The development and deployment of radar(Radio detection and Ranging) is one of the great historical achievements of the military industrial base. Military forces have been using radar since the start of the Second World War, when the British radar early warning system helped the Royal Air Force to defeat the Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain.Radar operates 24 hours a day, and in nearly all weather conditions, giving it a flexibility that other sensors lack.There are many specilised radar systems .These systems include continuous wave and pulse radars, moving target indicators, synthetic aperture radars, over-the-horizon radars, monopulses, and most recently, laser radars. Most recently , multi-function radars have begun to appear which has been a result of recent developments in antenna design, most particularly the active electronically steered array.
many civilian applications, include weather avoidance, navigation, and maritime
surveillance. Later, radar was used for high-resolution area mapping
and for many civilian space applications.
The history of the Battle of Britain indicates clearly that the influence of radar is most decisive when command, control and intelligence systems fuse the information which is gleaned from radar with intelligence from other sensorThroughout most of the Cold War era,
military radar and other military electronics requirements drove most of the technology developments in the microwave frequency range (about 1 GHz to 30 GHz) and millimeter-wave (MMW) frequency range (30â€œ100 GHz).
Phased-array radars, based on electronically scanning antennas populated with transmit/receive (T/R) modules that employ GaAs MMIC chips, are on the cutting edge of military radar technology. These have advantages like stealthiness, extended target-detection range, simultaneous multiple-target engagement capabilities , greater reliability,higher survivability, and reduced weight and size.
The battle for control of the electro-magnetic spectrum means that radar designers and operators are competing using techniques like jamming, decoys, stealth technology, and anti-radiation missiles. Radar counter measures include intercept radars, and anti-stealth and anti-anti-radiation missile systems. While domestic manufacturers continue to dominate markets in the most important countries, international co-operation is increasing, and the military radar market is gradually becoming more competitive.
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