In early times, the disposal of human and other wastes did not pose a significant problem, for the population was small and the amount of land available for the assimilation of wastes was large .Now due to rapid population growth and economic development in the country-Solid waste disposal has become a major environmental issue in India. Solid waste, often called the third pollution after air and water pollution, is that material which arises from various human activities and which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted it consists of the highly heterogeneous mass of discarded materials from the urban community as well as the more homogeneous accumulation of agricultural, industrial and mining wastes. In India authentic information regarding the composition of urban waste is not generally available,as regular analysis of the refuse is not carried out by the munipalities. Infact, refuse very heterogeneous in composition, and the geographical, temporal and seasonal variations in its composition make it difficult to define?typical refuse?. The main constituents of urban wastes are similar through out the world, but the weight generated, the density and the proportion of constituents vary widely from country to country and from town to town with in a country according to level of economic development, geographic location, weather and social conditions. Similary the density of refuse in India is much higher than that of refuse generated in the cities of Western countries because of inclusion in it of the street sweepings.MSW in cities is collected and transported to designated disposal sites, which are normally low lying areas on out-skirts of the city. Open dumping of garbage facilitates the breeding for disease vectors such as flies,mosquitoes,rats and other pests. The municipalities in India therefore face the challenge of reinforcing their available infrastructure for efficient municipal solid waste management and ensuring the scientific disposal of MSW by generating enough revenues either from generators or by identifying activities that generate resources from waste management.
Solid Waste Management
What Is Waste..?
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, or junk) is unwanted or unusable materials.
According to United Nations Statistics Division(UNSD) it is defined as
"Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded."
Municipal Solid Waste(MSW)
Hazardous Waste (Radioactive , Electronic)
Key Aspects Of Waste Management
Mechanical biological treatment
Preventing ground water pollution in a landfill
An adequate lining system is a necessary component for any landfill. The liner is designed as a barrier to intercept leachate and direct it to a collection system to prevent contamination of local groundwater.
Concerns over Incineration
Incineration recovers energy that would otherwise be lost
Requires less land
Reduces odor but…
Emits dangerous cancer causing compounds called dioxins
India’s Population = 1027 Million
As per 2001 Census
Urban Population = 285 Million
Urban Areas = 5161
(Cities / Towns)
TREND OF URBANIZATION
Year Year Year Year
1951 1991 2001 2021
1. Number of Urban 2795 3768 5161 --
Agglomerations / Towns
2. Urban Population 62.0 217.0 285.0 550.0
3. As percentage of total 17.3% 25.72% 27.8% 41%
MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM
- Per capita waste generation increasing by 1.3% per annum
- With urban population increasing between 3 – 3.5% per annum
- Yearly increase in waste generation is around 5% annually
India produces 42.0 million tons of municipal solid waste annually at present.
- Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg per capita per day in 0.1 million plus towns.
- Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to 90% of the solid waste generated.
Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid waste management of which,
* 60-70% of the amount is on collection alone
* 20% - 30% on transportation
* Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste
- Crude dumping of waste in most of the cities
QUANTITY OF WASTE GENERATION
TOTAL QUANTITY OF SOLID WASTE 1.15 LAKH TONNE
GENERATED IN URBAN AREAS PER DAY (TPD)
OF THE COUNTRY
% OF TOTAL GARBAGE
WASTE GENERATED IN 6 MEGA CITIES 21,100 TPD 18.35%
WASTE GENERATED IN METRO CITIES 19,643 TPD 17.08%
(1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS)
WASTE GENERATED IN OTHER 42,635.28 TPD 37.07%
(0.1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS) ____________ _________
83,378.28 TPD 72.50%
IF WASTE PRODUCED IN ALL CLASS-I CITIES IS TACKLED, PERCENTAGE OF WASTE SCIENTIFICALLY MANAGED WOULD BE 72.5% OF TOTAL WASTE.
Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste
Compostable / Bio-degradable = 30% - 55%
matter (can be converted into manure)
Inert material = 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)
Recyclable materials = 5% - 10% (Recycling)
These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits
brief seminars reprt on solid waste management