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SPINS-SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks
Post: #1

Wireless Sensor Networks

A wireless sensor network consists of large Number Of Nodes.Large number of heterogeneous Sensor devices spread over a large field.They perform Wireless sensing and Data Networking. Group of sensors linked by wireless media to perform distributed sensing tasks
Each node has three components: sensing, processing, and communication. Networked sensors can continue to operate accurately in face of failure of individual sensors.Each sensor node operates autonomously with no central point of control in the network. Each node bases its decision on its mission.

SPIN: Sensor Protocols for Information Negotiation

It is one of the most dominant form of routing in the wireless sensor networks.The SPIN protocol names the data using data descriptors or meta data.The nodes use meta data negotiations to eliminate transmission of redundant data in the network. SPIN nodes can base their communication decisions on knowledge of data and resources allowing them to distribute data given limited energy supply.

Advantages of SPIN
-SPIN nodes negotiate with each other before transmitting data. This ensures that only the useful information is transferred.
-SPIN uses descriptors called meta data
-Redundant data messages are not sent
-Nodes are able to name the portion of data they are interested in obtaining.

Resource adaptation
-The wireless sensor network nodes poll their resources before data transmission
-Each sensor node had its own resource manager that keeps track of resource consumption
-Nodes are aware of their local energy resources and this enables them to reduce their activities when their energy resources are low
-Nodes monitor and adapt to changes in their own energy resources and thus extend the operating lifetime of the system

SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks
With thousands to millions of small sensors form self-organizing wireless networks in the future, providing security for these sensor networks is a big issue.
SPINS has two secure building blocks: SNEP(Secure Network Encryption
Protocol) and microTESLA((the micro version of the Timed, Efficient, Streaming, Loss-tolerant Authentication Protocol). SNEP provides the following : Data confidentiality, two-party data authentication, and data freshness. microTESLA provides authenticated broadcast for severely resource-constrained environments.

This provides Data Confidentiality, Authentication, Integrity, and Freshness.
- it has low communication overhead as it adds only 8 bytes per message.The counter state is kept at each end point and does not need to be sent in each message.
-it uses a counter, but avoids transmitting the counter value by keeping state at both
end points.
- It achieves semantic security which prevents eavesdroppers from inferring the
message content from the encrypted message.
- This protocol also provides data authentication, replay protection, and weak message freshness.
To achieve two-party authentication and data integrity, a message authentication code (MAC) is used.
Data authentication: If the MAC(message authentication code) verifies correctly, a receiver
can be assured that the message originated from the claimed sender.

Replay protection: The counter value in the MAC prevents replaying old messages.

Semantic security: the same message is encrypted differently each time.

Weak freshness: If the message verified correctly, a receiver
knows that the message must have been sent after the previous
message it received correctly. Thus it achieves weak freshness.

microTESLA overcomes introduces asymmetry through a delayed disclosure of symmetric
keys, which results in an efficient broadcast authentication
scheme. It requires that the base station and nodes are loosely
time synchronized, and each node knows an upper bound on the
maximum synchronization error. To send an authenticated packet of data,
the base station computes a MAC on the packet with a key
that is secret at that particular point in time. When a node gets a packet, it can
verify that the corresponding MAC key was not yet disclosed by
the base station. Since a receiving node is assured that the MAC key
is known only by the base station, the receiving node is assured that the data was not modified during the sending process. If the key is correct, the node can
now use it to authenticate the packet stored in its buffer.

Full seminars report download:
Post: #2
Post: #3
please send me detail of this seminars security protocol for sensor network
Post: #4
Presented By :
Tanu Sharma

SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks
Sensor Networks are emerging
• Many applications
- Real-time traffic monitoring
- Military applications
- Emergency and critical systems etc.
Need secure communication protocols
• Security for Sensor Networks
• Data Authentication
• Data Confidentiality
• Data Integrity
• Data Freshness
- Weak Freshness
- Partial message ordering, no delay information
- Useful for sensor measurements
- Strong Freshness
- Total ordering on req-res pair, delay estimation
- Useful for time synchronization
Challenge: Resource Constraints
• Limited energy
• Limited computation(4MHz 8-bit)
• Limited memory(512 bytes)
• Limited code size(8 Kbytes)
• Limited communication(30 byte packets)
• Energy consuming communication
-Sensor Network Encryption Protocol
-Secures point-to-point communication
-Micro Timed Efficient Stream Loss-tolerant Authentication
-Provides broadcast authentication
System Assumptions
Communication patterns

-Node to base station (e.g. sensor readings)
-Base station to node (e.g. specific requests)
-Base station to all nodes
• Base Station
-Sufficient memory, power
-Shares secret key with each node
• Node
-Limited resources, limited trust
• Notation
• Data Confidentiality (Semantic Security )
• Data Authentication
• Replay Protection
• Weak Freshness
• Low Communication Overhead
Key Generation /Setup
• Nodes and base station share a master key pre-deployment
• Other keys are bootstrapped from the master key:
– Encryption key
– Message Authentication code key
– Random number generator key
• Authentication, Confidentiality
• Without encryption can have only authentication
• For encrypted messages, the counter is included in the MAC
• Base station keeps current counter for every node
• Strong Freshness
• Counter Exchange Protocol
• Bootstrapping counter values
• µTESLA : Authenticated Broadcast
• TESLA : efficient source authentication in multicast for wired networks.
Problems with TESLA
-Digital Signature for initial packet authentication
µTESLA uses only symmetric mechanism
-Overhead of 24 bytes per packet
µTESLA discloses key once per epoch
-One way key chain is too big
µTESLA restricts number of authenticated senders
Key Setup
• Main idea: One-way key chains
• K0 is initial commitment to chain
• Base station gives K0 to all nodes
• mTESLA Properties
• Asymmetry from delayed key disclosure
• Self-authenticating keys
• Requires loose time synchronization
• Low overhead (1 MAC)
- Communication (same as SNEP)
- Computation (~ 2 MAC computations)
• Independent of number of receivers
• Authenticated Routing
• Node to Node Agreement
A B: NA, A
B S: NA,NB, A, B, MAC(K’BS, NA || NB || A || B)
Related Work in Broadcast Authentication
• Symmetric schemes
- Link-state routing updates
- Multi-MAC
• Asymmetric schemes
- Merkle hash tree
• Chained hashes
• Hybrid schemes
-Stream signature
-K-times signature
Discussion: Drawbacks
• The mTESLA protocol lacks scalability
- require initial key commitment with each nodes, which is very communication intensive
• SPINS uses source routing, so vulnerable to traffic analysis
Discussion: Risks Un-addressed
• Information leakage through covert channels
• No mechanism to determine and deal with compromised nodes.
• Denial of service attacks
• No Non-repudiation
• Strong security protocols affordable
- First broadcast authentication
• Low security overhead
- Computation, memory, communication
• Apply to future sensor networks
-Energy limitations persist
-Tendency to use minimal hardware
• Base protocol for more sophisticated security services
Post: #5
to get information about the topic SPINS- Security Protocol for Sensor Networks full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

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