat, A., Jufer, M. "MAGLEV Projects Technology Aspects and Choices", Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol 12, No. # 1, March 2002, pp 915-925.
Powell, J., Danby G. Maglev: The New Mode of Transport for the 21st Century 21st Century Science & Technology Summer Issue. http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/ar...3/maglev2.
Lever, J. H. Technical Assessment of Maglev System Concepts, Final Report by the Government Maglev System Assessment Team.
Freeman, R. http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/maglev.htm.
The Monorail Society Website Technical Pages http://www.monorails.org/tMspages/TPMagIntro.html
Seminar topics from http://www.edufive.com/seminarstopics.html
Post: #2
i need ppt on maglev topic its veryvery urgent plz send it
Post: #3
Post: #4
INTRODUCTION
Magnetic levitation is the use of magnetic fields to levitate a (usually) metallic object.

Manipulating magnetic fields and controlling their forces can levitate an object.

Using either Ferromagnetism or Diamagnetisim object can be leviated.

A superconductor is perfectly diamagnetic and electromagnets can exhibit varying levels of ferromagnetism

Most imoportant application of Magnetic Leviation is Transrapid magnetic lift trains

Post: #5
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ABSTRACT

This paper “ MAGLEV ” deals with the present scenario of magnetic levitation. The magnetically levitated train has no wheels, but floats-- or surfs-- on an electromagnetic wave, enabling rides at 330 miles per hour. By employing no wheels, maglev eliminates the friction, and concomitant heat, associated with conventional wheel-on-rail train configurations. There are two basic types of non-contact Maglev systems Electro Dynamic Suspension (EDS) , and Electro Magnetic Suspension (EMS). EDS is commonly known as " Repulsive Levitation ," and EMS is commonly known as "Attractive Levitation". Each type of Maglev system requires propulsion as well as "levitation." The various projects above use different techniques for propulsion, but they are all variations of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM) or Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM).The conversion to a linear geometry has a far greater effect on induction motor performance than on that of synchronous motors. The cost of making the guideway is a high percentage of the total investment for a maglev system. The comparison looks even better for maglev when the terrain becomes difficult. Many of the tunnels, embankments, and cuttings necessary for roads and railroads are avoided because maglev guideways can be easily adapted to the topography. The Maglev system requires a slightly larger start-up capital construction cost, its operating cost-- because it deploys electricity in electromagnets in an extraordinarily efficient manner, rather than using as a fuel source coal, gas or oil-- can be one-half that of conventional rail. The crucial point is that maglev will set off a transportation and broader scientific explosion. Air flights are and will remain beyond the reach of a major section of society, particularly in India . Moreover there are problems of wastage of time in air traffic delays and growing safety concerns. Trends in increased mobility of large masses with changing lifestyle for more comfort are leading to congestion on roads with automobiles. Besides, increasing pollution levels from automobiles, depleting fuel resources, critical dependence on the fuel import and due to a limited range of mobility of buses and cars the need for fast and reliable transportation is increasing throughout the world. High-speed rail has been the solution for many countries. Trains are fast, comfortable, and energy-efficient and magnetic levitation may be an even better solution.
Development of magnetic levitated transport systems is under progress in developed countries and it is just a matter of time they make inroads to India as well. Therefore, it will be interesting to know about the science and technology behind mass ground transport system known as "magnetic flight".

Post: #6
I want figures of maglev train
Post: #7
[attachment=7471]
MAGLEV TRAINS

summary

Introduction
How does it work?
- propulsion
- suspension
Development of the concept
Present using
Future plans
Conclusion
References

introduction

Out of science fiction books, a train running on magnetic and electrical force only, no wheels, no engine and the steel track replaced by a guideway, the maglev (Magnetic Levitation) trains are becoming a reality more then ever. With a record of 581km/h, these trains open new visions about future transportation.
Just like airplanes revolutionize 20th century’s transportation, maglev trains are expected to do the same thing with 21th century’s transportation.
How does it work? propulsion
Electromagnetic Propulsion:
In real life the opposite poles of magnets attract each other and like ends repel, this is the simple principle behind electromagnetic propulsion.
However electromagnets attract metal objects while charged with electricity, the pull is temporary and dependent on the charge.
For a train to operate three major components must be present in the system: a powerful electrical power source, large guidance magnets attached to the underside of the train, a track lined with metal coils.

The magnetized coil running along the track, is called the guideway. This will repel the large magnets on the underside of the carriage, causing the train to hover above the track.
The key advantage of the Maglev train is that it floats on a cushion of air, with virtually no friction. This allows the train to reach such high speeds!
Suspension
There is 2 forms of suspension technology:
1-Electromagnetic suspension
2-Electrodynamic suspension

1-Electromagnetic suspension:

In current EMS systems, the train levitates above a steel rail while electomagnets attached to the train, are oriented toward the rail from below.
The electromagnets use feedback control to maintain a train at a constant distance from a track.

2-Electrodynamic suspension:

In Electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the rail and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive force between these magnetic fields. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either electromagnets or by an array of permanent magnets .
At slow speeds, the force is not large enough to support the weight of the train. For this reason the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation.

+ and -
Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, there is no rolling friction, leaving only air resistance.
Maglevs can handle high volumes of passengers per hour and do it without introducing air pollution along the right way.
Safest way of transportation, since its all automatically controlled, no chance of collision or brake down.
No burning of fossil fuel, so no pollution, and the electricity needed will be nuclear or solar.
The powerful magnets demand a large amount of electricity to function so the train levitates. What makes the maglev trains much more expensive to build and to operate.

The weight of the large electromagnets in EMS and EDS designs are a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate a massive train.
Due to its high speed and shape, the noise generated by a maglev train is similar to a jet aircraft, and is considerably more disturbing than standard train noise. A study found the difference between disturbance levels of maglev and traditional trains to be 5dB (about 78% noisier)
Very costly to operate since it needs large magnets and a very advanced technology and huge amount of electrical power.
Development of the concept
A U.S. patent, dated 1 October 1907, is for a linear motor propelled train in which the motor, below the steel track, carried some but not all of the weight of the train. The inventor was Alfred Zehden.
The world's first commercial automated system was a low-speed maglev shuttle that ran from the airport terminal of Birmingham International Airport (UK) to the nearby Birmingham International railway station from 1984 to 1995.
Present using
Shanghai Maglev Train:

Contracted from 2000-2004 with a cost of 1.2 billion \$, it links the Pudong Airport and Shanghai Metro, it is based on the maglev technologies of Siemens. It caries about 7000 passengers per day

Linimo:

The world's first commercial automated “Urban Maglev" system commenced operation in March 2005 in Aichi, Japan. This is the nine-station 8.9 km long Tobu-Kyuryo Line, otherwise known as the Linimo.
The train has a top speed of 100 km/h.
conclusion
It’s no longer science fiction, maglev trains are the new way of transportation in the near future, just some obstacles are in the way, but with some researches nothing is impossible.
With no engine, no wheels, no pollution, new source of energy, floating on air, the concept has token tens of years to develop, just recently it’s true capacities has been realized.
Competing planes with speed, boats with efficiency, traditional trains with safety, and cars with comfort, it seems like it isn't a fair fight...
Post: #8

[attachment=7531]

1. INTRODUCTION

It’s a form of transportation that suspends ,guides and propels vehicles via electromagnetic force. This method can be faster and more comfortable than wheeled mass transit systems. Maglevs could potentially reach velocities comparable to turbo prop and jet aircraft (500 to 580km/hr).
Maglev Technology has minimal overlap with wheeled train technology and is not compatible with conventional rail road tracks. Because they cannot share existing infrastructure , maglevs must be designed as complete transportation system.The term “MAGLEV” refers not only to the vehicles but to the vehicle/guideway interaction each being a unique design element specifically tailored to the other to create and precisely control magnetic levitation.
Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, the only friction exerted is that between the vehicles and the air. Consequently, maglevs can potentially travel at very high speeds with reasonable energy consumption and noise levels. Systems have been proposed that operate at up to 659km/hr(404mph) which is faster than is practical with conventional rail transport. The very high maximum speed potential of maglevs make them competitors to airline routers of 1,000 kilometer(600 miles) or less.
2. TWO BASICALLY DIFFERENT CONCEPTS OF MAGNETIC SUSPENSION HAVE EVOLVED,
 The attractive electromagnetic suspension (EMS) uses electromagnetic on the train body which are attracted to the iron rails. The vehicle magnets wrap around the iron guideways and the attractive upward force lifts the train.
 The electrodynamics suspension (EDS) levitates the train by repulsive forces from the induced current in the conductive guide ways.
3. WHAT IS LEVITATION ?
LEVITATION (from Latin levis, light) is the process by which an object is suspended against the gravity, in a stable position, by a force without physical contact.
LEVITATION is the raising of a human or other object in the air without any mechanical aid.

THREE TYPES OF MAGLEV TECHNOLOGY
There are three primary types of maglev technology,
1. ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION (EMS) relies on feedback controlled electromagnets.
Example: Transrapid
2. ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION (EDS) relies superconducting magnets.
Example: JR-Maglev
3. INDUCTRACK RELIES on permagnets.
4. PROS AND CONS OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGY
Each implementation of the Magnetic Levitation principle for train type travel involves advantages as well as disadvantages.
5. THEORY:

The Inductrack and the Superconductivity EDS are only
levitation technologies. In both cases,vehicles need some other technology for propulsion. A Jet Engine and a linear motor are being considered, such as the linear motor used for propulsion in the Japanese Superconducting EDS MLXOI Maglev.

The German Transrapid Electromagnetic Maglev uses a linear motor for both levitation and propulsion. Neither Inductrack provides levitation down to a much lower speed. Wheels are required for both systems. EMS systems are wheel-less.

The German Transrapid Japanese HSST(linnimo) and Korean Rotem Maglevs levitate at a standstill, with electricity extracted wirelessly for Transrapoid .If guideway power is lost on the move, the Transpoid is still able to generate levitations down to 10km/hr speed, using the power from onboard batteries. This is not the case with the HSST and Rotem systems

Post: #9
Maglev Trains
How Transrapid Works
Support System

• The electromagnets on the underside of the train pull it up to the ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train.
• The magnets on the side keep the train from moving from side to side.
• A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track.
This means there is no friction between the train and the track
Levitation System’s Power Supply
 Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.
 The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.
 Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.
 Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.
Propulsion System
• The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guideway
• When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling.
• When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes.
• Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current.
• Only the section of track where the train is traveling is electrified
Application Information
Safety
• The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is wrapped around the track.
• Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are controlling the trains movements.
Maintenance
• There is very little maintenance because there is no contact between the parts.
Comfort
• The ride is smooth while not accelerating..
Economic Efficency
• The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is \$20-\$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost \$37 million per mile 17 years ago.)
• Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads.
• A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections
• The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train.
Speed
• The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only go 150 mph)
• For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to airport.)
• It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.)
Environment
• It uses less energy than existing transportation systems. For every seat on a 300 km trip with 3 stops, the gasoline used per 100 miles varies with the speed. At 200 km/h it is 1 liter, at 300 km/h it is 1.5 liters and at 400 km/h it is 2 liters. This is 1/3 the energy used by cars and 1/5 the energy used by jets per mile.
• The tracks have less impact on the environment because the elevated models (50ft in the air) allows all animals to pass, low models ( 5-10 ft) allow small animals to pass, they use less land than conventional trains, and they can follow the landscape better than regular trains since it can climb 10% gradients (while other trains can only climb 4 gradients) and can handle tighter turns.
Post: #10
[attachment=8852]
Maglev trains
• A few countries are using powerful electromagnets to develop high-speed trains, called maglev trains.
• Traveling at speeds of up to 310 mph (500 kph), maglev trains could begin connecting distant cities in a few years
How it works.
• A maglev train floats about 10mm above the guide way on a magnetic field.
• It is propelled by the guide way itself rather than an onboard engine by changing magnetic fields.
How it works con’t
• Once the train is pulled into the next section the magnetism switches so that the train is pulled on again.
• The Electro-magnets run the length of the guide way.
• Well it sounds high-tech, a floating train, they do offer certain benefits over conventional steel rail on steel wheel railways.
• The primary advantage is maintenance.
• Because the train floats along there is no contact with the ground and therefore no need for any moving parts.
• As a result there are no components that would wear out.
• In theory, this means, trains and track would need no maintenance at all.
• Note that there is still air resistance
• The second advantage is that because maglev trains float, there is no friction
• A third advantage is less noise.
• Because there are no wheels running along there is no wheel noise
• However noise due to air disturbance still occurs while the train is in motion.
• The final advantage is speed.
• As a result of the three previous listed it is more viable for maglev trains to travel extremely fast
• i.e. 500km/h or 300mph.
• Although this is possible with conventional rail it is not economically viable.
• Ah-ha tricked ya! There is one more advantage.
• Another advantage is that the guide way can be made a lot thicker in places.
• E.g. after stations and going uphill, Which would mean a maglev could get up to 300kmh (186mph) in only 5km where currently takes 18km.
• Also greater gradients would be applicable.
• O.k I mean it now this was the last one.
Post: #11
PRESENTED BY:
AMIT KUMAR

[attachment=10620]
INTRODUCTION
 MAGLEV is the combination of two words MAG and LEV.MAG defines the electromagnetism and LEV defines its use in transportation.
 The principal of a Magnet train is that floats on a magnetic field and is propelled by a linear induction motor .
 They follow guidance tracks with magnets.
 A few countries are using powerful electromagnets to develop high-speed trains, called maglev trains.
HISTORY
1930’s: Hermann Kemper (Germany) was developing a concept to use magnetic fields with trains
1968: Americans James R. Powell and Gordon T. Danby got a patent for their maglev train design
HOW IT WORKS
OPERATION

MagLev vs. Conventional Trains
Still being developed
Safety issues
Loss of power supply could cause serious accidents
Expensive to build
\$10-30 million per mile
Fast
Quiet
ECO- Friendly
No emissions
Good alternative to planes
Easy maintenance
No friction
THE FUTURE OF MAGLEV
• Maglev in the USA? - California is projected to begin construction of a \$6 billion Maglev project in 2003.
• Maglev Rockets? NASA is looking into maglev technology for rockets.
Post: #12
pls send me the ppt of maglev.pls
Post: #13
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Post: #14
PRESENTED BY:
TONY PEDERSON & TOBY MILLER

[attachment=12088]
PROJECT SUMMARY
The goal of the project is to design a model size train to will be levitated and propelled by electromagnetism. A special magnet array called a Halbach array will be utilized along with a linear synchronous motor to make this train operate.
STANDARDS
• ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS
– Reduction in pollution in the area where they will be used will out way the increased pollution crated by power plants to power the trains.
• SAFETY STANDARDS
– Must prove that the new technology is safe to use.
TRAIN
• Made out of aluminum to minimize weight
• 4 rows of 8 magnets arranged in a Halbach Array
• 2 rows for levitation
• 2 rows for lateral guidance and propulsion
• May or may not have speed sensor. This will be determined later
TRACK
• 2 aluminum guide ways
• Wires will be wrapped around guide way to provide the levitation circuits
• A G scale model railroad track will be laid between guide ways to provide support for take off and stopping.
• A linear synchronous motor will be attached to the track to provide propulsion
ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION
• The magnets on the train produce currents while traveling in the guide way. This uses repulsion to guide and support the train, but will need a support for “landing” and “takeoff” since EDS does not work below 25 mph on a full size train. The minimum speed for levitation will be determined later once the train is built. It has been determined to be a function of magnet size and weight.
PRELIMINARY WORK
• Almost all time has been spent on research
• IEEE Transactions have been very helpful
• No track calculations have been made. The train has to be built first to determine weight of train.
PREDICTED TIMELINE SPRING SEMESTER
• WEEK 1 - BUILD THE TRAIN.
• WEEKS 2-4 - FINISH DESIGNING TRACK AND BUILD IT.
• WEEKS 5-12 - TESTING AND DESIGNING A CONTROLLER.
• WEEKS 13-16 – PREPARING FOR FINALE PRESENTATION.
Post: #15
PRESENTED BY-
Arvind Singh

[attachment=12290]
What is maglev train ?
 Maglev trains are the fastest trains in the world! Maglev is short for magnetic levitation which basic principles involve the use of magnetism to levitate an object .
 Maglev trains are theoretically capable of speeds upwards of 4,000 miles per hour if operating in a vacuum. The highest recorded speed for a maglev train is 581 kilometres per hour. This record was set by a Japanese experimental maglev train in 2003.
Origin of maglev tech.
 The first serious maglev research was done by British researcher Eric Laithwaite in the 1960s.
 In 1979, the first passenger-carrying maglev train entered service in Hamburg, Germany.
 The first operating maglev system was built in Britain, at the Birmingham airport in 1984, where it was used as a people mover.
How maglev train work?
 Maglev trains use the basic principle of magnetism to force the train upwards above the track surface. The simple way of visualizing this is to imagine the train repelling away from the track surface.
How maglev train move ?
 It uses the principles of linear induction and magnetism to propel the train forwards or backwards. The combination of repulsive and attractive magnetic forces cause the train to move towards a region of track. In the same fashion, to slow down the train while it is moving, we must apply the repulsive and attractive forces in such a way opposite to which the motion started.
Levitation System’s Power Supply
 Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.
 The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.
 Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.
 Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.
The Maglev Track
 The magnetized coil running along the track, called a guideway, repels the large magnets on the train's undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate.
 Following fig. show the track for maglev
 The following diagrams below show the side view and top view of the track.
 Magnetic Levitation (Track Side View):
--N---N---N---N---N---N
=================
n---n----n---n----n---n---n
Maglev Propulsion (Top Down View):
n---s----n---s----n---s---n
=================
--N---S---N---S---N---S +++>
=================
n---s----n---s----n---s---n
Propulsion System
 When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes.
• Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current.
Types of Maglev Propulsion
 There are three basic types of maglev propulsion:
 Electromagnetic suspension uses the attractive magnetic force to lift the train.
 Electrodynamic suspension uses the repulsive magnetic force to lift the train away from the rail
 Stabilized permanent magnet suspension uses opposing arrays of permanent magnets to suspend the train above the guide way.
Application Information
 This system is not ready for use now, but it should be ready in a few years.
 It’s top speed with people aboard is 350 mph.
 The super conducting magnets create a strong magnetic field that could be a problem for some passengers.
 The train is earthquake proof because the greater space (10 cm) between the track and the train leaves more room for track deformation
 Linear generators will produce all the electricity needed in the train’s interior.
 Only the part of the track that is used will be electrified so no energy is wasted.
The Future of Maglev Trains
 There are currently more than a dozen proposals for high speed maglev trains in various stages of review in countries around the world.
 There also plans under consideration for maglev systems in India, Pakistan and the United States
 “Mumbai to Delhi: Three Hours by Train.” Express India.
Summery
 Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward.
 Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds.
 It is a safe and efficient way to travel.
 Governments have mixed feelings about the technology. Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others like Germany have balked at the expense.
Post: #16
PRESENTED BY:
JONEY THAKUR

[attachment=13192]
MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAINS (MAGLEV)
Driving without wheels flying without wings
NEED & NECESSITY
Trends in increased mobility of large masses with changing lifestyle for more comfort are leading to congestion on roads with automobiles
increasing pollution levels from automobiles, depleting fuel resources ,critical dependence on the fuel import
problems of wastage of time in air traffic delays and growing safety concerns
MAGNETIC LEVITATION
In this process an object is suspended above another with no other support but magnetic fields
Manipulating magnetic fields and controlling their forces can levitate an object
The electromagnetic force is used to
counteract the forces of gravitation
If the levitated magnet is rotated, the
gyroscopic forces can prevent it from
Is the use of magnetic fields to levitate a
(usually) metallic object
overturning.
SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET
PROPULSION SYSTEM

Electrodynamic Propulsion is the basis of the movement in a Maglev system
The principle that electromagnetic propulsion follows is that “opposite poles attract each other and like poles repel each other”.
The three major components of a propulsion system:
A large electric power source
Metal coils that line the entire guideway
Guidance magnets used for alignment
LEVITATION TYPES:
The principal two systems :
1. Electromagnetic Suspension- attractive
2. Electrodynamic Suspension- repulsive
ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION
Suspension uses conventional electromagnets located on structures attached to the underside of the train
Current runs through the guiderail and the electromagnets of the train are turned on.
EMS uses the attractive force of
a magnet beneath the rail to lift
the train up.
Guidance coils are placed on
side of the train to keep it
centered,during turns as well.
ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION
EDS uses a repulsive force between two magnetic fields to push the train
Superconducting magnets (SCM) located on the bottom of the train to levitate it off of the track
By using super cooled
superconducting magnets,
the electrical resistance in
superconductors allows
current to flow better and
creates a greater magnetic field
PRINCIPLE OF EDS:
PROS & CONS OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES:
A NEW TRACK IN THE RUNNING: INDUCTRACK

Similar to the EDS system.
Difference is use of permanent magnets rather than superconducting magnets.
This system uses an “arrangement of powerful permanent magnets, known as a Halbach array, to create the levitating force”.
The Inductrack is similar to that of the EDS system in that it uses repulsive forces.
Guideway is made from “two rows of tightly packed levitation coils”.
The train itself has two Halbach arrays; one above the coils for levitation and the other for guidance
A major benefit of this track is that even if a power failure occurs, the train can continue to levitate because of the use of permanent magnets.
Magnetic Fields: low intensity
Energy consumption: 30% less energy than a high speed train
Noise Levels :
No noise caused by wheel rolling or engine
Maglev noise is lost among general ambient noise
At 100m - Typical city center road traffic is 80 dB
Vibrations:
Just below human threshold of perception
Safety:
20 times safer than an airplane
Collision is impossible because only sections of the track are activated as needed.
Power Supply:
110kV lines fed separately via two substations
Power Failure:
Batteries on board automatically are activated to bring car to next station
Batteries charged continuously
Fire Resistance of vehicles:
Latest non-PVC material used that is non-combustible and poor transmitter of heat
Maglev vehicle carries no fuel to increase fire hazard
Operation Costs:
Virtually no wear. Main cause of mechanical wear is friction. Magnetic Levitation requires no contact, and hence no friction.
Specific energy consumption is less than all other comparable means of transportation.
LIMITATIONS
Maglev guide paths are bound to be more costly than conventional steel railways
Lack with existing infrastructure
They are limited to where maglev lines run
Very difficult to make construction of maglev lines commercially viable
The fact that Maglev train will not be able to continue beyond its track may seriously hinder its usefulness
OTHER APPLICATIONS:
NASA plans to use magnetic levitation for launching of space vehicles into low earth orbit.
Boeing is pursuing research in MagLev to provide a Hypersonic Ground Test Facility for the Air Force
The mining industry will also benefit from MagLev
CONCLUSION
Railways using MagLev technology are on the horizon.
Low maintenance of the MagLev is an advantage
Energy efficient and Environmental friendly
Energy created by magnetic fields can be easily replenished
No large effect on the topography of a region
Sustainability of Maglev is very Positive
Considering everything Maglev has to offer, the transportation of our future and our children’s future is on very capable tracks.
Post: #17
I. INTRODUCTION
ALONG with the increase of population and expansion
in living zones, automobiles and air services cannot
afford mass transit anymore. Accordingly, demands for innovative
means of public transportation have increased. In
order to appropriately serve the public, such a new-generation
transportation system must meet certain requirements such
as rapidity, reliability, and safety. In addition, it should be
convenient, environment-friendly, low maintenance, compact,
light-weight, unattained, and suited to mass-transportation. The
magnetic levitation (Maglev) train is one of the best candidates
to satisfy those requirements. While a conventional train drives
forward by using friction between wheels and rails, the Maglev
train replaces wheels by electromagnets and levitates on the
guideway, producing propulsion force electromechanically
without any contact.
The Maglev train can be reasonably dated from 1934 when
Hermann Kemper of Germany patented it. Over the past few
decades since then, development of the Maglev train went
through the quickening period of the 1960s, the maturity of
the 1970s–1980s, and the test period of the 1990s, finally
accomplishing practical public service in 2003 in Shanghai,
China [1]–[4].
Since the Maglev train looks to be a very promising solution
for the near future, many researchers have developed technologies
such as the modeling and analysis of linear electric
machinery, superconductivity, permanent magnets, and so on
[5]–[25].
The Maglev train offers numerous advantages over the conventional
wheel-on-rail system: 1) elimination of wheel and
track wear providing a consequent reduction in maintenance
costs [26]; 2) distributed weight-load reduces the construction
costs of the guideway; 3) owing to its guideway, a Maglev train
will never be derailed [96]; 4) the absence of wheels removes
much noise and vibration; 5) noncontact system prevents it from
slipping and sliding in operation; 6) achieves higher grades and
curves in a smaller radius; 7) accomplishes acceleration and deceleration
quickly; 8) makes it possible to eliminate gear, coupling,
axles, bearings, and so on; 9) it is less susceptible to weather conditions. However, because there is no contact between
rails and wheels in the Maglev train, the traction motors
must provide not only propulsion but also braking forces
by direct electromagnetic interaction with the rails. Secondly,
the more weight, the more electric power is required to support
the levitation force, and it is not suitable for freight. Thirdly,
owing to the structure of the guideway, switching or branching
off is currently difficult. Fourthly, it cannot be overlooked that
the magnetic field generated from the strong electromagnets for
levitation and propulsion has effects on the passenger compartment.
Without proper magnetic shielding, the magnetic field in
the passenger compartment will reach 0.09 T at floor level and
0.04 T at seat level. Such fields are probably not harmful to
human beings, but they may cause a certain amount of inconvenience.
Shielding for passenger protection can be accomplished
in several ways such as by putting iron between them, using the
Halbach magnet array that has a self-shielding characteristic,
and so on. [27], [79].
Table I shows the comparison of Maglev and wheel-on-rail
systems. In all aspects, Maglev is superior to a conventional
train. Table II represents the comparison of characteristics of the
mass transportation systems provided by the Ministry of Transportation
in Japan. It is appreciable from the tables that the tendency
of global transportation is toward the Maglev train. Accordingly,
it is necessary to be concerned and understand all technologies including magnetic levitation, guidance, propulsion,
power supply, and so on.
II. TECHNOLOGY ASPECTS
State-of-the-art Maglev train technologies are investigated.
Fig. 1 illustrates the difference between the conventional train
and the Maglev train. While the conventional train uses a rotary
motor for propulsion and depends on the rail for guidance and
support, the Maglev train gets propulsion force from a linear
motor and utilizes electromagnets for guidance and support.
A. Levitation
Typically, there are three types of levitation technologies:
1) electromagnetic suspension; 2) electrodynamic suspension;
and 3) hybrid electromagnetic suspension.
1) Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS): The levitation is accomplished
based on the magnetic attraction force between a
guideway and electromagnets as shown in Fig. 2. This methodology
is inherently unstable due to the characteristic of the magnetic
circuit [28]. Therefore, precise air-gap control is indispensable
in order to maintain the uniform air gap. Because EMS
is usually used in small air gaps like 10 mm, as the speed becomes
higher, maintaining control becomes difficult. However,
EMS is easier than EDS technically (which will be mentioned
in Section II) and it is able to levitate by itself in zero or low
speeds (it is impossible with EDS type).
In EMS, there are two types of levitation technologies: 1) the
levitation and guidance integrated type such as Korean UTM
and Japanese HSST and 2) the levitation and guidance separated
type such as German Transrapid. The latter is favorable
for high-speed operation because levitation and guidance do
Fig. 2. Electromagnetic suspension. (a) Levitation and guidance integrated. (b)
Levitation and guidance separated.
Fig. 3. Electrodynamic suspension. (a) Using permanent magnets. (b) Using
superconducting magnets.
not interfere with each other but the number of controllers increases.
The former is favorable for low-cost and low-speed operation
because the number of electromagnets and controllers
is reduced and the guiding force is generated automatically by
the difference of reluctance. The rating of electric power supply
of the integrated type is smaller than that of the separated type,
but as speed increases, the interference between levitation and
guidance increases and it is difficult to control levitation and
guidance simultaneously in the integrated type [29].
In general, EMS technology employs the use of electromagnets
but nowadays, there are several reports concerning EMS
technology using superconductivity, which is usually used for
EDS technology [30]–[33]. Development of the high-temperature
superconductor creates an economical and strong magnetic
field as compared with the conventional electromagnets even
though it has some problems such as with the cooling system.
2) Electrodynamic Suspension (EDS): While EMS uses
attraction force, EDS uses repulsive force for the levitation
[34]–[46]. When the magnets attached on board move forward
on the inducing coils or conducting sheets located on
the guideway, the induced currents flow through the coils or
sheets and generate the magnetic field as shown in Fig. 3. The
repulsive force between this magnetic field and the magnets
levitates the vehicle. EDS is so stable magnetically that it is
unnecessary to control the air gap, which is around 100 mm,
and so is very reliable for the variation of the load. Therefore,
EDS is highly suitable for high-speed operation and freight.
However, this system needs sufficient speed to acquire enough
induced currents for levitation and so, a wheel like a rubber tire
is used below a certain speed (around 100 km/h).

http://electricalandelectronics.org/wp-c...644911.pdf
Post: #18
sir plz send me the full report on maglev train
Post: #19
http://www.seminarprojects.org/t-maglev-...ort?page=3

http://www.seminarprojects.org/t-maglev-...ort?page=2

http://www.seminarprojects.org/t-maglev-...ull-report

http://www.seminarprojects.org/t-maglev-...5#pid57115
Post: #20
The Maglev Train History
[attachment=17242]

In the 1960s in Britain Eric Laithwaite developed a functional maglev train. His maglev had 1.6 km of track and was in detail tested. His research was stopped in 1973 because lack of money and his progress was not enough. In the 1970s, Germany and Japan also began research and after some failures both nations developed mature technologies in the 1990’s

The Maglev Train
Maglev is a short for Magnetic Levitation

The Maglev Train is one of the fastest transport media in the whole world.

The maximum speed reached for a Maglev train has been 581 km\h in Japan.

The Maglev Train uses magnets to reach a really high velocity

It doesn’t touch the floor. It levitates because the magnets

The German Transrapid is about 20 times safer han airplanes

250 times safer than conventional railroads

700 times safer than automobile travel

A accident between two maglev trains is nearly impossible because the linear induction motors prevent trains running in opposite directions.
Post: #21
maglev train full report

[attachment=17630]

INTRODUCTION:

Maglev = magnetic + levitation.

1st described by Robert Goddard, American Rocket Scientist, 1909 Scientific American.

Next, 1912, French engineer, modeled it, Emile Bachelet, eddy-current repulsive levititation, amount of power needed too high to run… lack of funding.

POWER SUPPLY
Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.

The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.

Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.
Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.

PROPULSION SYSTEM

The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guideway.

When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling.
Post: #22
Can you send me the detailed video file for maglev work principle if possible.
Post: #23
maglev train

[attachment=17778]
Electromagnetic Suspension(EMS)

It works on the concept that electromagnetic forces attract to A metal or another electromagnet when they face each other with the opposing polarities.

The Trans rapid system currently used by maglev in shanghai uses (EMS) principle.

Electrodynamic suspension(EDS)

It works on the concept of repulsive magnetic forces when electromagnets face each other with the same polarities.
The EDS system uses superconductors cooled with liquid helium, and it's still in the experimental stage with many technical difficulties to be overcome.

Propulsion

An alternating current is ran through electromagnet coils on the guide walls of the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward.
Braking is accomplished by sending an alternating current in the reverse direction so that it is slowed by attractive and repulsive forces.

Levitation
The passing of the superconducting magnets by figure eight levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field. This pushes the train upward so that it can levitate 10 cm above the track.
The train does not levitate until it reaches 50 mph, so it is equipped with retractable wheels.
Post: #24
plz give pdf file hhhff hkjkhk bhfhgfhgfhgj
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