Combustion control and sensors-smart combustors
The need amd application of control of combustion is ever increasing. The objective of smart combustors is to optimize combustor operation, monitor the process and remove instabilities and their severe consequences. reducing the levels of pollutant emissions , smoothing the pattern factor at the combustor exhaust , extending the stability domain by reducing the level of oscillation induced by coupling between resonance modes and combustion etc are desired qualities of a good combustor. The design and operation of combustion systems is complex because combustion systems have to meet increasingly more demanding air pollution standardsResearch for achieving reduced NOx levels has led to new developments in different fields. Automotive engines and gas turbine combustors are considered here. In first case, complex exhaust aftertreatment is being applied and dedicated engine control schemes are required to ensure and maintain high pollutant conversion efficiency. premixed combustors operating at lower local temperatures than conventional systems have been designed for gas turbines. The monitoring and control of the operating point of the process have to be achieved with great accuracy for obtaining the full benefits of the NOx emission reduction.the flame is more susceptible to blowout, oscillation or flashback in the case of premixed combustors operating near the lean stability limit. with passive and active control methods these dynamic problems can be solved. fundamental problems raised by Active Combustion Control (ACC) and Operating Point Control (OPC), there are important technological issues.Research efforts in combustion diagnostics are to a certain extent devoted to the development of sensors for control applications.Here we discuss combustion control and focuses on the sensors that take or could take part to combustion control solutions. The state of the art sensors is reviewed and their applicability is evaluated.