i need more details about neuro chip, with ppt's
A neuro-chip is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells. Technological advances in neural interfaces are providing increasingly more powerful “toolkits” of designs, materials, components, and integrated devices for establishing high-fidelity chronic neural interfaces. For a broad class of neuroscience studies, the primary requirements of these interfaces include recording and/or stimulating from a number of discretely sampled volumes at requisite spatial resolutions for specific periods of time. Translational and clinical applications present additional requirements for safety, usability, reliability, patient acceptance, and cost effectiveness. Innovative solutions result from the constructive tension between ever-increasing application requirements and incorporation of technological advances into usable devices. The purpose of this minireview is to present snapshots of the current state-of-the-art in chronic, microscale neural interfaces by highlighting several leading neuroscience applications and discussing their implications for next-generation interface devices.
A neuro-chip is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells. A neuro-chip is monitor what human brain cell are saying ,they also monitor the activity of brain cell. It is made of silicon that is doped in such a way that it contains EOSFETs (electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor FET) that can sense the electrical activity of the neurons (action potentials) in the above-standing physiological electrolyte solution. It also contains capacitors for the electrical stimulation of the neurons. The University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine scientists who proved it is possible to cultivate a network of brain cells that reconnect on a silicon chip—or the brain on a microchip—have developed new technology that monitors brain cell activity at a resolution never achieved before.
Building the probes that let a neurochip eaves drop on the electrical signaling in a nerve bundle, group of neurons, or single neuron presents a daunting task. Benchtop experiments on con strained animals typically use metallic needles— often made of stainless steel or tungsten—to communicate with nerve bundles, micromachined silicon probes to record from groups of
neurons, or glass capillaries filled with a conductive ionic solution to penetrate and record from the inside of individual neurons. In unconstrained animals, flexible metallic needles, attached to the animal with surgical superglue, and micromachined silicon probes still work. However, replicating the performance of glass capillaries in flying, swimming, wiggling animals is a different story entirely.
Researchers seek to implant both probes and neurochips inside an
animal’s brain. Unfortunately, an animal’s immune system rapidly and
indiscriminately encapsulates all foreign bodies with proteins, without regard
for the research value of implanted probes and neurochips. The adsorbed
proteins not only attenuate the recorded electrical signals, but can also
jeopardize the animal’s survival by causing abnormal tissue growth.
Researchers at the University of Washington’s Center for Engineered
Biomaterials have developed plasma-deposited ether-terminated oligoethylene
glycol coatings that inhibit protein fouling, as Figure 4 shows. Preliminary
research indicates that these glyme coatings can reduce the protein fouling of
probes and neurochips to levels acceptable for week-long experiments.