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The measurement of electric current strength is not always easy, especially when the measured signal requires further electronic conditioning. Simply connecting an ammeter to an electrical circuit and reading out the value is no longer enough. The current signal must be fed into a computer in which sensors convert current into a proportional voltage with minimal influence on the measured circuit. The basic sensor requirements are galvanic isolation and a high bandwidth, usually from DC up to at least 100 kHz. Conventional current measurement systems therefore tend to be physically large and technically complex.
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please send me the full seminars report on MICROCONTROLLER BASED POWER THEFT IDENTIFICATION
send doc of microcontroller based power thfft identification
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Science and technology with all its miraculous advancements has fascinated human life to a great extent that imagining a world without these innovations is hardly possible. While technology is on the raising slope, we should also note the increasing immoral activities. With a technical view, "Power Theft" is a non-ignorable crime that is highly prevalent, and at the same time it directly affects the economy of a nation. Data collected over Tirunelveli District, Bhel Trichy proves the necessity of this project.
Detecting and eradicating such crimes with the assistance of the developing scientific field is the "Need of the Hour". With these views was this paper conceived and designed. Our paper provides a complete and comprehensive tool to prevent power theft which is very simple to understand and easy to implement(Accepted by T.N.E.B officials). It includes four sections - transmitting, receiving, counter display and processing sections. DESCRIPTION OF OUR IMPLEMENTATION IDEAS:
The disc revolutions are sensed into pulses by optical slot sensor. These pulses are shaped and given as control signal to the CMOS switch which bypasses carrier wave generated by PLL provides as input to receiving section where transmitted signal is selected by the Intermediate frequency transformer. For each lock a pulse is sent out. The counter section is designed to send out pulse for every six input pulse from the receiver section. This count is parallely distributed in a 7-segmentdisplay and then to uc for further processing. uc performs the function of indication and identification. Pindetails, features, connections and software employed for uc89c51 are described in detail.
We believe our implementation ideas is a boon to the electricity board offering them a chance to detect accurately the location and amount of power theft. Logical view for a digital meter is also included in our presentation.
"TODAY'S TECHNICIANS ARE SO FOCUSSED ON THE TREES OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE THAT THEY FAIL TO SEE THE FOREST; THE UNDERLYING ECONOMIC FORCES THAT DETERMINE SUCCESS AND FAILURE..."
"TECHNOLOGY CHANGES ECONOMY LAWS DO NOT"
Electricity is the modern man's most convenient and useful form of energy without which the present social infrastructure would not be feasible. The increase in per capita production is the reflection of the increase in the living standard of people. When importance of electricity is on the increasing side, then how much should theft of this energy or illegal consumption of power from the transmission lines be averted? Power theft has become a great challenge to the electricity board. The dailies report that Electricity Board suffers a total loss of 8 % in revenue due to power theft every year, which has to controlled. Our paper identifies the Power theft and indicates it to the Electricity board through Power line. We had also dealt about the remote monitoring of an energy meter. MICROCONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATION:
Embedded systems - a combination of software, hardware and additional mechanical parts that together forms a component of a larger system, to perform a specific function. It's a technology, characterized by high reliability, restricted memory footprint and real time operation associated with a narrowly defined group of functions. Automation has made the art of living comfortable and easy. Embedded systems have made the process of automation a most successful one. Here, we have focused on automotive, an area of embedded controllers, in which we have dealt with the Power theft identification and also about the remote monitoring of an energy meter.
"Technology have taken the world by storm
performance ratings and exceptionally value for money prices"
The microcontroller chip is preprogrammed to perform a dedicated or a narrow range of functions as a part of a larger system, usually with minimal end user or
operator intervention. Our paper throws light on automated monitoring of theft identification, which is an application of embedded controllers.
MODES OF THEFT:
It has been seen that there are 4 common methods of power theft as given below :-
Ã‚Â¥ Bogus seals and tampering of seals.
Meter tampering, meter tilting, meter interface and
Direct tapping from line. Due to introduction of modern electronic metering equipments, power thieves are utilizing more technological methods. Recent cases of power theft discovered by British inspectors included customers tunneling out to roadside mains cables and splicing into the supply, a garage taking its night time power supply from the nearest lamp post and domestic customers drilling holes into meter boxes and attempting to stop the counter wheels from turning. Another method of Power theft is by keeping a strong magnet in front of the disc in the energy meter and thus arresting the rotation of the disc, connecting the load directly to the power line bypassing the energy meter. But, it can be avoided easily by providing a non magnetic enclosure.
MODERN DETECTING TOOLS:
There are many modern tools that assist in power theft identification. Some of them are :-
S Tamper proof seals and labels. S Meter leaders. S Tamper resistant screws / locks. Â¢ Check meter and remote meter readers. S Tamper alarms and sensors. This paper undertakes the Check meter and remote meter readers for power theft identification. In our case, the consumption recurred by the check
meter is compared with the revenue meters consumption. If there is a difference, then it indicates either there is a theft or revenue meter malfunction . The check meter can also be used to monitor the energy used on the secondary of a distribution transformer serving several customer and compared to the sum of all the meter usage. Besides spotting out the line where power theft is suspected to occur, it also detects the amount of energy stolen. Compact size, lightweight for quick and high accuracy make the system more effective. BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Power theft identification, in this paper, is done by converting the disc revolutions of each consumer's energy meter and distribution transformer into pulses. These pulses are frequency division multiplexed and transmitted through power line. These signals are individually picked and counted at the receiver end. If the difference of the sum of the consumer's readings and that of distribution transformer exceeds the preset value, which is set by considering transmission loss, the power theft is said to occur.
The project can be categorized into 4 modules :-
Ã‚Â© Transmitting section
Ã‚Â© Receiving section
Ã‚Â© Processing section
Ã‚Â© Counter section The transmitted signal is selected at the receiving end by the interÃ‚Â¬mediate frequency transformer.
DESIGN LAYOUT: n: 1 l d d.
I 7 segment led disp
To tap the signal individually
The first and foremost requirements for a transmitter section are the
â€“Â The sensing unit
â€“Â Phase locked loop
â€“Â CMOS analog switch
Intermediate Frequency Transformer In this section, the disc revolutions of the rotating non-magnetic disc of the electro magnetic energy meter are sensed by opto coupler slot sensor. This slot sensor employs an infrared light source and a photo detector. For each revolution of the disc, the sensing unit has to produce pulses which are shaped and given as control signal to the analog CMOS switch. The analog switch employed in the circuit is IC 4066 which is a quad bilateral switch intended for the transmission of analog or digital signals. It offers a very low on state resistance and bypasses carrier wave generated by Phase Locked Loop to the next part of the circuit. Here, PLL acts as a carrier signal generator, which produces carrier signals of high frequency of band 300 kHz. The IC 567, that has an internal voltage-controlled oscillator is used. The output carrier signal is passed on to CMOS switch. From there, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is passed through a buffer circuit in order to have sufficient drive current and for isolation purpose.
230 V , AC 50HZ
The buffer used in the module is IC 4049 which act as current amplifiers. Then an IFT is placed which is a step down transformer. It provides current gain and impedance matching. The carrier wave is current amplified, FM modulated and sent through power line. Selected signal at the receiving end is clipped off to a desired value and is demodulated by Phase Locked Loop. For every lock condition of the Phase Locked Loop, a pulse is sent out of the receiver end.
The FM signal that are transmitted from the transmitter section travels through the power line and reaches the receiving section, where these signals are tapped individually. The basic components in the receiver section are :-
Intermediate Frequency Transformer
Phase locked loop The IFT used in this section is of the same type as that of that transmitter. The frequency range is between 100 -300 KHz as that used in radios. The IFT is externally tuned to the same value as that of the transmitter so that only signals of tuned value enters into the receiver circuit. The signal is sent to a simple diode clipper which clips off it to a value of about 0.7 V. Two diodes IN 4148 are connected back to back so that clipping is done at both positive and negative levels. This clipped signal is then given us an input signal of PLL which is a closed loop feedback system. Its function is to lock the output frequency and phase to the frequency and face of an input signal and it acts as a tone detector. The output of PLL is low whenever it goes into 'lock' state. This low state will open circuit a transistor whereby a pulse of +8 V is obtained as its output.
hi.. i want full report of microntroller based power theft identification
hi.. i want full report on microcontroller based power theft identification
send to my email jhemanth220[at]gmail.com
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plz send me information about microcontroller based power theft identification
i would like to know more about power theft and also like to get all papers and presentations regarding microcontroller based power theft identification
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