In an age where information is being considered as the blood of this century, the very idea of transmitting such data or information to someone very specific sends these cold waves all around our body. With so many hackers and other anti-social elements spread around the world, secure data transmission is considered to be a myth these days. With the recent technological advancements success has been achieved to an extent in tackling the above stated issue. One such solution to this issue is RED TACTON devices, which are going to make their mark very soon. And when they are out all the problems related to secure, efficient, reliable, hi speed data transmission will be solved. Yes they are going to be solved!!
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION: -
The term wireless is normally used to refer to any type of electrical or electronic operation, which is accomplished without the use of a "hard wired" connection, though they may be accomplished with the use of wires if desired. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications). Wireless communications is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.
Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, when networks are seamlessly interconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips. The practical implementation of ubiquitous services requires three levels of connectivity: Wide Area Networks (WAN), typically via the Internet, to remotely connect all types of severs and terminals; Local Area Networks (LAN), typically via Ethernet or Wi-Fi connectivity among all the information and communication appliances in offices and homes; and Human Area Networks (HAN) for connectivity to personal information, media and communication appliances within the much smaller sphere of ordinary daily activities-- the last one meter. NTT's REDTACTON is a break-through technology that, for the first time, enables reliable high-speed HAN. In the past, Bluetooth, infrared communications (IrDA), radio frequency ID systems (RFID), and other technologies have been proposed to solve the "last meter" connectivity problem. However, they each have various fundamental technical limitations that constrain their usage, such as the precipitous fall-off in transmission speed in multi-user environments producing network congestion.
REDTACTON was developed by a seven-person research team led by Yuichi Kado, executive manager of the Smart Devices Laboratory at NTT's Microsystems Integration Laboratories, in Atsugi, west of Tokyo. Using a transmitter embedded in, say, a PDA, REDTACTON sends a 5-volt pulse along the surface of the body. The human body shunts most of this electricity to the ground, resulting in a weak electric field that can be modulated to carry signals. The receiver is located either on another part of the bodyâ€a component of a hands-free headset, perhapsâ€or nearby, say, in an acquaintance's PDA. As it senses modulations in the electric field, the receiver decodes them to recover the data.
For implementation of easy-to use ubiquitous services, human area network technology for communication between mobile terminals and terminals that are embedded in the environment has become important. When cables are used for communication between terminals, the routing of the cables is clearly inconvenient. When very weak radio signal is used for the communication, data speeds are reduced by packet collision and other such problems in crowded places such as exhibition sites and security risk from unwanted signal interception is another problem. Technology for solving such problems includes the use of personâ„¢s body as a signal path of communication. A transmission path is formed automatically when a person come into contact with a device, communication between mobile terminals begin. This makes it possible for communication to be initiated through natural actions such as grasping, sitting, walking and stepping onto something.
RED TACTON is a new Human Area Networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a safe, high-speed network transmission path. REDTACTON uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared. A transmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a REDTACTON transceiver. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication. Using REDTACTON, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user's natural, physical movements. Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or torso. REDTACTON works through shoes and clothing as well.
HOW REDTACTON WORKS: -
In the past, Bluetooth, infrared communications (IrDA), radio frequency ID systems (RFID), and other technologies have been proposed to solve the "last meter" connectivity problem. However, they each have various fundamental technical limitations that constrain their usage, such as the precipitous fall-off in transmission speed in multi-user environments producing network congestion. A communications path can be created with a simple touch, automatically initiating the flow of data between a body-centric electronic device and a computer that is embedded in the environment. For example, two people equipped with REDTACTON devices could exchange data just by shaking hands.
Exactly how the receiver senses these modulations in the electric field generated by the transmitter is one of the major differences between PAN and REDTACTON. An electro-optical sensor embedded in the receiver and composed of an electro-optical crystal, a laser diode, and photodetectors reads the body's electric field through an electrode, which then transmits that field to a bismuth silicon oxide optical crystal. The electric field changes the refractive index of the crystal, which in turn changes the polarization of the sensor's laser beam as it shines through the crystal. Photodetectors register polarization changes as changes in light intensity and convert those changes into electrical signals, which are then processed by your cellphone or PDA.
Using a new super-sensitive photonic electric field sensor, REDTACTON can achieve duplex communication over the human body at a maximum speed of 10 Mbps.
REDTACTON takes a different technical approach. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, the technology uses weak electric fields on the surface of the body
as a transmission medium. The weak electric fields pass through the body to a receiver where the weak electric fields affect the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal. The extent to which the optical properties are changed is detected by laser light, which is then converted to an electrical signal by a detector circuit.
Using a REDTACTON electro-optic sensor, two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of up to 10 Mbps. Communication is not just confined to the surface of the body, but can travel through the user's clothing to a REDTACTON device in a pocket or through shoes to communicate with a REDTACTON device embedded in the floor. Unlike wireless technologies, the transmission speed does not deteriorate even in the presence of large crowds of people all communicating at the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums or stores. Because the body surface is the transmission path, increasing the number of connected users directly increases the available number of individual communication channels.
The system works by creating a transmission path at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a REDTACTON transceiver. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication. Using REDTACTON, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user's natural, physical movements. Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or torso. REDTACTON even works through shoes and clothing as well.
One suggestion for the technology is for the system to be embedded into medicine bottles that would then transmit information on the medicines' attributes. If the user touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal he or she is carrying. The alarm sounds only if the user actually touches the medicine bottle, reducing false alarms common with passive wireless ID tags, which can trigger simply by proximity.
MECHANISM OF COMMUNICATION WITH REDTACTON: -
The transmitter sends data by inducing fluctuations in the minute electric field on the surface of the human body. Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field.
Using a novel electro-optic sensor, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has already developed a small PCMCIA card-sized prototype REDTACTON transceiver. REDTACTON enables the first practical Human Area Network between body-centered electronic devices and PCs or other network devices embedded in the environment via a new generation of user interface based on totally natural human actions such as touching, holding, sitting, walking, or stepping on a particular spot. REDTACTON can be used for intuitive operation of computer-based systems in daily life, temporary one-to-one private networks based on personal handshaking, device personalization, security, and a host of other applications based on new behavior patterns enabled by REDTACTON.
REDTACTON doesnâ„¢t introduce an electric current into the body â€ instead; it makes use of the minute electric field that occurs naturally on the surface of every human body. A transmitter attached to a device, such as an MP3 player, uses this field to send data by modulating the field minutely in the same way that a radio carrier wave is modulated to carry information.
Receiving data is more complicated because the strength of the electric field involved is so low. REDTACTON gets around this using a technique called electric field photonics: A laser is passed though an electro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it. These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data.
The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam.
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: -
With the ability to send attribute data from personal information devices worn on the body to computers embedded in the environment, one-to-one services could be implemented that are tailored to the individual needs of the user.
Enable one-to-one services tailored to the user's situation and tastes. Attribute information recorded in the REDTACTON device is sent to the touched objects. The appropriate service is provided based on the attribute information received by the REDTACTON receiver.
Elemenating human error:-
REDTACTON devices embedded medicine bottles transmit information on the medicines' attributes. If the user touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal he is carrying. The alarm sounds only if the user actually touches the medicine bottle, reducing false alarms common with passive wireless ID tags, which can trigger simply by proximity.
Alert and contact record at medical, long-term care, and childcare facilities. Avoidance of risk at construction sites (an alarm sounds if special equipment is handled by anyone other than supervisors).
Elemenating human error Marketing application
Marketing applications(context awareness)
Touch advertising and receive information
When a consumer stands in front of an advertising panel, advertising and information matching his or her attributes is automatically displayed. By touching or standing in front of items they are interested in, consumers can get more in-depth information. Brochures only of products of interest to the visitor can be downloaded automatically at trade shows. Inside a shop, shoppers can view related information on their mobile terminals immediately after touching a product.
Intuitive operation of personal information devices
Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior, so there is no need to insert smart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated with today's electronic devices.
Natural movements and actions are the trigger. Thereâ„¢s no "operation" any more. Just intuitive human interaction. REDTACTON transceivers embedded in two terminals can communicate not only data but also the control or configuration instructions needed to operate devices. Cable connections are eliminated. The body itself is used as transmission medium.
Touch a printer
Touch a printer to print:-
Print out where you want just by touching the desired printer with one hand and a PC or digital camera with the other hand to make the link. Downloading device drivers at first touch reduces complicated configurations.
-Display notebook PC screen on projectors with just a touch.
-Transfer songs to portable music players from notebook PCs with just a touch.
Instant Praivate Data Exchange:-
o Instataneous private network via personal handshake:-
By shaking hands, personal profile data can be exchanged between mobile terminals on the users. (Electronic exchange of business cards). Communication can be kept private using authentication and encryption technologies.
Group photos taken with digital cameras are instantly transferred to individual's mobile terminal. Diagrams written on white boards during meetings are transferred to individual's mobile terminals on the spot.
Setup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all be uploaded to a device the instant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured in advance.
Digital lifestyle can be instantly personalized with just a touch. A pre-recorded configuration script can be embedded in a mobile terminal with built-in REDTACTON transceiver. When another device with REDTACTON capabilities is touched, personalization data and configuration scripts can be downloaded automatically.
Personalization of mobile phones:-
Your own phone number is allocated and billing commences. Automatic importing of personal address book and call history.
The PC is configured to the user's specifications simply by touching the mouse. Room temperature and lighting are customized when a switch in the living room is pressed.
Personalization of automobiles:-
Just sitting in the seat triggers the car to laod all its presets, just the way u like.
The seat position and steering wheel height adjust to match the driver just by sitting in the car. The driver's home is set as the destination in the car navigation system. The stereo plays the driver's favorite song. Touching the TV remote control triggers a filter/search routine according to your personal programming preferences.
New behavior patterns
Tables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and other architectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. For example, a user could have instant access to the Internet merely by placing a laptop onto a conductive tabletop. Various conductors and dielectrics can be used as REDTACTON. Communication media and this have the potential to create new behavior patterns.
o Conferencing system:-
REDTACTON can carry music or video between headsets, mobile devices, mobile phones, etc. Users can listen to music from a REDTACTON player simply by putting on a headset or holding a viewer connecting head mounted displays.
REDTACTON could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch. At the same time, all the transaction details and relevant user attributes (personal identity, security clearance, etc.) could be logged by the security system.
Automatic user authentication and login with just a touch. ID and privileges are recorded in a mobile REDTACTON device. Corresponding REDTACTON receivers are installed at security checkpoints. The system can provide authentication and record who touched the device, and when Carrying a mobile.
o User verification and lock management at entrances: -
REDTACTON-capable device in one's pocket, ID is verified and the door unlocked when the user holds the doorknob normally. Secure lock administration is possible by combining personal verification tools such as fingerprint ID or other biometric in the mobile terminal. Automated car door lock/unlock just by touching the handle; unlocking a bicycle just by sitting on it.
Automatic access log for confidential document storage:-
A REDTACTON receiver in a cabinet where important documents are stored enables lock administration and keeps a record of who accessed documents at what time. Seat reservation management by verifying that the right person is in the right seat. Log and verification of the person who touched the terminal.
Communication in new domain: -
Potential for use as communication method in outer space and under water. Potential for use as communication method with devices inside the human body
OTHER FEATURES: -
Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data.
Using REDTACTON, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human's natural movements.
BROADBAND & INTERACTIVE: -
Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time.
Communication speed can deteriorate in crowded spaces due to a lack of bandwidth. Device drivers can be downloaded instantly and executable programs can be quickly sent. Taking advantage of this speed, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and execute programs can be sent.
ANY MEDIA: -
In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination. In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination.
A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGY: -
REDTACTON surpasses other human area networks in terms of communication performance and user convenience.
Evaluation criteria Wireless LAN Close-range
wireless Infrared REDTACTON
Transfer speed E P P E
during periods of congestion. P P E E
Duplex data transfer
(Interactive processing) E E E E
User friendly P P P E
REDTACTON has a wide range of unique new functional features and enormous potential as a Human Area Networking technology. NTT is committed to quickly identifying and opening up those application areas with the most commercial promise for REDTACTON, a business development process to be coordinated under NTT's Comprehensive Producer Function program.
4. Data Communication & Networking By FOROUZAN