Nanorobotics is an emerging field that deals with the controlled manipulation of objects with nanometer-scale dimensions. Typically, an atom has a diameter of a few ?ngstroms (1 ? = 0.1 nm = 10-10 m), a molecule's size is a few nm, and clusters or nanoparticles formed by hundreds or thousands of atoms have sizes of tens of nm. Therefore, Nanorobotics is concerned with interactions with atomic- and molecular-sized objects-and is sometimes called Molecular Robotics.
Molecular Robotics falls within the purview of Nanotechnology, which is the study of phenomena and structures with characteristic dimensions in the nanometer range. The birth of Nanotechnology is usually associated with a talk by Nobel-prize winner Richard Feynman entitled "There is plenty of room at the bottom", whose text may be found in [Crandall & Lewis 1992]. Nanotechnology has the potential for major scientific and practical breakthroughs.
Future applications ranging from very fast computers to self-replicating robots are described in Drexler's seminal book [Drexler 1986]. In a less futuristic vein, the following potential applications were suggested by well-known experimental scientists at the Nano4 conference held in Palo Alto in November 1995:
" Cell probes with dimensions ~ 1/1000 of the cell's size
" Space applications, e.g. hardware to fly on satellites
" Computer memory
" Near field optics, with characteristic dimensions ~ 20 nm
" X-ray fabrication, systems that use X-ray photons
" Genome applications, reading and manipulating DNA
" Nanodevices capable of running on very small batteries
" Optical antennas
Nanotechnology is being pursued along two converging directions. From the top down, semiconductor fabrication techniques are producing smaller and smaller structures-see e.g. [Colton & Marrian 1995] for recent work. For example, the line width of the original Pentium chip is 350 nm. Current optical lithography techniques have obvious resolution limitations because of the wavelength of visible light, which is in the order of 500 nm. X-ray and electron-beam lithography will push sizes further down, but with a great increase in complexity and cost of fabrication. These top-down techniques do not seem promising for building nanomachines that require precise positioning of atoms or molecules.
Alternatively, one can proceed from the bottom up, by assembling atoms and molecules into functional components and systems. There are two main approaches for building useful devices from nanoscale components. The first is based on self-assembly, and is a natural evolution of traditional chemistry and bulk processing-see e.g. [G?mez-L?pez et al. 1996]. The other is based on controlled positioning of nanoscale objects, direct application of forces, electric fields, and so on. The self-assembly approach is being pursued at many laboratories. Despite all the current activity, self-assembly has severe limitations because the structures produced tend to be highly symmetric, and the most versatile self-assembled systems are organic and therefore generally lack robustness. The second approach involves Nanomanipulation, and is being studied by a small number of researchers, who are focusing on techniques based on Scanning Probe Microscopy.
could u send me the full report i need to give a seminars...pleaseee
send me report on nanorobotics
PLZ GIVE SEMINAR INFORMATION ABT NANOROBOTICS AND IF POSSIBLE MPPT ALSO
pls gve ppt of this topic
hi, can u send me some IEEE papers related to nanorobotics,or any other topics to my email id.
Laws of Robotics
1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law
No artificial non-biological nanorobots have yet been created, it (mechanically) remains a hypothetical concept.
Nubots (Nucleic Acid Nanorobots
• Molecular sorting rotors
Nitin George Anand
Objects of the size 10-9.
1nm is equal to 1 millionth of 1mm.
A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, that is; about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, or 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
Nanotechnology is a new science that deals with manipulating materials at atomic or molecular level.
Nanotechnology is moving fast towards nanoelectronics fabrication.
Chemically assembled electronic nanotechnology provides an alternative to using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) for constructing circuits with feature sizes in the tens of nanometers.
Applied in construction of Nano Materials
Applied in Molecular NanoTechnology
Applied in NanoRobotics and many more….
Stain Resistant clothes using nano fibers
Protective nano paint for cars
Water and dirt repellent
Resistant to chipping and scratches
Brighter colors, enhanced gloss
In the future,
could change color and self-repair?
1)Attach metal etc. after structure is built
2)Let structural self-assembly and functionalization occur simultaneously
People are showing promising results from both methods
Preventing Viruses from infecting us
A NanoRobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter.
NanoRobots might function at the atomic or molecular level to build devices, machines, or circuits, a process known as molecular manufacturing.
NanoRobots might also produce copies of themselves to replace worn-out units, a process called self-replication.
Joint Use of NanoElectronics, photolithography and new biomaterials.
Nubot is an abbreviation for "nucleic acid robots."
Based on Micro organisms.
NanoRobotics is concerned with:
Design and Fabrication
Programming and coordination of large numbers of NanoRobots
Programmable assembly of nanometer scale components with micro or macro devices or by self assembly on programmed templates.
Issues to be addressed while constructing a NanoRobot
Programming and Coordination
Devices that exploit the change in conductivity of nanotubes and nanowires are called nanosensors.
It should detect obstacles
It should sense the chemicals present
Artificial Molecular Machines
A chemical compound that functions as fuel in NanoRobots
Swimming or flying in fluids seems more attractive than walking or crawling on a surface, since most objects are likely to be encountered on a surface.
Bacteria are good examples for NanoRobots because they have sizes on the order of few micrometers and they can move in fluids.
Contollers are typically fully fledged computers
Ex Braitenberg’s vehicle 2b
Communication among NanoRobots takes place by means of waves, acoustics, electrical or optical signals transmitted through small antennae
Cell and subcellular structures communicate by using molecular recognition
Programming and Coordination
NanoRobot by itself will have limited capablities, but coordinated effort of multitude will produce the desired system level results.
Coordination is required for communicating, sensing and acting.
Construction and working of a NanoRobot
Applications of NanoRobotics
Used in NanoMedicine
Used in Telesurgery
Used in purification of water
Used in Drug delivery
Used in purification of atmosphere and also helps in reducing carbon footprints.
Used in detetction of Chemical and Biological warfare agents
In Near Future???
Human Shaped NanoRobots!!
Common Terminologies Used in NanoRobotics
Atomic Force Microsope
Currently, a variety of research is being performed on NanoRobotic devices.
Few industrial products exist right now.
The possibilities are endless, but will take time to develop.
Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometer in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of, enginnering, electronics, mechanics and software
What is Nanorobotics?
Programmable assembly of nm-scale components either by manipulation with macro or micro devices, or by directed self-assembly.
Design and fabrication of robots with overall dimensions at or below the mm range and made of nm-scale components.
Programming and coordination of large numbers (swarms) of such nanorobots.
Known as nanorobot pioneer, adriano Cavalcanti is the medical nanorobotics inventor for the pratical hardware architecture of nanorobots, which was integrated as a model based on nanobioelectronics for applications in environmental monitoring, brain aneurysm, diabetes, cancer and cardiology. His advanced prototype provided a suitable integrated circuit approach, using an effective wireless platform
Computers and Control
Actuators and Propulsion
Interfaces and Integration
Programming and Coordination
Nanorobots raise all the issues that are important for NEMS
CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
Designs derived from biological models
Components: onboard sensors, motors, manipulators , power suppliers,molecular components
Best known biological sample is ribosome used to constuct robotic arm
Manipulator arm driven by detailed sequenc e of controlsignals
Control signals received by robotic arm via on board sensors using broadcast architecture
Assemblers are molecular machine system perform molecular manufacturing on atomic scale
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL FIELD
Breaking up blood clots
Breaking up of kidney stones
Nanorobots might carry small ultrasonic signal generators to deliver frequencies directly to kidney stones
Nanorobots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis by physically chipping away the plaque along artery walls
Nanowire Detection of Algae in a Microchannel
Provides realtime information about antibodies to antigens, cell receptors to their glands etc..
Used for drug detection
To detect chemical vapours at low concentation based on surface stress.
IN SPACE TECHNOLOGY
Nanorobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field
specialized Marssuit Repair Nanorobots (MRN). MRN nanorobots operate as space-fillingpolyhedra to repair damage to a Marssuit
Measurement of toxic elements in environment
NANOBOTS CAN MINE GARBAGE DUMPS
Nanobots are going to make it easier and cheaper to pull out, clean up and create useful commodities for us to reuse. And once you understand the vast potential for Nanotechnology, you are going to understand that our future is going to be so bright... it is going to be so ……….freakin' brilliant!
With 15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft speed reducer gear is one of the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic detail
The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed
individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate
Durability is another potential asset
nanites might last for centuries before breaking down
risk of cancer
may affect human health by introducing toxicity in blood
Replication may become out of control