send me the full report of paper battery
excuse me sir, i want abstract and ppt of this report. so please send me sir.
paper battery full report
please upload a full report and ppt of paper battery
GIVE ME THE FULL REPORT PLZ.................................
Please give me the report on power paper or peper battery
The Batteries form a significant part of many electronic devices. Typical electrochemical batteries or cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries based on the charging ability are classified into primary and secondary cells. Secondary cells are widely used because of their rechargeable nature.
Presently, battery takes up a huge amount of space and contributes to a large part of the device's weight. There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. New research suggests that carbon nanotubes may eventually provide the best hope of implementing the flexible batteries which can shrink our gadgets even more.
The paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation gadgets. A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor, combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
The various types of batteries followed by the operation principle, manufacturing and working of paper batteries are discussed in detail.
Keywords: paper batteries, flexible, carbon nanotubes
1. INTRODUCTION TO BATTERIES
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications.
Batteries are represented symbolically as
Fig. 1a Symbolic view Fig. 1b conventional battery
Electrons flow from the negative terminal towards the positive terminal.
Based on the rechargeable nature batteries are classified as
a. Non rechargeable or primary cells
b. Rechargeable or secondary cells
Based on the size they are classified as
a. Miniature batteries
b. Industrial batteries
Based on nature of electrolyte
a. Dry cell
b. Wet cell
1.1.1 Accumulator - A rechargeable battery or cell
1.1.2 Ampere-Hour Capacity - The number of ampere-hours which can be delivered by a battery on a single discharge.
1.1.3 Anode - During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During charge, that reverses and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode. The anode gives up electrons to the load circuit and dissolves into the electrolyte.
1.1.4 Battery Capacity - The electric output of a cell or battery on a service test delivered before the cell reaches a specified final electrical condition and may be expressed in ampere-hours, watt- hours, or similar units. The capacity in watt-hours is equal to the capacity in ampere-hours multiplied by the battery voltage.
1.1.5 Cutoff Voltage final - The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery discharge is considered complete. The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized.
1.1.6 C - Used to signify a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery divided by 1 hour. Thus C for a 1600 mAh battery would be 1.6 A, C/5 for the same battery would be 320 mA and C/10 would be 160 mA.
1.1.7 Capacity - The capacity of a battery is a measure of the amount of energy that it can deliver in a single discharge. Battery capacity is normally listed as amp-hours (or milli amp-hours) or as watt-hours.
1.1.8 Cathode - Is an electrode that, in effect, oxidizes the anode or absorbs the electrons. During discharge, the positive electrode of a voltaic cell is the cathode. When charging, that reverses and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.
1.1.9 Cycle - One sequence of charge and discharge.
1.1.10 Cycle Life - For rechargeable batteries, the total number of charge/discharge cycles the cell can sustain before its capacity is significantly reduced. End of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers only 80% of rated ampere- hour capacity.
1.1.11 Electrochemical Couple - The system of active materials within a cell that provides electrical energy storage through an electrochemical reaction.
1.1.12 Electrode - An electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium
1.1.13 Electrolyte - A chemical compound which, when fused or dissolved in certain solvents, usually water, will conduct an electric current.
1.1.14 Internal Resistance - The resistance to the flow of an electric current within the cell or battery.
1.1.15 Open-Circuit Voltage - The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is open (i.e., a no-load condition).
1.1.16 Voltage, cutoff - Voltage at the end of useful discharge. (See Voltage, end-point.)
1.1.17 Voltage, end-point - Cell voltage below which the connected equipment will not operate or below which operation is not recommended.
1.2 Principal of Operation of cell
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode. The other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes.
please send me the full report along with the ppt of paper battery.
please mail me the full report of paper battery with ppt.
plz send me the full paper for this with25 pages
please send me the fullreport of paper battery
hello sir i need paper battery ppt. if u don't mine can u send the ppt to my mail id sampathv777[at]gmail.com. i should give the presentation on net week[/size]
I NEED MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PAPERBATTERY
hi.......please send me the documentation of paper battery on my email id...
sir may i have power point presentation on paper battery