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?Necessity is the mother of all inventions?.
Since the time of evolution of man, his demands and needs have compelled him to invent new and sophisticated things. The exploration process never comes to an end, everyday thousands of people work day & night to bring various utilities to us.
Man during the age of his evolution found & made new and different items which helped him in his daily activities. After stone age, copper age & bronze age, came the Industrial Age,in which various innovations started taking place. To ease out the labour work, new improved material handling equipments were being made. Automation was, and is the goal & motive of industry today. In order to reduce the stress on the labour & for efficient working of the machines & increased production, it was very necessary for a sophisticated & intelligent material handling equipment to be developed. Thus began the evolution of what is called as a ROBOT.
ROBOT is a general term which stands for an automated unit which does have some kind of human symbolization in its operation or physical structure. It may not look human but it seems to be able to perform human type function and action.
The term ROBOT comes from a CZECH word which means ?forced labour?.
A brief progress of the Industrial Revolution that began in the world two centuries ago is given as follows :
1) Construction of simple production machine in 1770.
2) Fixed automatic machine & transfer line machine for mass production came along as the second step at the turn of this century.
3) Numerical Control (NC) of machine tools in 1952 opened a new era in automation.
4) The logical extension of NC was computerized. Numeric control of machine tool (1970) in which minicomputer is included as an integral part of the control system was achieved .
5) Flexibility is the key word , which characterizes the new era in industrial automation.
Robots and manufacturing systems are becoming more and more flexible with progress in computer technology and programming techniques.
Advantages of Robots.:
? Flexibility of operation .
? Increased Productivity.
? Better quality of production.
? Improved quality of human life by performing the tedious and repetitive jobs.
? High precision.
Classification and Structure of Robotic systems:
The classification of Robotics systems can be done in three ways:
1) According to the type of system : - Point to point versus continuous path.
2) According to the type of control loop :- Open loop versus closed loop.
3) According to the structure of manipulators:- Cartesian, Cylindrical, Spherical or Articulated.
The selection of the type of system , control loop and manipulator depends on the particular application.
In addition , an appropriate wrist and end effector should be selected to fit the required application.

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