(SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behavior in decentralized, self-organized systems. The expression swarm intelligence was introduced by Beni & Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems.
SI systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment. Although there is normally no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local interactions between such agents often lead to the emergence of global behavior. Examples of systems like this can be found in nature, including ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacteria molding and fish schooling.
Application of swarm principles to large numbers of robots is called as swarm robotics.