Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
micro electro mechanical systems full report
Post: #1


Micromechatronic is the synergistic integration of microelectromechanical systems, electronic technologies and precision mechatronics with high added value.
This field is the study of small mechanical devices and systems .they range in size from a few microns to a few millimeters. This field is called by a wide variety of names in different parts of the world: micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), micromechanics, Microsystems technology (MST), micro machines .this field which encompasses all aspects of science and technology, is involved with things one smaller scale. Creative people from all technical disciplines have important contributions to make.
Welcome to the micro domain, a world now occupied by an explosive new technology known as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical systems), a World were gravity and inertia are no longer important, but the effects of atomic forces and surface science dominate.

MEMS are the next logical step in the silicon revolution. The silicon revolution began over three decades ago; with the introduction of the first integrated circuit .the integrated circuit has changed virtually every aspect of our lives. The rapid advance in number of transistors per chip leads to integrated circuit with continuously increasing capability and performance. As time has progressed, large, expensive, complex systems have been replaced by small, high performance, inexpensive integrated circuits.
MEMS is a relatively new technology which exploits the existing microelectronics infrastructure to create complex machines with micron feature sizes .these machines can have many functions, including sensing, communication and actuation. Extensive application of these devices exists in both commercial and defense systems.

What are MEMS
Microelectromechanical systems or MEMS are integrated micro devices or systems combining electrical and mechanical components .they are fabricated using integrated circuit(IC) batch processing techniques and can range in size from micrometers to millimeters. These systems can sense control and actuate on the micro scale and function individually or in arrays to generate effects on the micro scale.
The field of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) is based on the use of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication techniques to create devices capable of acting as mechanical, electrical, and chemical transducers for applications in areas such as automotive and medical industries.
It can be difficult for one to imagine the size of MEMS device. The general size of MEMS is on the order of microns (10 power -6 meter). The main characteristic of MEMS is their small size. Due to their size, MEMS cannot be seen with the unaided eye. An optical microscope is usually required for one to be able to see them.
In this paper, we will discuss the field of MEMS in 3 parts:
First, it will discuss a general manufacturing process and fabrications involved in MEMS devices. Second, it will discuss the advantages and disadvantages using MEMS devices. Lastly, it will discuss important applications of MEMS devices in automotive industry.
Today, we have the capability to produce almost any type of MEMS devices. To fully understand what MEMS are, we must first understand the basic of the MEMS manufacturing process, fabrication process, and their material compositions.
MEMS are generally made from a material called polycrystalline silicon which is a common material also used to make integrated circuits. Frequently, polycrystalline silicon is doped with other materials like germanium or phosphate to enhance the materials properties. Sometimes, copper or aluminium is plated onto the polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical conduction between different parts of the MEMS devices. Now, that we understand the material composition of MEMS devices.
Photolithography is the basic technique used to define the shape of micro machine structures in the three techniques outlined below. The technique is essentially the same as that used in the microelectronics industry, which will be described here. The differences in the photolithographic techniques for Excimer laser micromachining and LIGA will be outlined in the relevant sections.
Figure shows a thin film of some material (eg. silicon dioxide) on a substrate of some other material (eg. silicon wafer). It is desired that some of the silicon dioxide (oxide) is selectively removed so that it only remains in particular areas on the silicon wafer. Firstly, a mask is produced. This will typically be a chromium pattern on a glass plate. The wafer is then coated with a polymer which is sensitive to ultraviolet light called a photo resist. Ultraviolet light is then shone through the mask onto the photo resist. The photo resist is then developed which transfers the pattern on the mask to the photo resist layer.
There are two types of photo resist, termed positive and negative photo resist. Where the ultraviolet light strikes the positive resist it weakens the polymer, so that when the image is developed the resist is washed away where the light struck it “ transferring a positive image of the mask to the resist layer. The opposite occurs with the negative resist. Where the ultraviolet light strikes negative resist it strengthens the polymer, so when developed the resist that was not exposed to ultraviolet light is washed away “ a negative image of the mask is transferred to the resist.
A chemical (or some other method) is used to remove the oxide where it is exposed through the openings in the resist. Finally, the resist is removed leaving the patterned oxide.

There are number of basic techniques that can be used to pattern thin films that have been deposited on a silicon wafer, and to shape the wafer itself, to form a set of basic microstructures (bulk micromachining). The techniques for depositing and patterning thin films can be used to produce quite complex microstructures on the surface of silicon wafer (surface silicon micromachining). Electrochemical etching techniques are being investigated to extend the set of basic silicon micromachining techniques. Silicon bonding techniques can also be utilized to extend the structures produced by silicon micromachining techniques into multilayer structures.
There are 3 basic techniques associated with silicon micromachining. They are:
1. Deposition of thin films of materials.
2. Removal of material by wet chemical etching.
3. Removal of material by dry chemical etching.
There are number of different techniques that facilitate the deposition or formation of very thin films of different materials on a silicon wafer. These films can then be patterned using photolithographic techniques and suitable etching techniques. Common materials include silicon dioxide (oxide), silicon nitride (nitride), polycrystalline silicon, and aluminium. The number of other materials can be deposited as thin films, including noble metals such as gold. Noble metals will contaminate microelectronic circuitry causing it to fail, so any silicon wafers with noble metals on them have to be processed using equipments specially set aside for the purpose. Noble metal films are often patterned by a method known as lift off, rather than wet or dry etching.

Wet etching is a blanket name that covers the removal of material by immersing the wafer in a liquid bath of the chemical etch ant. Wet etch ants fall into two broad categories; isotropic etch ants and anisotropic etch ants.
Isotropic etch ants attack the material being etched at the same rate in all directions. Anisotropic etch ants attack the silicon wafer at different rates in different directions, and so there is more control of shapes produced. Some etch ants attack silicon at different rates being on the concentration of impurities in the silicon.
The most common form of dry etching for micromachining applications is reactive ion etching. Ions are accelerated towards the material to be etched, and the etching reaction is enhanced in the direction of travel of ion. Reactive ion etching is an anisotropic etching technique. Deep trenches and pits of arbitrary shape and with vertical walls can be etched in a variety of materials including silicon, oxide, and nitride. Unlike anisotropic wet etching, RIE is not limited by the crystal planes in the silicon.
Lift off is a stenciling technique often used to pattern noble metal films. There are a number of different techniques; the one outlined here is an assisted lift of method. A thin film of assisting material (eg. oxide) is deposited. A layer of resist is put over this and patterned as for photolithography, to expose the oxide in the pattern desired for the metal. The oxide is then wet etched so as to undercut the resist. The metal is then deposited on the wafer, typically by a process known as evaporation. The metal pattern is effectively stenciled through the gaps in the resist, which is then removed lifting off the unwanted metal with it. The assisting layer is then stripped off through leaving the metal pattern alone.
Excimer lasers produce relatively wide beams of ultraviolet laser light. One interesting application of these lasers is their use in micromachining organic materials (plastics, polymers, etc). This is because the excimer laser doesn't remove material by burning or vaporizing it, unlike other types of laser, so the material adjacent to the area machined is not melted or distorted by heating effects.
When machining organic materials the laser is pulsed on and off, removing material with each pulse. The amount of material removed is dependent on the material itself, the length of the pulse, and the intensity (fluency) of the laser light. Below certain threshold fluency, dependent on the material, the laser light has no effect. As the fluency is increased above the threshold, the depth of material removed per pulse is also increased. It is possible to accurately control the depth of the cut by counting the number of pulses. Quite deep cuts (hundreds of microns) can be made using the excimer laser.
The shape of the structures produced is controlled by using chrome on quartz mask, like the masks produced for photolithography. In the simplest system the mask is placed in contact with the material being machined, and the laser light is shone through it. A more sophisticated and versatile method involves projecting the image of the mask onto the material. Material is selectively removed where the laser light strikes it.

Structures with vertical sides can be created. By adjusting the optics it is possible to produce structures with tapered sidewalls.

Advanced Micro Systems Fabrication Technologies
¢ Plastics Technologies
¢ Glass Technologies
¢ Silicon Technologies
¢ Metals Technologies
Precision Machining Technologies
¢ Jet Deposition Technologies
¢ Laser Sintering Technologies
¢ Jet Molding Technologies
¢ Electrical Discharge Machining
¢ Micro milling / drilling
¢ 3-D Micro Fabrication Technologies
Emerging Silicon Micro Fabrication Technologies
¢ Deep Reactive Ion Etching
¢ Electroplated Photo resist
¢ Integration of Piezoelectric Devices
There are four main advantages of using MEMS rather than ordinary large scale machinery.
¢ Ease of production.
¢ MEMS can be mass-produced and are inexpensive to make.
¢ Ease of parts alteration.
¢ Higher reliability than their macro scale counterparts.
¢ Due to their size, it is physically impossible for MEMS to transfer any significant power.
¢ MEMS are made up of Poly-Si (a brittle material), so they cannot be loaded with large forces.
To overcome the disadvantages, many MEMS researchers are working hard to improve MEMS material strength and ability to transfer mechanical power. Nevertheless, MEMS still have countless number of applications as stated below.
Inertial navigation units on a chip for munitions guidance and personal navigation.
Electromechanical signal processing for ultra-small and ultra low-power wireless communications.
Distributed unattended sensors for asset tracking, environmental monitoring, and security surveillance.
Integrated fluidic systems for miniature analytical instruments, propellant, and combustion control.
Weapons safing, arming, and fuzing.
Embedded sensors and actuators for condition-based maintenance.
Mass data storage devices for high density and low power.
Integrated micro-optomechanical components for identify-friend-or-foe systems, displays, and fiber-optic switches.

MEMS Sensors Are Driving the Automotive Industry
Vehicle Dynamic Control
Rollover Detection
Electronic Parking Brake Systems
Vehicle Navigation Systems
The Sensor Cluster

Thus hereby we concluded our presentation in the topic of MEMS which is going to be the future of the modern technical field in the growth of micro sensor based applications such as automotive industries, wireless communication, security systems, bio medical instrumentation and in armed forces.
1. IEEE Robotics & Automation magazine, March 2003.
Post: #2
Post: #3




Basic block diagram
1. Micro actuator
2. Micro sensor

Mechatronic s/ms with mechanical and electrical components
Integration of mechanical elements,sensors,actuators&electronic on a common silicon substrate through micro fabrication technology
micro scale dimensions (1mm = 1000 microns)sub micrometer to millimeter

i/p signals: signals admitted to the MEMS from various sourses/systems-electrical/mechanical/chemical/optical
MEMs package's chip fabricated by micromachining technique
Consists of microsensors,microactuators&signal
Transduction unit: conditioning the generated signals

Mechanical device
For controlling or moving something
Converts Electrical signal to physical signals
TRANSDUCTION UNIT:converts i/p power supply to voltage
Driving supply varies depending on applications

Sensor:one form of energy into another and provides the user with a usable energy o/p in response to specific measurable i/p
Used to sense diff.physical parameters like temp,pressure,sound,force,humidity and so on


Classified by electromagnetic systems and geometry
According to em ended
3.integrated type
According to geometry

Post: #4


Anshul Sharma
D. Vishal
Kamalendu Ghosh
Suddho S. Mukherjee
Yogesh Narnaware



Manufacturing Processes

Materials used

Features of MEMs

Applications: Transportation, automobiles etc.

Advantages and Disadvantages

MEMs in future


MEMs can be defined as a combination of microsensors and/or microactuators and electronic devices on a single chip.

These devices involving mechanical and electrical parts capable of acting on and sensing their environment.

sensors are a crucial component in automotive electronics, medical equipment, hard disk drives, computer peripherals,wireless devices and smart portable electronics such as cell phones and PDAs.


Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems

Practice of making and combining miniaturized mechanical and electrical components

“Micromachines” in Japan

“Microsystems Technology” in Europe

Microelectronic integrated circuits can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments this decision-making capability with "eyes" and "arms", to allow microsystems to sense and control the environment.
Sensors gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical, thermal, biological, chemical, optical, and magnetic phenomena.
The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving, positioning, regulating, pumping, and filtering, thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or purpose.

Materials for MEMs
Silicon, glass, ceramics, polymers, and compound
Group III and V elements,
Metals including titanium and tungsten.
Glass and fused quartz substrates,
Silicon carbide and diamond
Gallium Arsenide and other Group III-V semiconductors
Shape memory alloys

MEMS often involves movable parts, making them microactuators. They can be vibrating, translating, rotating, etc., they all need a mechanical energy to move.
the commonly used technics to get a movement from an object are: Thermal, Electrostatic, Magnetic, Piezoelectric and using Shape-Memory Alloys.

MEMS Applications: Transportation
Roads would be covered with millions of MEMS sensors. The sensors would act as a blanket of information, gathering and transmitting data about road conditions.
Development of windshields with automatic glare resistance.
Detection of ice on roadways.
Send information to vehicles equipped with Global Positioning Devices, informing the on-board computer of road hazards, accidents, and traffic.
Determination of SMS and TMS and other traffic parameters

Microsensors can be embedded in appropriate locations.
The system consists of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure.
The core contains all information regarding temperature difference, deformations of the pavement.
These microsensors are called “smart aggregates” Tongue

MEMS Applications: Wireless
. With the advent of new technology combined with the demand for more bandwidth and increased mobility, wireless applications are spreading to new markets –
from radar-equipped passenger vehicles to biomedical devices that, when injected or inserted, send data to a receiver outside the body.
As the wireless device market grows, so will the semiconductor products that support it.

Other Applications
Inkjet Printers
MEMS gyroscopes
Pressure sensors
Optical Switching

MEMS Features

Low interference with environment
Accurate, Compact, Shock resistant
Inexpensive - based on IC batch fabrication
Use in previously unfeasible domains
Large sampling size, greater data certainty


Low cost (can even be made “disposable”)

They are useful in the field of defense of a nation

Will work for many machine health applications

Onboard signal conditioning. No charge amplifiers required.


Performance still below that of more expensive sensors

May not be available in industrial hardened packages

It is Application specific .

MEMS in Future
One application still being developed is “smart dust” where MEMS sensors will be deployed in the air to measure pollution.
“smart roads” where MEMS devices would be laid out as a blanket on the roadbed to measure physical conditions and traffic and report the information to geo-positioning systems mounted in cars.
A lot of research into new uses for MEMS is based on military and aerospace applications.
Other innovative applications include MEMS devices are also being used in optical networks and wireless communications.

Post: #5
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the field of biomedical industry has given rise to Bio MEMS. These encompasses Biosensors, Bio instruments and tools, Bio testing and analysis etc. Bio MEMS present a great challenge to engineers to design and manufacture of these types of sensors and instruments. Biosensor serves as the interface between living and electronic systems. These systems and the sensors should not affect the behavior of the living systems. Thin – film microelectronic technology offers special advantages for manufacturing of Biosensors over the traditional manufacturing methods. These can be used in minimizing the deleterious interactions through the use of small size and mass, Bio compatible material, and physical characteristics that are closely related to living tissues. Not only Bio MEMS the finger print sensor also discussed in this paper.
This paper also describes the concept and sensing principle of our fingerprint sensor, which we named as a MEMS finger sensor .Next, the analytical model of the MEMS structures described. Then, a fabrication process to stack the MEMS structures directly on the sensing circuits is presented. In the process, a sealing technique, STP (spin coating film transfer and hot-pressing) is applied. Finally, we discuss the fabrication results and evaluate the sensor’s ability to obtain fingerprint images regardless of whether the finger is dry or wet.
Micro Electronic – Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical Elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate through Micro fabrication technology.
The electronics are fabricated using Integrated Circuit (IC) process sequences.
(Ex: CMOS, BIPOLAR, or BICMOS processes)
Introduction to MEMS in Biosensor:
Micro – Electro – Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics of micro fabrication technology. “MEMS technology is currently enjoying a moment of formidable expansion in synergy with the heath sciences, giving rise to the notion of MEMS for biomedical applications – Bio MEMS.” “The Bio MEMS industry is less conservative, and it’s a little bit dangerous because we know less what works and what doesn’t.”
Bio sensors can be manufactured using MEMS technology because it is possible to fabricate sensors and even micro sensors that have the potential for mass production. This can be achieved through the application of thin film technology.
The term biosensor has been applied to devices either: (1) used to monitor living systems, (2) Incorporating biotic elements.
The consensus, however, is that the term should be reserved for use in the context of a sensor incorporating a biological element such as an enzyme, antibody, nucleic acid, microorganism or cell. For the purposes of this tutorial, a biosensor will be defined as:
Analytical devices incorporating biological material or a bromidic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing Microsystems, which may be optical, electrochemical, thermometric, piezoelectric or magnetic. The usual aim of a biosensor is to produce either discrete or continuous digital electronic. Signals which are proportional to a single analyses or a related group of analyses.
Biosensors are analytical devices which use biological interactions to provide either qualitative or quantitative results.
Biosensors be used:
Biosensors are finding use in increasingly broader ranger of application. The following list describes some of the current applications.
• Clinical diagnosis and biomedicine
• Industrial effluent control
• Pollution control and monitoring
• Mining, industrial and toxic gases
• Military applications.
• Farm, garden and veterinary analysis.
• Process control: fermentation control.
• Food and drink production and analysis.
• Microbiology: bacterial and viral analysis.
• Pharmaceutical and drug analysis.
Fabrication of Biosensors Using Thin Film Technology:
fabricating patterned thin films is to first deposit a of the film that is not desired by chemical etching through Thin – film consists of layers of metals – insulators or, in some cases, semiconductor materials that are usually deposited upon insulating surfaces such as alumina, glass, or polyimide. Thin – films are deposited using vacuum evaporation or sputtering. Thin film technique are relatively expensive because of lower capital equipment expenditures and unit production costs, it has limitation that the quality of the film deposited is lower. Patterned films are highly reproducible using the thin film process. For these reasons, most bio – sensors applications require thin film technology or at least a hybrid between thin and thick film manufacturing techniques. The standard method of a photo mask.
The standard steps found in the fabricating process are:
• Surface preparations clean and dry vapour surface.
• Dehydration bake – dehydrate the water to aid resist adhesion.
• Photo resist apply – coating of the wafer with resist either by spinning or spraying, typically desire a uniform coat.
• Alignment – align pattern on mask to features on wafers.
• Exposure – projection of mask image on resist causing selective chemical property change.
• Hard bake – additional evaporation of the remaining solvent from the resist.
• Inspection – inspect surface for alignment and defects.
• Etch – top layer of the wafer is removed thro the opening in resist layer.
• Photo resists removal – remove photo resist layer from wafer.
• Final inspection – surface inspection for etch regularities and other problems.
• Soft bake – partial evaporation of some of the solvent in the resist may result in a significant loss of mass of resist. Make resist viscous.
• Develop – selective removal of resist after exposure. Usually a wet process.
Applications of Film Technology to Biomedical Sensors
Thin film technology can be applied to the design and fabrication of chemical and physical sensors for biomedical applications.
• Bi potential electrodes.
• Electrolytic conductivity sensor.
• Amperometric Oxygen sensor
• Ion selective Membrane Sensor
• Abdominal Respiration Sensor
• Temperature Sensors
• Capacitive Force Sensors.
Bio sensors Benefits:
Like other bioanalytical methods biosensors use a biologically derived compound as the sensing element. The advantage of biological sensing elements is their remarkable ability to distinguish between the analyses of interest and similar substances. With biosensors, it is possible to measure specific analyses with great accuracy.
One characteristic of biosensors that distinguishes them from other bioanalytical methods is that the analyses tracers or catalytic products can be directly and instantaneously measured. There is no need to wait for results from lengthy procedures carries out in centralized laboratories.
The uniqueness of a biosensor is that the receptor and transducer are integrated into one single sensor. This combination enables the measurement of using regents. For example, the glucose concentration in a blood sample can be measured directly by a biosensor by
simply dipping the sensor in the sample. This is in contrast to the conventional assay in which many steps are used and each step may require a regent to treat the sample.
Continuous Monitoring Capability:
Another advantage that biosensors have over bioanalytical assays is that they can regenerate and reuse the immobilized biological recognition element. For enzyme – based biosensors, an immobilized enzyme can be used for repeated assays this feature allows these devices to be sued for continuous or multiple assays. By contrast, immunoassays, including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are typical based on irreversible binding and are thus used only once and discarded.
Sensor Construction
A biosensor consists of two primary components: a bio receptor and a transducer.
Biosensors consist of bio – recognition systems, typically enzymes or binding proteins, such as antibodies, immobilized onto the surface of physic – chemical transducers. The term immunosensor is often used to describe biosensors which use antibodies as their bio recognition system.
Biorecognition, systems can also include nucleic acids, bacteria and single cell organisms and even whole tissues of higher organisms. Specific interactions between the target analyses and the complementary biorecognition layer produces a physicochemical change which is detected and may be measured by the transducer. The transducer can take many forms depending upon the parameters being measured – electrochemical – optical, mass and thermal changes are the most common.
Bio receptors:
The bio receptor is a bio molecule that recognizes the target analyses. Bio receptors are typically enzymes or binding proteins, such as antibodies, immobilized on to the surface of a physicochemical transducer. Specific interactions between the targets analyze and recognition sites within the bio receptor produces a physicochemical change which is detected and may be measured by the transducer. The following chart summarizes possible bio receptors that can be utilized in a biosensor have to be capable of measuring this signal
Post: #6
A lot of seminars are available relating to MEMS. Please visit this thread to select your topic:
Post: #7
Micro-electromechanicalsystems (MEMS)

solid-state switches like pin diodes have a large insertion loss (typically 1 dB) in the on state and poor electrical isolation in the off state.
The term MEMS refers to collection of micro sensors and actuators which can sense its environment and have the ability to react to changes in the environment with the use of microcircuit control.
MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line.
The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic,piezoelectric, or thermal designs.
The beauty of MEMS switches is their near-ideal behavior and
the relative ease of their circuit designs.
Developments in mems have facilitated exciting advancements
in the field of sensors and control components.
MEMS are quietly changing the way you live, in ways that you might never imagine. Most new cars have over a dozen MEMS devices, making your car safer, more energy efficient, and more environmentally friendly. MEMS are finding their way into a variety of medical devices, and everyday consumer products.
2.Surface micromachining :-
Repetitive sequence of depositing thin films on a wafer, photo patterning the films, and then etching the patterns into the films. In order to create moving, functioning machines.
Requires more fabraction steps than bulk micromachining and is more expensive.
Creates small,high aspect ratio devices using x-ray lithography.
Inexpensive fabraction technolgy.
4.Integrated MEMS Technologies:-
It is possible to fabricate micromachines and microelectronics on the same piece f silicon since MEMS devices are created with same tools used to create integrated circuits.

Accelerometer is an electromechanical device that measures acceleration forces.These forces may be static or dynamic.They are being incorporated into more and more personal devices such as media players and in smart phones for user interface control.
Some companies like IBM &APPLE have started using accelerometers in their laptops to protect hard drives from damage.
Shoe-Based Sensors: How They Work
They work on chip-scale inertial sensors that meet the power and size requirements for portable applications. However, they suffer from a rapid growth in position error due to inherent bias drift and noise in the sensors.
To limit this error growth, a RF velocity sensor that detects when a shoe touches the ground.
As seen in the pictures on the following page, three kinds of shoe sensors are implanted in a shoe.
The RF terrain-relative velocity (TRV ) sensor mounted on the heel and toe is used for ZUPting the position computed from the accelerometers in the MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU ).
The magnetometers in the IMU are used for ZUPting the heading computed from the gyroscope on the IMU.
Shoe relative sensors (SRS ) on one shoe form a constellation which can then be used to find the location of a moving shoe with respect to a stationary shoe.
Low cost (can even be made “disposable”)
They are useful in the field of defense of a nation
Will work for many machine health applications
Onboard signal conditioning. No charge amplifiers required.
Performance still below that of more expensive sensors
May not be available in industrial hardened packages
MEMS Features
Low interference with environment
Accurate, Compact, Shock resistant
Inexpensive - based on IC batch fabrication
Use in previously unfeasible domains
Large sampling size, greater data certainty
MEMS-based sensors are a crucial component in automotive electronics, medical equipment, smart portable electronics such as cell phones and hard disk drives, computer peripherals, and wireless devices.
These sensors began in the automotive industry especially for crash detection in airbag systems. Throughout the 1990s to today, the airbag sensor market has proved to be a huge success using MEMS technology.
MEMS-based sensors are now becoming pervasive in everything from inkjet cartridges to cell phones. Every major market has now embraced the technology.
Post: #8
micro electro mechanical systems


Energy Domains
• Thermal (temperature, heat and heat flow)
• Mechanical (force, pressure, velocity, acceleration, position)
• Chemical (concentration, pH, reaction rate)
• Magnetic (field intensity, flux density, magnetization)
• Radiant (intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase)
• Electrical (voltage, charge, current)

Scaling of Forces
• The force due to surface tension
scales as S1
• The force due to electrostatics with
constant field scales as S2
• The force due to certain magnetic
forces scales as S3
• Gravitational forces scale as S4

Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational potential energy scales as S4. If the
dimensions of a system are scaled from meters
(human size) to 0.1 mm (ant size), the gravitational
potential energy scales as:
(1/10000)4 = 1/10,000,000,000,000,000
The potential energy decreases by a factor of ten
trillion. This is why an ant can walk away from a
fall that is 10 times it’s height, and we do not!

Why Micromachine?
• Minimize energy and materials use in manufacturing
• Redundancy and arrays
• Integration with electronics
• Reduction of power budget
• Faster devices
• Increased selectivity and sensitivity
• Exploitation of new effects through the breakdown of
continuum theory in the micro-domain
• Cost/performance advantages
• Improved reproducibility (batch fabrication)
• Improved accuracy and reliability
• Minimally invasive (e.g. pill camera)
Post: #9
to get information about the topic "microelectronics mechanical systems" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please


So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page
Popular Searches: mems micro electro mechanical systems, nano electro mechanical system nems seminar report, electro wetting seminar report, isfet biosensor, micro electro mechanical systems, mechanical full report, electro static generator full seminar report,

Quick Reply
Type your reply to this message here.

Image Verification
Image Verification
(case insensitive)
Please enter the text within the image on the left in to the text box below. This process is used to prevent automated posts.

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread: Author Replies: Views: Last Post
  TQM Total quality management full report project report tiger 5 10,940 18-09-2016 08:41 PM
Last Post: velraj
  List of mechanical Seminar topics4 computer science crazy 6 11,583 01-01-2016 04:02 PM
Last Post: hj med
  latest mechanical seminar topics 2011 & 2012 project topics 20 39,460 31-08-2015 12:24 PM
Last Post: seminar report asees
  magnetic refrigeration full report project report tiger 45 38,499 21-07-2015 03:10 PM
Last Post: seminar report asees
  Advanced Cooling Systems computer science crazy 14 13,927 05-05-2015 11:50 AM
Last Post: Guest
  thermoacoustic refrigeration full report project report tiger 12 17,408 06-03-2015 06:28 PM
Last Post: Guest
  List of mechanical Seminar topics3 computer science crazy 2 4,289 02-01-2015 11:46 PM
Last Post: ankushaher
  the gurney flap full report project report tiger 1 2,445 04-12-2014 02:02 PM
Last Post: pricemuzDet
  exhaust gas recirculation full report project report tiger 8 9,226 05-11-2014 09:06 PM
Last Post: jaseela123
  IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY BY RECOVERY OF HEAT FROM IC ENGINE EXHAUST full rep project report tiger 7 7,092 18-10-2014 10:35 PM
Last Post: jaseela123