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Post: #1

hey guys!!!
i hav bin searching for a seminars pres. topic nd ended up here finding a great treasure n marvellous minds to help one out.
Well i hav selected MIMO tech. as my topic, bt dunno anything else about it. i had googled it but irrelevant links are being searched n shown.
Post: #2
these threads give some details about MIMO technology:

other links :
check out these:
Post: #3

read for getting more information of MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output) TECHNOLOGY
Post: #4
sir please send me an abstract of this topic
Post: #5
please read the page for getting abstract and report of the topic MIMO TECHNOLOGY,if you want again more "information"/"specific details" then please relply (with details) in that page , hope our friends like you may add their thought to help you

i hope you enjoyed it
if yes,i welcomes you to active participation in seminars/project/technical discussions here for helping other students issues , or hope you next time come with a good topic and will apreciate everyone

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Post: #6
tell me more about MIMO tech
Post: #7


MIMO is an acronym for Multiple Input, Multiple Output and is a significant departure in the architecture and technology from the current SISO (Single Input, Single Output) WLAN products. This is accomplished through the implementation of multiple transmitters and receivers in a single WLAN station, AP or client.
A principle problem in wireless systems is multipath interference. Existing WLAN technologies attempt to compensate for multipath by implementing a rake receiver to allow for specific amounts of delay spread. As delay spread increases, the multipath situation worsens and the arriving symbols begin to interfere with each other beyond the capability of the receiver to recover. This results in common complaints to the help desk with the generic “wireless doesn’t work” intermittent reports which cannot be reliably recreated.
Further, the throughput capability of the WLAN with MIMO is extended to be more comparable with wired LANs. The current IEEE 802.11n draft includes link rates up to 600 Mbps. The commonly used value for link overhead in WLAN systems is 40% giving a throughput potential of about 360 Mbps in a single cell. This is an idealized value and is highly dependent on the operating environment and the composition of clients associated with a particular AP.
A basis for MIMO was created at Bell Labs in the 1997 to 2002 period called BLAST for Bell Labs Layered Space-Time. Using MIMO-like techniques, multiple transmitters and receivers, BLAST exploits multipath to gain very high spectral efficiencies (10s of bits/sec/Hz were measured).
Multiple‐input/multiple‐output (MIMO) technology offers tremendous performance gains for wireless LANs (WLANs) at relatively low cost. Any system with multiple inputs into the receiver and multiple outputs to the transmitter is a MIMO system, but implementing such a system involves several distinctly different radio techniques. A fully compatible MIMO approach offers straightforward choices for both WLAN users and equipment vendors. This paper explains the background and tradeoffs involved in using MIMO techniques and shows how Atheros’ VLocity technology achieves today’s best MIMO performance while maintaining full compatibility with existing 802.11 standards.
MIMO concepts have been under development for many years for both wireless and wire‐line systems. One of the earliest MIMO‐to‐wireless communications applications came in 1984 with groundbreaking developments by Jack Winters of Bell Laboratories. This MIMO pioneer described ways to send data from multiple users on the same frequency/time channel using multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver. Since then, several academics and engineers have made significant contributions in the field of MIMO.
Many WLAN, Wi‐Max, and cellular companies offer (or are planning to offer) MIMO‐based solutions. Existing applications include multiple‐antenna systems, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems used in 3G cellular systems, and even Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) with multiple telephone lines experiencing crosstalk.


A growing number of current and prospective wide-area wireless network operators are adopting strategies that include mobile broadband access and rich multimedia services. These strategies present significant challenges to their wireless networks — requiring large improvements in network capacity, subscriber data rates, range, and coverage quality in order to build and sustain viable business models. The potential performance gains offered by smart antenna technologies such as MIMO are of increasing interest to operators as they grapple with these challenges to network economics.
Many inherent characteristics of local-area networks that have driven MIMO success in that domain differ substantially in wide-area environments, so the technology transfer must be handled with care. In the following brief overview of wide-area MIMO application, we highlight interference and limited scattering as the most important of these differences and recommend key considerations in implementation. The good news for wireless operators is that a large portion of the theoretical gains from MIMO can indeed be achieved in the wide area by network aware solutions designed to minimize interference in multi-cell environments and maintain robust operation in limited-scattering situations.


Consider a system with a single antenna at each end of the link. Although the signal is transmitted in all directions (typically within a 120º sector), a particular wireless channel may only have two dominant paths, as illustrated in Figure 1. We show here an example of an elevated base station communicating with a mobile handset down at street level, where the bulk of the received signal comes from reflections off neighbouring buildings. This corresponds to a single-input single output (SISO) channel.
Figure 1:A wireless channel with two dominant propagation paths between a base station (BS) and client device (CD), represented by the arrows, overlaid on the base station’s nominal 120º-sector transmission pattern.
Here we can introduce the simplest and currently most common form of smart antennas. If the receiver has more than one antenna, it can intelligently combine the signals from the different antennas and recognize that the signal indeed is arriving from two main directions. It can do this because the two paths have different spatial characteristics or different spatial signatures. Since the receiver recognizes that there are two different spatial signatures, it can combine the signals from the two antennas such that they add coherently resulting in a stronger combined signal. This corresponds to a single-input [to the channel], multiple-output [from the channel] (or SIMO) scenario and this is the well known case of receiver diversity. Receive diversity is used widely in 2G and now 3G cellular networks on the base station side of the link.
If instead the transmitter has multiple antennas while the receiver has only one antenna, the signal still travels along the same paths since the physics are the same. This corresponds to a multiple-input single output (MISO) scenario. The main difference compared to SIMO is that the combining has to be done at the transmitter instead of the receiver. By weighting the transmit antennas appropriately, the two paths can be made to add coherently in the same way as for the SIMO case. This approach is used widely in PHS and HC-SDMA systems with multiple antennas on the base station side, for both receive and transmit.
Providing multiple antennas at both ends of the link corresponds to a MIMO (multiple-input, multiple output) scenario. In this case, we can exploit the two paths much more efficiently — as we illustrate in Figure 2. The transmitter can weight its antennas so that one stream of information, shown in blue, is sent along the first path (i.e., spatial signature) and another stream of information, shown in orange, on the other path. Since the receiver also has multiple antennas it can separate the two streams by detecting that they have different spatial signatures.
Post: #8
i want to know about "MIMO TECHNOLOGY"..please help me out
Post: #9

MIMO TECHNOLOGY(Multiple Input and Multiple Output)

The growing demand of multimedia services and the growth of Internet related contents lead to increasing interest to high speed communications. The requirement for wide bandwidth and flexibility imposes the use of efficient transmission methods that would fit to the characteristics of wideband channels especially in wireless environment where the channel is very challenging.
In wireless environment the signal is propagating from the transmitter to the receiver along number of different paths, collectively referred as multipath which is shown in Figure 1.
Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting, ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from water bodies and terrestrial objects such as mountains and buildings.While propagating, the signal power reduces due to path loss and fading. Fading of the signal can be mitigated by different diversity techniques.
Multiple-input- multiple-output (MIMO) exploits spatial diversity by having several transmit and receive antennas as depicted in Figure 2. For example in receive antenna diversity, in rich scattering environment, each receive antenna sees different versions of the transmitted signal and when these versions are combined in a proper manner the outcome has better quality (lower bit-error-rate (BER)) or higher data rate than a single version of the signal.
Functions of MIMO
MIMO has two main functions.They are
1. Spatial multiplexing (SM)
2.Spatial Diversity coding.
1.Spatial Multiplexing
In spatial multiplexing, a high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. If these signals arrive at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures, the receiver can separate these streams into (almost) parallel channels. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser in the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver. Spatial multiplexing can be used with or without transmit channel knowledge. Spatial multiplexing can also be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple receivers, known as space-division multiple access. By scheduling receivers with different spatial signatures, good separability can be assured.
2.Spatial Diversity
In diversity method, a single stream (unlike multiple streams in spatial multiplexing) is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time coding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near orthogonal coding. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple antenna links to enhance signal diversity. Because there is no channel knowledge, there is no beamforming or array gain from diversity coding.
Advantage of MIMO
• Resistively to fading (signal quality)
• Increased coverage
• Increased capacity
• Increased data rate
• Improved spectral efficiency
• Reduced power consumption
• Reduced cost of wireless network
Applications of MIMO
MIMO is an important part of modern wireless communication standards such as
• IEEE 802.11n (Wifi)
• 4G
• 3GPP Long Term Evolution
• HSPA+.
Post: #10
send me about mimo tech.(include abstract,ppt and all) as soon as possible
Post: #11
these threads give some details about MIMO technology:

other links :
check out these:
Post: #12
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