ROSNA P HAROON
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
PERCEPTUAL INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
Human computer interaction has not changed fundamentally for nearly two decades. Most users interact with computers by typing, clicking and pointing. Now most of the research works are concentrating on interaction techniques that combine an understanding of natural human capabilities with computer I/O devices and machine perception and reasoning. Perceptual Intelligence is the knowledge and understanding that everything we experience (especially thoughts and feelings) are defined by our perception. Itâ„¢s important to realize that this is an active, not passive, process and therefore we have the ability to control it or change it. Computers need to share our perceptual environment before they can be really helpful. They need to be situated in the same world that we are; they need to know much more than just the text of our words. They also need to know who we are, see our expressions and gestures, and hear the tone and emphasis of our voice.
Inanimate things are coming to our life. That is the simple objects that surround us are gaining sensors, computational powers, and actuators.Consequently,desks and doors, TVs and telephones, cars and trains, eyeglasses and shoes, and even the shirts on our backs are changing from static, inanimate objects into adaptive, reactive systems that can be more friendly,useful,and efficient. These new systems could be even more difficult to use than current systems; it depends how we design the interface between the world of humans and the world of this new generation of machines. To change inanimate objects into smart active helpmates they need perceptual intelligence. The main problem with todayâ„¢s systems are they are both deaf and blind.They mostly experience the world around them through a slow serial line to a keyboard and mouse. Even multimedia computers,which can handle signals like sound and image,do so only as a transport device that knows nothing Computers need to share our perceptual environment before they can be really helpful. They need to be situated in the same world that we are; they need to know much more than just the text of our words of the signalsâ„¢ content. Here comes the importance of perceptual intelligence.If the systems have the ability to learn perception, they can act in a smart way.Perceptual intelligence is actually a learned skill.
Perception is the end result of a thought that begins its journey with the senses. We see, hear, physically feel, smell or taste an event. After the event is experienced it must then go through various filters before our brains decipher what exactly has happened and how we feel about it. Even though this process can seem instantaneous, it still always happens. The filters that make up perception are as follows: Â¢ What we know about the subject or event. I saw an orange and knew it was editable. Â¢ What our previous experience (and/or knowledge) with the subject or event was. Last time I ate an orange I peeled it first (knowledge to peel an orange before eating it) and it was sweet. Our previous experience forms our expectations. Â¢ Our current emotional state. How we are feeling at the time of the event does affect how we will feel after the event. I was in a bad mood when I ate the orange and it angered me that it was sour and not sweet (my expectation) Â¢ In the end my intellectual and emotional perception regarding the eating of an orange was an unpleasant experience. Depending on how strong that experience was, determines how I will feel next time I eat an orange. For example, if I got violently sick after eating an orange, the next time I see an orange, I probably wonâ„¢t want to eat it. If I had a pleasant experience eating an orange, the next time I see an orange, Iâ„¢ll likely want to eat it. Even though emotions seemly occur as a result of an experience, they are actually the result of a complicated process. This process involves interpreting action and thought and then assigning meaning to it. The mind attaches meaning with prejudice as the information goes through the perceptual filters we mentioned above.
Our perceptual filters also determine truth, logic along with meaning - though they donâ„¢t always do this accurately. Only when we become aware that a bad feeling could be an indication of a misunderstanding (error in perception) we can begin to make adjustments to our filters and change the emotional outcome. When left alone and untrained, the mind chooses emotions and reactions based on a "survival" program which does not take into account that we are civilized beings â€œ itâ„¢s only concerned with survival. A good portion of this program is faulty because the filters have created distortions, deletions and generalizations which alter perception. For example, jumping to a conclusion about "all" or "none" of something based on one experience. The unconscious tends to think in absolutes and supports "one time" learnings from experience (this is the survival aspect of learning). Perceptual User Interfaces A perceptual interface is one that allows a computer user to interact with the computer without having to use the normal keyboard and mouse. These interfaces are realised by giving the computer the capability of interpreting the user's movements or voice commands. Perceptual Interfaces are concerned with extending human computer interaction to use all modalities of human perception. All current research efforts are focused at including vision, audition, and touch in the process. The goal of perceptual reality is to create virtual and augmented versions of the world, that are perceptually identical to the human with the real world. The goal of creating perceptual user interfaces is to allow humans to have natural means of interacting with computers, appliances and devices using voice, sounds, gestures, and touch. Perceptual User interfaces (PUI) are characterised by interaction techniques that combine an understanding of natural human capabilities with computer I/O devices and machine perception and reasoning. They seek to make the user interface more natural and compelling by taking advantage of the ways in which people naturally interact with each other and with the world-both verbally and nonverbally. Devices and sensors should be transparent and passive if possible, and machines should perceive relevant human communication channels as well as generate output that is naturally understood. This is expected to require integration at multiple levels of technologies such as speed and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphical animation and visualization, language understanding, touch based sensing and feedback learning, user modelling and dialogue management. Information flow in Perceptual User Interfaces PUI integrates perceptive, multimodal, and multimedia interfaces to bring our human capabilities to bear on creating more natural and intuitive interfaces. A perceptive user interface is one that adds human-like perceptual capabilities to the computer, for example, making the computer aware of what the user is saying or what the userâ„¢s face, body and hands are doing. These interfaces provide input to the computer while leveraging human communication and motor skills. A multimodal user interface is closely related emphasizing human communication skills. We use multiple modalities when we engage in face to face communication leading to more effective communication. Most work on multimodal UI as focused on computer input(for example using speech together with pen
gestures).Multimodal output uses different modalities, like visual display, audio and tactile feedback to engage human perceptual, cognitive and communication skills in understanding what is being presented. In multimodal UI various modalities are sometimes used independently or simultaneously or tightly coupled. Multimedia UI uses perceptual and cognitive skills to interpret information presented to the user .Text, graphics, audio and video are the typical media used. PUIs will enhance the use of computers as tools or appliances, directly enhancing GUI-based applications-for example ,by taking into account gestures, speech and eye gaze.Perhaps,more importantly, these technologies will enable broad use of computers as assistance, or agents that will interact in more human like ways. Perceptual interfaces will enable multiple styles of interaction-such as speech only, speech and gesture, text and touch,vision,and synthetic sound-each of which may be appropriate in different circumstances, whether that be desktop apps,hands-free mobile use, or embedded household systems. Perceptual Intelligence Perceptual Intelligence is the knowledge and understanding that everything we experience (especially thoughts and feelings) are defined by our perception. Perceptual intelligence is paying attention to people and the surrounding situation in the same way another person would, thus allowing these new devices to learn to adapt their behaviour to suit us, rather than adapting to them as we do today. In the language of cognitive science, perceptual intelligence is the ability to deal with the frame problem; it is the ability to classify the current situation, so that it is possible to know what variables are important and thus can take appropriate action. Once a computer has the perceptual ability to know who, what, when, where, and why, then the probabilistic rules derived by statistical learning methods are normally sufficient for the computer to determine a good course of action.
The key to perceptual intelligence is making machines aware of their environment, and in particular, sensitive to the people who interact with them. They should know who we are, see our expressions and gestures, and hear the tone and emphasis of our voice. Perceptual intelligent systems We have developed computer systems that can follow peopleËœs actions, recognizing their faces, gestures, and expressions. Some of the systems are: Gesture recognition system Speech recognition system Nouse perceptual vision interface Gesture Recognition Gesture Recognition deals with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current focuses in the field include emotion recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Many approaches have been made using cameras and computer vision algorithms to interpret sign language. Gesture Recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begin to understand human body language, thus building a richer bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces or even GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces), which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Gesture Recognition enables humans to interface with the machine (HMI) and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. Using the concept of Gesture Recognition, it is possible to point a finger at the computer screen so that the cursor will move accordingly. This could potentially make conventional input devices such as mouse, keyboards and even touch-screens redundant.