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Post: #26
Night vision technology has shaped history.
Pre 1940’s: Flares and spot lights were used for operations at night.
Due to the nature of these early night vision devices (NVD), they gave away tactical positions.
Military scientists began to think of ways to improve night vision to gain a strategic advantage.
Early Development
The first night vision devices (NVD) were created during WWII.
Functioned by placing an infrared filter over a searchlight.
Fighters would use special binoculars to see using the light from the searchlights.
Many problems came from this night vision method.
The screen was purposefully colored green due to the scientific fact that the human eye can differentiate more shades of green that any other color.
Early Development Cont.
There were many disadvantages to using the searchlights and flares.
The actual searchlight was massive and had to be mounted on a truck or tank.
Both the Allies and Nazi’s had this technology, so they each could see the others light.
Early Development Cont.
The images created were streaky and distorted.
The acceleration of electrons cut the life of the image intensification tube, which was the most important and expensive part of the NVD, very short.
Military scientists began planning a revised design.
Generation 1
Post WWII NVD technology focused on the ability to see without creating additional light.
During this time period the first “Generation” of NVD began using intensified natural lighting.
Generation 1 Cont.
Military scientists created a two-stage cascade image tube.
This tube intensified the natural lighting and created a superior image for the viewer.
The power of Generation 1 NVD was put to the test in the Vietnam War.
Generation 1 Cont.
Star Tron Scopes intensification tubes were as heavy as the rifles they were mounted on.
They were not sensitive enough to give clear images in anything less than full moonlight.
The NVD emitted a whiney noise.
They would shut down if they were exposed to a sudden burst of bright light.
Generation 2
There were two major developments in NVD technology after their test in Vietnam.
The first was a new micro-channel plate (MPC) that was light weight, and more effective at focusing light into clear images.
The second major development was the invention of thermal imagining.
Generation 2 Cont.
Thermal imaging allowed for NV even through low natural lighted conditions.
It also allowed for NV through smoky, dusty, and foggy conditions.
These thermal imagers were expensive, so in 1973 scientists created a common module that made it less expensive, and more ideal for military use.
Generation 2 Cont.
The generation 2 NVD were first put to the test by US forces in the early 1990’s during Operation Desert Storm in Kuwait.
The dark nights and harsh dusty conditions were perfect for implementing the new technology.
Current Generations
The currently generations of NVS are generations 3 and 4.
Generation 3 is much like generation 2 except for it has a substantially longer life, as well as more defined images.
Generation 4 has less noise than generation 3, however it has shorter life.
Current Generations Cont.
Here is a chart comparing the life in hours of the intensification tube for generations 1-3
General Public Use
Development of NVD up until the 1980’s was completely focused around military purposes.
In the 80’s, companies in the US and Europe took NVT and found ways to improve everyday civilian life.
General Public Use Cont.
There are many practical everyday uses for NVD, some of which are:
Law Enforcement
General Public Use Cont.
Hidden-Object detection
Post: #27
Presented By:
Zaved Ahmad
Umesh Pal Singh
Lokender Sharm A

The first thing you probably think of when you see the word night vision is a spy or
action movie you have seen in which some one straps on pair of night-vision goggles to find some one else in a dark building on a moonless night. And you some one straps on a pair of night-vision goggles to find some one else in dark building on a moonless night . And you have wondered ,
‘’Do those think really work?
Can you actually see the dark?
The answer is most definitely yes. With the proper night-vision equipment you can see a person standing over 200 yards(183m)away on moonless, cloudy night! .
How work night-vision?
Night vision can work in two different ways
1 Image enhancement.
2 Thermal imaging.
This work is collecting the tiny amount of light, including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying to the point thus we can easily observe the image
This technology operate by the capturing the upper portion of infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by object instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter object, such as warm bodies emits of this light than cooler objects like trees or building.
I will tell about two major NIGHT-VISION TECHNOLOGIES. We’ll also discuss the various night vision equipment and applications.
But first let’s talk about infrared light
In ordered to under stand night vision, it is important to some thing about LIGHT. The amount of energy in a light. Wave is related to its wave length shorter wave length have higher energy. Of visible light, violet has the most energy and red has least just to next is the visible light spectrum is the “infrared spectrum”
1 Near-infrared.
2 Mid-infrared.
3 Thermal-infrared.
Near infrared closet to visible light, near infrared has wavelengths that range from 0.7 to 1.33’microns’
Mid infrared light has ranging from 1.33 to 3 microns. Both are used by a verity of electronic devices, including’ remote control’ .
It occupying the largest part of the infrared spectrum, thermal infrared has wave length ranging from 3 microns to over thirty microns
The key difference between thermal-IR and other two is that thermal-IR is emitted by an object instead of reflect off it. IR light is emitted by an object because of what is happing at the atomic level.
Atoms are constantly in motion.
Atoms can be different states of excitation.
Atoms can have different energies.
The level of excitation depends on amount of energy applied to the atom via heat, light or electricity
Atoms consist of a nucleus (containing the protons & neutrons )and an electron cloud.
Atoms have many orbits.
A special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of object view.
The focus light in scanned by a phase array of infrared detector element. The detector element create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermogram.
Most thermal devices scan at the rate of 30 times per second. They can temperature ranging from -4 degrees Fahrenheit (-20 degrees Celsius) to 3600 F (2000 C), and can normally detect changes in temperature of about 0.4 F( 0.2 C).
Fig 1:it is quit easy to see every thing in the day.
Fig 2:but a night you can see very little.
There are two common types of thermal image devices
Un-Cooled- this is the most common type of thermal imaging devices. This infrared detector element are contained in a unit that operates a room temperature . This type of system is completely quit, activates immediately and has the battery built right .
Cryogenically cooled-more expensive and more susceptible to damage from rough use , these system have the element sealed inside a container that cool them to below 32 F( zero c).
Fig: thermal image lets you see again.
Thermal image technology is a great for detecting people or working in near absolute darkness, most night vision equipment use image enhancement technology
A conventional lens called a objective lens, captures ambient light and some near infrared light.
The gathered light is sent to the image intensifier tube in most NVD’s the power supply for the image intensifier tube receives power from two N cell. The output of high voltage about 5000 voltage to the image component.
The image intensifier has a photocathode, cathode which is used to convert the photons of light energy into electrons.
As the end electron pass throw the tube similar electron are released from atoms in the tube.
At the end of image intensifier tube, the electron hit a screen coated tube with phosphor.
The green phosphor image is viewed through another lens, called the ocular lens. Which allow you to magnify and focus the image. The NVD may be connected to an electric display, such as monitor, or a image may be viewed directly through the ocular lens
Generation 0-
- The next generation of NVDs moved away from active infrared, using passive infrared instead. Once dubbed Starlight by the U.S. Army, these NVDs use ambient light provided by the moon and stars to augment the normal amounts of reflected infrared in the environment. This means that they did not require a source of projected infrared light. This also means that they do not work very well on cloudy or moonless nights. Generation-1 NVDs use the same image-intensifier tube technology as Generation 0, with both cathode and anode, so image distortion and short tube life are still a problem.
2nd Generation
Major improvements in image-intensifier tubes resulted in Generation-2 NVDs. They offer improved resolution and performance over Generation-1 devices, and are considerably more reliable. The biggest gain in Generation 2 is the ability to see in extremely low light conditions, such as a moonless night. This increased sensitivity is due to the addition of the microchannel plate to the image-intensifier tube. Since the MCP actually increases the number of electrons instead of just accelerating the original ones, the images are significantly less distorted and brighter than earlier-generation NVDs.
3rd Generation
Generation 3 is currently used by the U.S. military. While there are no substantial changes in the underlying technology from Generation 2, these NVDs have even better resolution and sensitivity. This is because the photo cathode is made using gallium arsenide, which is very efficient at converting photons to electrons. Additionally, the MCP is coated with an ion barrier, which dramatically increases the life of the tube.
What is generally known as Generation 4 or "filmless and
gated" technology shows significant overall improvement in
both low- and high-level light environments. The removal of
the ion barrier from the MCP that was added in Generation 3
technology reduces the background noise and thereby
enhances the signal to noise ratio. Removing the ion film
actually allows more electrons to reach the amplification stage
so that the images are significantly less distorted and brighter.
Many of the so-called "bargain" night-vision scopes use Generation-0 or Generation-1 technology, and may be disappointing if you expect the sensitivity of the devices used by professionals. Generation-2, Generation-3 and Generation 4 NVDs are typically expensive to purchase, but they will last if properly cared for. Also, any NVD can benefit from the use of an IR Illuminator in very dark areas where there is almost no ambient light to collect.
Scopes - Normally handheld or mounted on a weapon, scopes are monocular (one eye-piece). Since scopes are handheld, not worn like goggles, they are good for when you want to get a better look at a specific object and then return to normal viewing conditions.
Goggles - While goggles can be handheld, they are most often worn on the head. Goggles are binocular (two eye-pieces) and may have a single lens or stereo lens, depending on the model. Goggles are excellentfor constant viewing, such as moving around in a dark building.
Cameras - with night-vision technology can send the image to a monitor for display or to a VCR for recording. When night-vision capability is desired in a permanent location, such as on a building or as part of the equipment in a helicopter, cameras are used. Many of the newer camcorders have night vision built right in.
Common applications for night vision include:
Law enforcement
Wildlife observation
Hidden-object detection
The original purpose of night vision was to locate enemy targets at night. It is still used extensively by the military for that purpose, as well as for navigation, surveillance and targeting. Police and security often use both thermal-imaging and image-enhancement technology, particularly for surveillance. Hunters and nature enthusiasts use NVDs to maneuver through the woods at night.
Detectives and private investigators use night vision to watch people they are assigned to track. Many businesses have permanently-mounted cameras equipped with night vision to monitor the surroundings
Post: #28
pls send me pore information about night vision technology
Post: #29
To get more information about the topic "NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY A SEMINAR REPORT " please refer the link below
Post: #30
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Post: #31
to get information about the topic night vision technology full report ppt, and related topics refer the link bellow
Post: #32



Night vision device is an optical intensity that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness

Example :-
Night vision goggles


To get the vision in the darkness
To study about various wild life in the night
It is used in the defense forces in the night patrolling


It mainly consist of two major types
Image intensification(light amplification)
Thermal imaging (infrared light )

Thermal Imaging

To understand thermal imaging it is important to understand something about light
IR light spectrum divide into 3 parts
Near IR
Mid IR
Thermal IR

Important Note..!

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