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robotic car full report
Post: #1


ROBOTIC CARS Introduction: The advancements in artificial intelligence are playing a major role in todayâ„¢s world. In future, AI will play a major role in all the fields of science and technology. This paper deals with the designing the cars enabled with artificial intelligence, to increase the safety and comfort of the passengers. These Robot-cars unlike conventional cars, does not need drivers for their driving. Instead of drivers, they are controlled autonomously using Differential-Global Position Systems (DGPS), Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) Chips programmed with reduced instruction set of codes (RISC) and microcontroller units. All the control systems of the car are brought under the control of microcontrollers, which receive their inputs from speed measuring systems such as tachometer, speedometer, odometer and sensors such as traction and stability control sensors, yaw control sensors, Radars and communication systems such as satellite transceivers. TECHNOLOGY BEHIND ROBOT-CARS: These cars principally incorporate three systems called Vehicle Tracking System Cruise Control system and Car-to-Car Communication Systems. (i) VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM: The Vehicle Tracking System includes DGPS including a transceiver for a local area network broadcasting. The usage of DGPS minimizes the error while tracking the vehicle, to millimeter accuracies. These DGPS use a local area network unlike conventional GPS. Since the DGPS hardware at the station in the local area network already knows about its own position, it calculates its receiverâ„¢s inaccuracy. The station then broadcasts a radio signal to all DGPS-equipped receivers in the area, providing signal correction information for that area. After tracking the position of the vehicle, the satellite sends the data about the position of the vehicle, to the vehicle. The process of tracking takes place in a cyclic manner such that the satellite sends the details of the car, to the car and then car executes its action accordingly from the information received and then the new position of the car is sent to the car by satellite. The Robot-car after getting the input from the passenger (i.e. destination), the microprocessor based on the input, makes a program about the travel. The program would be such that, as explained as follows. The program generation includes the following mechanism while making the travel. (A)PATH CHOOSING MECHANISM: Let us consider the given Figure (i), which is the actual map generated by the DGPS receiver inside the vehicle based on the data received from the satellite. EMBED PBrush Figure (i) From the figure (i), there are two possible ways for the destination (path 1 and path 2). After making appropriate calculations, the program finds that path1 as the shortest distance. Then, the system asks the passenger to give his/her preference, highlighting the shortest path, amongst the routes available. After the passenger has chosen the path, the system checks its present status such as available fuel, tyre pressure, spare tyres, etc. The microprocessor then sends the chartered route to the control tower for permission to proceed. After getting the clearance from the tower, the microprocessor sends the output to the actuator for the throttle. After throttling, the car starts moving in the specified path. If the permission is denied due to blockage in the route, or for any other reason, the passenger can override the system and can choose manual drive. An option for emergency mode is also provided for various emergencies, wherein, system chooses the shortest to the destination. (B) STEERING MECHANISM: The car is programmed to keep to the left of the road, while making itâ„¢s journey. This is done by retrieving the width of the road from the DGPS data and accordingly, the vehicle aligns it to the left side of the road by comparing the coordinates, it is in at that time and the coordinates of the road that is received from the DGPS. EMBED PBrush Figure (ii)-Enlarged part of a small curve The steering mechanism will be in such a way that the car till approaching the curve moves in a linear way and at the instant of the curve, steers to an angle about a tangent to the curve and in the direction of the tangent and after an instant steers to an angle of the next tangent. The car continues this mechanism till it elapses the curve. The Robot-Car repeats the same type of steering mechanism for all the curves. In the above figure (ii) shown, when the car approaches the curve it makes a right turn to an angle of 25( and then it approaches to a certain distance and then makes an angle of about 30( to the right and then the completes the curve. Case Study: This system given below is an example for a pattern based automated navigation, i.e. the entire system is programmed such that it moves dynamically in that area in a particular pattern. In this system, we have considered an arbitrary location. The roads, vehicles navigating, the control station, and the transmission center are the core components of the location. This system makes use of the DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) for tracking and retrieving the co-ordinates of the car, and other particulars related to this. EMBED PBrush Figure (iii): Pattern based system The System Description: Area: 500m X 450m Number of roads in the map: 4 Number of vehicles on road: 2 Control station: 1 Transmission station: 1 To get a very precise position detail about the car, there should be a DGPS network in that area. In the above Figure (iii), it is shown that the area covered by the local area transmitter. These local area transmitters have the activity of monitoring the cars, which comes under its range and it sends the details of the car such as (x, y, z, t) to the transmitting center. Where, Ëœxâ„¢,â„¢yâ„¢,â„¢zâ„¢ are coordinates of X,Y,Z axes respectively, and Ëœtâ„¢ is the time measured at that instant. Here, the local area transmitters send the coordinate values by taking transmitting center as their origin to the transmitting center. Since, the satellites know about their transmitting center positions, they easily track the carâ„¢s position to millimeter accuracies. Thus, the errors evolving due to time dilation properties are eliminated by the installment of the local area network of transmitters. The data, which the satellite obtains, is sent to the car and the car makes an appropriate decision. From the above Figure (iii), let us consider the car1, whose destination is the position of car2 and the car2, whose destination is the position of car1. Assuming both the cars has started their journey at a time. The car1 generates the program, which will be in such a way that it has to continue itâ„¢s cruising till it reaches the first curve for the road number 2. As same as the car 1, the car 2 makes a program to make a straight drive till it approaches its first right turn. Then the cars will be starting their journey based on the program generated. As similar as mentioned above, the cars generate their program and continue their journey based on the program. Let us consider a situation that both these cars meet at road number 2, opposite to each other in their journey. When these cars come closer to each other, there are being possibilities exist that these will collide each other. The possibility of cars colliding is eliminated by the Cruise Control Systems and Car-to-Car communication systems, which are explained below. (ii) CRUISE CONTROL SYSTEMS: The Cruise Control Systems apart from Vehicle Tracking Systems are used, because in real-time applications there will be many changes in the environment of the car such as the other vehicles coming in the opposite lanes and vehicles overtaking the car and the sudden crossing of a pedestrian in the road, etc. For this purpose is developed these Cruise Control Systems and integrated with the vehicle tracking systems to ensure the safety of the passenger while the car is running. In these Cruise Control System, an oscillator is used to generate the very high frequency transmit signal. A transceiver is used which may be a millimeter wave pulsed radar in front of the vehicle, is made to send signals of higher frequencies of about 77GHZ. Block diagram showing the Cruise Control System A prototype Fusion processor depends on optical and radar sensors to move a car automatically at the varying speeds of traffic. A camera and radar report on the width, distance, and speed of objects ahead, and the processor combines the data, feeding it to a unit that controls the car and also informs the driver by displaying the parameters of the conditions on a LCD screen mounted on the windshield. A vision sensor and short-range wide beam radar at the sides of the vehicle are used along with the millimeter wave radar. This radar, when detecting an obstacle in front of the vehicle gets a signal reflected back The millimeter wave radar along with sensors on the sides of the car evaluate the carâ„¢s surroundings including the lane, other vehicles while overtaking or any other vehicle overtaking the robot-car is sensed. These reflected signals are sent to amplifying assembly from which, the amplified signal is sent to A/D converter, since the amplified signals are analog and are converted to digital. These digital signals are then fed to microcontroller assembly containing digital signal processors (DSP), microcontrollers with reduced instruction set of codes (RISC) and also these microcontrollers use embedded programming in which, the codes for the controllers are designed in computer and are fed into them. These microcontrollers have the output in the form of digital and these signals are converted and fed to steering control system and avoids spinning or skidding while suspension control adjusts the downward force on the tires; and independent control of the left and right brakes assists the instantaneous action and controls the vehicle speed. The result of these actions is that crash avoidance is made safely. NEED FOR ACCURACY WHILE INSTALLING RADAR: Since the radar system is using a high degree of accuracy, even a misalignment in horizontal component of 1( may cause failure of the system. So, the system is to be equipped with automatic scanning system in order to rectify their defects. When stationary objects are found in the path immediate and swift instructions are given to the actuators to evade the obstacles. But if the radar unit is too far from the scanning objects, there it needs for manual alignment. Therefore, to perform manual alignment, distance sensing cruise control system is to be used to give the calculated values of the distance between the vehicles. (iii) CAR-TO-CAR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: Car-to-car communication, where a direct exchange of information takes place between cars on the move and assists in terms of safety, improves the traffic flow, and simplifies numerous everyday situations. These systems include communicative devices using short-range communication systems (around range of 500 metres). By constantly monitoring the environment of the car, these devices transmit the data about the position, their control, to the cars, which come under the range of the systems. By doing this, the car in the range, gets the details about other cars and makes suitable decisions while crossing them. ADVANTAGES OF ROBOT-CARS: Overall Fuel consumption reduces drastically as there wonâ„¢t be any unnecessary braking, speeding or idling. Traffic flow becomes streamlined and smooth. The probability of accident become very less. Noise pollution can be reduced as the communication is between the cars. Vehicle life increases, as there wonâ„¢t be any reckless driving. Workload of man decreases. At times of emergencies (ambulance, fire engines, etc.), the whole traffic system realizes and acts accordingly. CONCLUSION: A horse senses the riderâ„¢s intentions and judges the surrounding conditions, avoids obstacles in order to ensure its own safety as well as the riderâ„¢s. Similarly, the robotic cars, respond to the sudden appearance of another vehicle, pedestrians, or animals, a group of sensors recognizes the surrounding circumstances and cruises through the roads effectively and makes the journey more comfortable, safe and more reliable. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Automotive engineering- a systems approach: Jack Erzavec, 2004 Edition. Automotive Technology : kirpal singh , 2003 Edition. Microprocessors and Digital Systems: Douglas.V.Hall, 2002 Edition. Embedded systems: Raj kamal, 2004 Edition . Mechatronics: Newton.C.Braga 2003 Edition
Post: #2
how we can implement the pick n place property in pc based robotic car Exclamation
Post: #3
send me the full report
Post: #4
i want detailed report[/size]
Post: #5
can u give me the full report on rotic car with ppt...and images ....i didn't get it on webside....plz send me report on nikhil.thorat12293[at] send soon
Post: #6
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Post: #7
i need full report.pls provide meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Post: #8
hi friend you can refer this page to get the full report on robotic car
Post: #9
hi dud send me full project report of robotic car using microcontroller of sensors
Post: #10
sir can u mess me the pictures u mentioned over there..?

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