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smart antenna full report
Post: #1


Smart Antenna
One of the most rapidly developing areas of communications is Smart Antenna systems. This paper deals with the principle and working of smart antennas and the elegance of their applications in various fields such a 4G telephony system, best suitability of multi carrier modulations such as OFDMA etc..,
This paper mainly concentrates on use of smart antennas in mobile communications that enhances the capabilities of the mobile and cellular system such a faster bit rate, multi use interference, space division multiplexing (SDMA),increase in range, Multi path Mitigation, reduction of errors due to multi path fading and with one great advantage that is a very high security. The signal that is been transmitted by a smart antenna cannot tracked or received any other antenna thus ensuring a very high security of the data transmitted. This paper also deals the required algorithms that are need for the beam forming in the antenna patters.
The applications of smart antennas such as in WI-FI transmitter, Discrete Multi Tone modulation (DMT), OFDMA and TD-SCDMA is already in real world use is also incorporated in this paper.


What is a smart antenna?
A smart antenna is an array of antenna elements connected to a digital signal processor. Such a configuration dramatically enhances the capacity of a wireless link through a combination of diversity gain, array gain, and interference suppression. Increased capacity translates to higher data rates for a given number of users or more users for a given data rate per user.

Multipath paths of propagation are created by reflections and scattering. Also, interference signals such as that produced by the microwave oven in the picture, are superimposed on the desired signals. Measurements suggest that each path is really a bundle or cluster of paths, resulting from surface roughness or irregularities. The random gain of the bundle is called Multipath fading.
The smart antenna works as follows. Each antenna element "sees" each propagation path differently, enabling the collection of elements to distinguish individual paths to within a certain resolution. As a consequence, smart antenna transmitters can encode independent streams of data onto different paths or linear combinations of paths, thereby increasing the data rate, or they can encode data redundantly onto paths that fade independently to protect the receiver from catastrophic signal fades, thereby providing diversity gain. A smart antenna receiver can decode the data from a smart antenna transmitter this is the highest-performing configuration or it can simply provide array gain or diversity gain to the desired signals transmitted from conventional transmitters and suppress the interference.
No manual placement of antennas is required. The smart antenna electronically adapts to the environment by looking for pilot tones or beacons or by recovering certain characteristics (such as a known alphabet or constant envelope) that the transmitted signal is known to have. The smart antenna can also separate the signals from multiple users who are separated in space (i.e. by distance) but who use the same radio channel (i.e. center frequency, time-slot, and/or code); this application is called Space-division multiple access (SDMA).

Beam forming is the term used to describe the application of weights to the inputs of an array of antennas to focus the reception of the antenna array in a certain direction, called the look direction or the main lobe. More importantly, other signals of the same carrier frequency from other directions can be rejected. These effects are all achieved electronically and no physical movement of the receiving antennas is necessary. In addition, multiple beam formers focused in different directions can share a single antenna array one set of antennas can service multiple calls of the same carrier.

It is no coincidence that the number of elements in the above diagram equals the number of incoming signals. A beam former of L antenna elements is capable of accepting one signal and reliably rejecting L-1 signals. A greater number of interfering signals will diminish the performance of the beam former. Beam forming presents several advantages to antenna design .Firstly, space division multiple access (SDMA) is achieved since a beamformer can steer its look direction towards a certain signal. Other signals from different directions can reuse the same carrier frequency.
Secondly, because the beamformer is focused in a particular direction, the antenna sensitivity can be increased for a better signal to noise ratio, especially when receiving weak signals. Thirdly, signal interference is reduced due to the rejection of undesired signals. For the uplink case of transmitting from the antenna array to a mobile telephone, system interference is reduced since the signal is only transmitted in the look direction. A digital beamformer is one that operates in the digital domain. Traditionally, beam formers were implemented in analog; the weights were determined and applied to the antenna inputs via analog circuitry. With digital beam forming, the antenna signals are individually translated from Radio Frequencies (RF) to Intermediate Frequencies (IF), digitized and then down-converted to base-band I and Q components. A beam forming algorithm implemented on one or more digital signal processors then processes the I and Q components to determine a set of weights for the input signals. The input signals are then multiplied by the weights and summed to output the signal of interest (SOI).

One of the foremost advantages offered by the software radio technology is flexibility. Because beam forming is implemented in software, it is possible to investigate a wide range of beam forming algorithms without the need to modify the system hardware for every algorithm. Consequently, researchers can focus their efforts on improving the performance of the beam forming algorithms rather than on designing new hardware, which can be a very expensive and time consuming process. A complete description of the RLS algorithm can be found in .This algorithm was chosen for its fast convergence rate and ability to process the input signal before demodulation. While the first reason is important especially when the environment is changing rapidly, the later reason decreases the algorithm dependency on a specific air interface.

Applications in Mobile Communications:
A space-time processor (â„¢smart Ëœantennaâ„¢) is capable of forming transmit/receive beams towards the mobile of interest. At the same time it is possible to place spatial nulls in the direction of unwanted interferences. This capability can be used to improve the performance of a mobile communication system
Increased antenna gain
The â„¢smartâ„¢ antenna forms transmit and receive beams. Therefore, the â„¢smartâ„¢ antenna has a higher gain than a conventional omni-directional antenna. The higher gain can be used to either increase the effective coverage, or to increase the receiver sensitivity, which in turn can be exploited to reduce transmit power and electromagnetic
radiation in the network.
Decreased inter-symbol-interference (ISI)
Multipath propagation in mobile radio environments leads to ISI. Using transmit and receive beams that are directed towards the mobile of interest reduces the amount of Multipath and ISI.
Decreased co-channel-interference (CCI)
â„¢Smartâ„¢ antenna transmitters emit less interference by only sending RF power in the desired directions. Furthermore, â„¢smartâ„¢ antenna receivers can reject interference by looking only in the direction of the desired source. Consequently â„¢smartâ„¢ antennas are capable of decreasing CCI. A significantly reduced CCI can be taken advantage of by Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) o The same frequency band can be re-used in more cells, i.e. the so called frequency re-use distance can be decreased. This technique is called Channel Re-use via Spatial Separation.

Several mobiles can share the same frequency within a cell. Multiple signals arriving at the base station can be separated by the base station receiver as long as their angular separation is bigger than the transmit / receive beam widths .The beams that are hatched identically use the same frequency band. This technique is called Channel Re-use via Angular Separations.
Spatial Structure Methods:

As mentioned before, spatial structure methods exploit the information in the steering vector ..»._¼. The spatial structure is used to estimate the direction of arrivals (DOAs) of the signals impinging on the sensor array. The estimated directions of arrivals are then used to determine the weights in the pattern forming network. This is called beam forming. Spatial structure methods only exploit spatial structure and training signals and the temporal structure of the signals is ignored. In the following an overview will be given about the three main spatial structure methods, namely conventional beam forming methods, maximum likelihood estimation and the so-called subspace-based methods. For simplicity, the vector channel model used here (and everywhere in the array processing literature for spatial structure methods) is a spatial-only vector channel.

, .
Note, that knowledge about the number of impinging Multipath signals. Is assumed
in the models that make use of spatial structure.
Future applications are based on Bearer Services:
Real-time applications like voice, video conferencing or other multimedia applications require minimum delay during the transmission and generate symmetric traffic. This type of communication is nowadays carried via circuit switching systems. For non real-time applications like e-mail, Internet and Intranet access timing constraints are less strict. In addition, the generated traffic is asymmetric. This type of communication is relayed via packet switched systems. Future pattern of use will show a mix of real-time and non real-time services at the same time and same user terminal. Based on the TDD principle, with adaptive switching point between uplink and downlink, TD-SCDMA is equally adept at handling both symmetric and asymmetric traffic. Wireless Multi Media requires high data rates. With data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s TD-SCDMA offers sufficient data throughput to handle the traffic for Multi Media and Internet applications. With their inherent flexibility in asymmetry traffic and data rate TD-SCDMA-based systems offer 3G services in a very efficient way. Although it is optimally suited for Mobile Internet and Multi Media applications, TD-SCDMA covers all application scenarios: voice and data services, packet and circuit switched transmissions for symmetric and asymmetric traffic, pico, micro and macro coverage for pedestrian and high mobility users.
In order to further improve the system robustness against interference, TD-SCDMA base stations are equipped with smart antennas, which use a beam-forming concept. Using omni directional antennas, the emitted radio power is distributed over the whole cell. As a consequence, mutual inter cell interference is generated in all adjacent cells using the same RF carrier. On the other hand, smart antennas direct transmission and reception of signals to and from the specific terminals, improving the sensitivity of the base station receivers, increasing the transmitted power received by the terminals and minimizing inter and intra cell interference.

In conclusion to this paper Smart Antenna systems are the antennas with intelligence and the radiation pattern can be varied without being mechanically changed. With appropriate adaptive algorithms such as Recursive Least Square Algorithm (RLS) the beam forming can be obtained. As the system uses a DSP processor the signals can be processed digitally and the performance is with a high data rate transmission and good reduction of mutual signal interference.
We thank Prof M.Ravindra Reddy , Head of the department Electronics and Communications Engineering, Sir C.R.Reddy College of Engineering ,Eluru. For guiding us in preparing this paper.
Post: #2
please could i get the full report on smart antennas as its urgent to me...please...
Post: #3
Hi, the report document is attached with the thread on top. please download it.
Post: #4
IntelliCell®: A Fully Adaptive Approach to Smart Antennas

Cellular communications has reached mass-market status over the past decade with the emergence of two very successful standards: CDMA and GSM. Over this same decade, an important enabling technology, “smart antennas,” has also matured. Combined with today’s powerful, low-cost processors, advanced smart antenna technology is destined to become an important part of the cellular landscape over the next decade.
Smart antenna systems utilize multiple antennas at base stations or handsets to better pinpoint or focus radio energy and thereby improve signal quality. Since cellular communications systems employ radio signals that interact with the environment and each other, these improvements in signal quality lead to system-wide benefits with respect to coverage, service quality and, ultimately, the economics of cellular service. To some extent, the phrase “smart antennas” is misleading. There is nothing smart about the antennas themselves. What’s smart is the sophisticated signal processing applied to simultaneous signals from an array or collection of multiple antennas.
For nearly a decade, ArrayComm has been at the forefront of developing smart antenna techniques and intellectual property for commercial cellular systems. IntelliCell® is the name for these techniques and intellectual property. Thru eight years of practical and field implementation, IntelliCell has been perfected to make smart antennas practical and cost effective in actual commercial cellular systems. Today, IntelliCell technology is deployed in more than 90,000 commercial base station deployments worldwide.
Cellular networks are composed of geographically separated base stations connected to a backbone network, with each base station serving an area called a cell. (See Figure 1.) In some systems, cells are further subdivided into sectors, for reasons that will be described later in this document. The range of each base station may be anywhere from 0.5 km to 15 km, with 1-3 km as the typical range in digital cellular systems. Handsets communicate with a nearby base station via radio signals. The information, voice or data, is digitized prior to transmission in all modern cellular systems. In the United States, most commercial cellular systems operate in licensed radio frequencies in the region of either 850 MHz or 1.9 GHz.
End-to-end connections with public or private data or telephony networks are made possible by a backhaul network that connects all of the base stations to a switching/routing function, which directs users’ voice or data transmissions to and from their correspondents. Note that this same network architecture is used for many types of wireless services, including wireless LANs and point-to-multipoint data services such as LMDS.

In the radio portion of the network, the “uplink” refers to the communication from the handset “up to” the base station: The handset or user terminal suitably digitizes and frames voice or packet data meant for the network. This digitized data then is modulated using digital and radio circuitry and transmitted via the antenna in the handset. The antennas and circuitry at the base station receive the radio signal, demodulate it and send the user’s information on into the wired network.
The “downlink” refers to the reverse direction, where the communication is from the base station “down to” the handset or user terminal. The base station suitably digitizes and frames voice or packet data meant for the subscriber. This digitized data is modulated using digital and radio circuitry and is transmitted via the antennas at the base station. The antenna and circuitry at the handset receive the radio signal, demodulate it and send the information on to the subscriber.
This type of cellular architecture has gained wide acceptance as the most economical and flexible architecture for delivering mass-market personal wireless services. The decline of satellite based systems such as Iridium and Globalstar into niche services has proved this point. Nevertheless, looking forward, cellular systems face a significant challenge as data services and bandwidth become important. The challenge is to improve the quality of the communication channel to handle larger traffic loads while maintaining the same cost
structure, despite the scarcity and exorbitant prices of additional spectrum. This challenge is exacerbated by the expected trend away from today’s low-data-rate digital voice services toward high-data-rate broadband services. Today’s cellular systems will require a 10-fold to 40-fold increase in spectral efficiency and capacity to affordably deliver true Internet content.
Post: #5

seminars presentation by :


What is Smart Antenna ?

Concept of SDMA system
Arrange in a particular geometric form
Use few methods to change EM wave pattern
Switched beam system
Adaptive antenna system

Why Smart Antenna

Reduction of transmitter power
Reduction of delay spread
Accurate user position estimation
Rapid growth of wireless communication
Multi-services requirement
Effective usage of frequency band
Classic antennas are omni-directional
Post: #6


An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electrical current. Antennas generally deal in the transmission and reception of radio waves, and are a necessary part of all radio equipment. Antennas are used in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless LAN, cell phones, radar, and spacecraft communication. Antennas are most commonly employed in air or outer space, but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances.
Post: #7
please send me the full details about smart anteena full report
Post: #8
Presented by: Rashmikanta Dash

Rapid growth of wireless communication
Multi-services requirement
Effective usage of frequency band
Classic antennas are omni-directional

smart antenna
What is Smart Antenna ?
Concept of SDMA system
Arrange in a particular geometric form
Use few methods to change EM wave pattern
Switched beam system
Adaptive antenna system
Switched beam system
Adaptive antenna system
Why Smart Antenna
Higher capacity (traffic/area)
Better transmission quality and/or coverage
Why Smart Antenna
Reduction of transmitter power
Reduction of delay spread
Accurate user position estimation
Limiting effects of the wireless channel
Multi-path propagation gives rise to
inter-symbol interference
time variation of signals
Co-channel interference gives rise to
increased noise level and hence greater errors
Multi-path propagation
Multipath components suffer different delays
This gives rise to ISI
reject or stimulate multipath components by changing their radiation patterns
significantly reduce the requirements of equalization and/or increase CINR
Co-channel interference
Interference from other directions than wanted user
suppress unwanted user by placing nulls in directions of unwanted signals
improved transmission quality and/or system capacity
How Smart Antenna works
Uniform Linear Array geometry
Uniform Circular Array geometry
Uniform Linear Array geometry
Uniform Circular Array geometry
Smart Antenna offer new ways to combat and/or exploit the spatial channel
Smart Antennas reduce co-channel interference, improve BER performance and hence capacity
Post: #9
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Post: #10
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Post: #11
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Post: #12
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Post: #13
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Post: #14
smart antenna


Antennas Radio antennas couple electromagnetic energy from one medium (space) to another (e.g., wire, coaxial cable, or waveguide). Physical designs can vary greatly.
Omnidirectional Antennas Since the early days of wireless communications, there has been the simple dipole antenna, which radiates and receives equally well in all directions. To find its users, this single-element design broadcasts omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples radiating outward in a pool of water. While adequate for simple RF environments where no specific knowledge of the users' whereabouts is available, this unfocused approach scatters signals, reaching desired users with only a small percentage of the overall energy sent out into the environment.

Diversity Systems
In the next step toward smart antennas, the diversity system incorporates two antenna elements at the base station, the slight physical separation (space diversity) of which has been used historically to improve reception by counteracting the negative effects of multipath .
Diversity offers an improvement in the effective strength of the received signal by using one of the following two methods:

• switched diversity—Assuming that at least one antenna will be in a favorable location at a given moment, this system continually switches between antennas (connects each of the receiving channels to the best serving antenna) so as always to use the element with the largest output. While reducing the negative effects of signal fading, they do not increase gain since only one antenna is used at a time.

• Diversity combining—This approach corrects the phase error in two multipath signals and effectively combines the power of both signals to produce gain. Other diversity systems, such as maximal ratio combining systems, combine the outputs of all the antennas to maximize the ratio of combined received signal energy to noise.

Switched Beam Systems
Switched beam antenna systems form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in particular directions. These antenna systems detect signal strength, choose from one of several predetermined, fixed beams, and switch from one beam to another as the mobile moves throughout the sector. Instead of shaping the directional antenna pattern with the metallic properties and physical design of a single element (like a sectorized antenna), switched beam systems combine the outputs of multiple antennas in such a way as to form finely sectorized (directional) beams with more spatial selectivity than can be achieved with conventional, single-element approaches.

1. The effect of multiple path fading in wireless communications environments can be significantly reduced.
2. Hand sets of a smart antenna systems have longer battery life because the power required to transmit to the base station is lower than that of conventional systems.
3. Smart antenna system can significantly improve signal-to-interference ratio of a wireless communications systems, and thus significantly increase the capacity of the system.

1. smart antenna systems are increased base station complexity, increased need for computational power.
2. cost is high.

1. smart antenna systems are used in MIMO systems due to there tremendous spectral efficiency
3. smart antenna systems are used in CDMA techniques

This paper gives the brief idea about the smart antenna systems and their types which we are using to avoid the multipath and co-channel interference.These antennas having advance features like higher efficiency, higher reliability than the normal antennas.By using these antennas there is a reduction in the equipment size so these are expected to use in the future wireless systems.

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