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Neural Networks And Their Applications
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An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems. ANNs, like people, learn by example. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern recognition or data classification, through a learning process. Learning in biological systems involves adjustments to the synaptic connections that exist between the neurons. This is true of ANNs as well.

Historical background
Neural network simulations appear to be a recent development. However, this field was established before the advent of computers, and has survived several eras. Many important advances have been boosted by the use of inexpensive computer emulations. The first artificial neuron was produced in 1943 by the neurophysiologist Warren McCulloch and the logician Walter Pitts.

Neural networks, with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. A trained neural network can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyze. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer "what if" questions.
Other advantages include: -

1. Adaptive learning: An ability to learn how to do tasks based on the data given for training or initial experience.
2. Self-Organisation: An ANN can create its own organization or representation of the information it receives during learning time.
3. Real Time Operation: ANN computations may be carried out in parallel, and special hardware devices are being designed and manufactured which take advantage of this capability.
4. Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding: Partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. However, some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage.

Neural networks have been successfully applied to broad spectrum of data-intensive applications, such as:

1.Voice Recognition - Transcribing spoken words into ASCII text.

2.Target Recognition - Military application which uses video and/or infrared image data to determine if an enemy target is present.

3.Medical Diagnosis - Assisting doctors with their diagnosis by analyzing the reported symptoms and/or image data such as MRIs or X-rays.

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