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mechanism used in glass industry full report
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A study was conducted in one of the premier glass manufacturing industries in India during June 2005 to understand the different mechanisms employed in glass industry. M/s. Excel Glasses Limited, Alappuzha, Kerala was selected for the study. Pneumatic systems and different mechanisms employed for making glass bottles and jars by the above unit are discussed. The study has revealed that Individual Section (I.S.) Machine is used to manufacture glass bottles and jars for the liquor, food and pharmaceutical industries in India.

The company was incorporated in 1970 in the joint sector promoted with Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC) as co-promoter. Presently the company is controlled and managed by the Bombay based PARIJAT Group. The group has an annual turnover of over 400 crores. M/s. Kopran chemicals Ltd., Oriental Containers Ltd. etc are some of the other major companies of the group. The company is managed by a professional Board of Directors with Mr. PRASHANT SOMANI as Managing Director.

The company is one of the premier soda lime glass containers manufacturing concerns in India and has its works nestled in the backwater lagoons of midtown Alappuzha on NH 47, 55 km south of Kochi in Kerala. The business operations are mostly concentrated in the southern states of India. Recently the business operations also extended to Sri Lanka.

The present management acquired financial and management of the company in 1984 and then onwards Excel Glasses Limited has been vibrant and the production facilities were being slowly but steadily modernized and updated. The company got ISO 9002 certification in June 1999 and has been re-certified for ISO 9001(2000 series) in November 2002.
Presently the company operates a 170-tonness per day glass-melting furnace with five glass forming lines. The company manufactures flint glass bottles and jars mainly for the liquor, food and pharmaceutical industry.

In pneumatic system, compressed air is a working medium. A relatively small compressor suffices to fill a reservoir tank for intermittent use, and no return lines are needed. It is relatively easy to connect one device to another by pipe, tubing or flexible hoses. The compressor feeds air into a main tank, the main tank's pressure is higher than the pressure required by any single Pneumatic Animatronics. The main tank outlet should have an adjustable regulator, which reduces the tank's pressure to that required by the rest of the pneumatic system. On the regulator are two gauges used to read both tank pressure and the output pressure of the regulator.
The compressor's output line should be coupled with a filter/drier trap unit, which is designed to remove oil and any foreign particles that may have been introduced by the compressor. It is also intended to collect any water, which condenses out of the air as it passes through. (As the pressure and temperature of the airdrops when passing into this larger enclosure, water vapor passes into its liquid state.) Water and debris - including tiny metal particles shed by the compressor's mechanism - contribute to rust, corrosion and wear, while oil causes deterioration in rubber parts and seals. Thus, a filter can be important for reliable system operation. These devices consist of a perforated cylindrical, housed inside a glass or plastic cup which is often covered with a mesh or cage to prevent injury to the operator in case he enclosure shatters. At the bottom of the glass is a tap valve, which may be opened during operation to expel water and oil.

Individual Section (I.S.) machine produced first time in 1925 is now used all over the world as the most dominant machine for bottle and jar production. In this machine, there are number of individual sections. During the initial years of production of this machine there were only four sections. Machines with 6, 8, and 10 sections operating double gobs are now available and in operation in India. The number of sections in a machine depends on the size of the orders expected. Machines working either single, duel, triple or quadruple gobs are available throughout the world. The largest machine has 12 sections.
Individual Section machine does not rotate. The moulds stay in the same position and just open and close. A transfer arm pivoted between a blank and blow mould transfers the parison from one mould to another.
1. Shear Mechanism
2. Scoop Mechanism
3. Funnel Mechanism
4. Baffle Mechanism
5. Plunger Mechanism
6. Neckring Mechanism
7. Invert Mechanism
8. Blowhead Mechanism
9. Vertiflow Mechanism
The Operation of making glasses:
1. Shear mechanism - shears the gob
2. Scoop mechanism - guides the gob
3. Mould opening & closed mechanism - Blank mould closed
4. Funnel mechanism “ guides the gob in required shape
5. Baffle mechanism “ ˜ON™ operation
6. Plunger mechanism “ ˜ON™
7. Counter blow operation
8. Settle blow operation
9. Neckring mechanism - Parison transfer to blow mould
10. Blow head mechanism - Final blow
11. Take-out mechanism “ takes the bottle to the machine conveyor

The shear mechanism consists mainly of two sector gears, two arms and bracket. The shear blades are fixed on the shear arms. The function of the shear mechanism is to shear the gobs in proper shape and size for the container making process.
Mould supporting bracket

The scoop mechanism consists of a piston and cylinder arrangement. The purpose of scoop mechanism is to supply the gob to the different sections of the I.S. machine for glass formation.
Piston rods & shafting


The funnel mechanism consists of a piston and rod and a cylinder. The arm is dipped in an oil well and the ËœOFFâ„¢ operation is spring controlled. The purpose of funnel mechanism is to hold the funnel arm and to guide the gob in the required shape to the blank mould.

¢ Improved cam design resulted in speed increase up to 33% during downstroke and 35% during upstroke
¢ Less mold equipment wear
¢ Prolonged mechanism service life
¢ Reduced inventories for funnel mechanism and spare parts
¢ Greater maintenance convenience
¢ Compatibility with existing mold equipment
¢ Externally accessible ball check valves
¢ Enlarged air passages
¢ Integrated cushioning ring
¢ Permanent lubrication
¢ Precise mechanism movement

A baffle mechanism consists of a long piston and rod and a cylinder. The twisting of the baffle of the baffle arm is achieved by a cam provided at the bottom of the cylinder. The function of the baffle mechanism is to hold the parison while giving counter blow and then to give the settle blow.

The function of plunger mechanism is to provide the counter blow air for parison formation and to give the plunger ËœONâ„¢ movement for the formation of the neck of the glass container. It consists of a piston and cylinder arrangement.
¢ For Precision Parison Forming
¢ Quick Exchange for Different Processes
¢ Low Friction Design for Narrow Neck Press & Blow
¢ Precise Plunger Alignment
¢ Improved Plunger Cooling
¢ Improved Efficiency and Reduced Job-Change time

The neckring mechanism consists of a splined shaft and two cylinders, which are air operated. The function of neckring mechanism is to hold the neckring and to transfer the ware than the blank mould to the blow mould.
¢ 50% higher cooling efficiency
¢ Easier handling at job change
¢ Rigid design
¢ Well proven damper cylinder

The invert mechanism consists of a racked piston and a cylinder. The end operations are cushioned by two hydraulic cartridges. The function of invert mechanism is to rotate the neckring mechanism for parison transfer.
Cartridge valve

¢ Predictable cooling helps produce more consistent container quality
¢ Reduced cooling time leads to potential for higher production speed
¢ Easier mold change helps reduce down time
¢ Fumes carried away thus providing better working environment
¢ No heat load on section helps increase mechanism life
¢ Conversion of VertiFlow Molds to use of existing mold stock

The blow head mechanism consists of a piston and rod and a cylinder. The cam and cam roller movement determines the swing of the arm. The cam is immersed in an oil well. The function of the blow head mechanism is to provide the final blow air for the complete formation of the bottle in the blow mould cavity.

Blowhead arms

¢ Improved cam design resulted in speed increase up to 37% during downstroke and 24% during upstroke
¢ Less wear on blowhead arms and blowheads
¢ Prolonged mechanism service life
¢ Reduced inventories for blowhead mechanism and spare parts
¢ Greater maintenance convenience
¢ Compatibility with existing mold equipment
¢ Externally accessible ball check valves
¢ Enlarged air passages
¢ Optimized upstroke piston rod cushioning
¢ Integrated air and lubrication piping
¢ Precise mechanism movement

The vertiflow mechanism consists of an air chamber and a damper, which is air operated. The function of the vertiflow mechanism is to provide the cooling air for the cooling of the blow moulds in an I.S. machine.
The various mechanisms employed for making glass bottles and jars by the glass manufacturing industries are discussed. Now, the glass industry is set to grow at a rapid pace because of the diverse uses of various types of glasses. Fiberglass reinforced with plastics can be used in the construction of furniture, cars, trucks, lampshades, bathroom fittings etc. Based on the recent developments in the glass industry, different types of glasses are being used in many fields like as a riffle barrel which is lighter and stronger than the conventional type, to form thousands of items in the body of a guided missile, for the construction of noses of deep diving vehicles etc.

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