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i want a full and detailed report in robotic arm with gripper with procedures and diagrams[/b][/color][/size][/font]
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The Robotic Arm
The term robot comes from the Czech word robota, generally translated as "forced labor." This describes the majority of robots fairly well. Most robots in the world are designed for heavy, repetitive manufacturing work. They handle tasks that are difficult, dangerous or boring to human beings.
The most common manufacturing robot is the robotic arm. A robotic arm is a robotic manipulator, usually programmable, with similar functions to a human arm. A typical robotic arm is made up of seven metal segments, joined by six joints. The computer controls the robot by rotating individual step motors connected to each joint (some larger arms use hydraulics or pneumatics). Unlike ordinary motors, step motors move in exact increments This allows the computer to move the arm very precisely, repeating exactly the same movement over and over again. The robot uses motion sensors to make sure it moves just the right amount.
An industrial robot with six joints closely resembles a human arm -- it has the equivalent of a shoulder, an elbow and a wrist. Typically, the shoulder is mounted to a stationary base structure rather than to a movable body. This type of robot has six degrees of freedom, meaning it can pivot in six different ways. A human arm, by comparison, has seven degrees of freedom.
Your arm's job is to move your hand from place to place. Similarly, the robotic arm's job is to move an end effector from place to place. You can outfit robotic arms with all sorts of end effectors, which are suited to a particular application. One common end effector is a simplified version of the hand, which can grasp and carry different objects. Robotic hands often have built-in pressure sensors that tell the computer how hard the robot is gripping a particular object. This keeps the robot from dropping or breaking whatever it's carrying. Other end effectors include blowtorches, drills and spray painters.
Industrial robots are designed to do exactly the same thing, in a controlled environment, over and over again. For example, a robot might twist the caps onto peanut butter jars coming down an assembly line. To teach a robot how to do its job, the programmer guides the arm through the motions using a handheld controller. The robot stores the exact sequence of movements in its memory, and does it again and again every time a new unit comes down the assembly line.
Most industrial robots work in auto assembly lines, putting cars together. Robots can do a lot of this work more efficiently than human beings because they are so precise. They always drill in the exactly the same place, and they always tighten bolts with the same amount of force, no matter how many hours they've been working. Manufacturing robots are also very important in the computer industry. It takes an incredibly precise hand to put together a tiny microchip.
Most robotic arms used for industrial applications perform tasks such as "pick and place," which is literally picking something up and placing it elsewhere. Robot arms are particularly useful in jobs where precise part placement, such as in electronic equipment, is important. Other industrial tasks can include applying paints and sealant that pose a toxic threat to humans. Robot arms also perform tasks such as gas, arc or spot welding or product assembly.
Robotic arms, in combination with remote-controlled devices to move them, can monitor radiation or collect specimen samples in areas that may be toxic for people. In the medical field, robotic arms are used to perform surgical procedures. NASA makes use of robotic arms during space missions to perform basic assembly tasks and to anchor astronauts as they work in space.
Although arm designs vary considerably by model, each must take into account the area that the robotic arm can reach, or its working space. This is a function of the arm's joints and the degrees of freedom in the joints. The degrees of freedom are how far a joint can travel in a given direction. Most robotic arms have a base that allows limited turning, with additional joints that allow either up-down or left-right motion. Some, but not all, robotic arms come equipped with wrists that can spin 360 degrees. Attachments to robotic arms can include simple grasping devices or even welders.
• Cartesian robot / Gantry robot: Used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc welding. It's a robot whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a Cartesian coordinator.
• Cylindrical robot: Used for assembly operations, handling at machine tools, spot welding, and handling at diecasting machines. It's a robot whose axes form a cylindrical coordinate system.
• Spherical robot / Polar robot (such as the Unimate): Used for handling at machine tools, spot welding, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding and arc welding. It's a robot whose axes form a polar coordinate system.
• SCARA robot: Used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot which has two parallel rotary joints to provide compliance in a plane.
• Articulated robot: Used for assembly operations, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding, arc welding and spray painting. It's a robot whose arm has at least three rotary joints.
• Parallel robot: One use is a mobile platform handling cockpit flight simulators. It's a robot whose arms have concurrent prismatic or rotary joints.
• Anthropomorphic robot: Shaped in a way that resembles a human hand, i.e with independent fingers and thumbs

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