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 TELEPHONE OPERATED CALLING SYSTEM full report
Post: #1

[attachment=2592]

TELEPHONE OPERATED CALLING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
This Telephone Operated Calling circuit is used where persons have to be called or signaled. When you need to call a person amongst many standing outside a cabin, just lift the telephone handset off the cradle and press the respective number. The number of the person called will be displayed and a bell will sound to inform the person that it is his turn. This circuit is very useful for doctors for calling patients, in banks and in various other situations.

MINI PROJECT REPORT
DONE BY: GUIDED BY:
Midhun Varghese Ms. Sumol.N.C
Praveen J S Mr. Assini. H
Renjith K S

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
BLOCK DIAGRAM
BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
PCB LAYOUT
COMPONENTS LIST
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
Telephone operated calling circuit converts DTMF signal to its binary equivalent. This circuit consists of a DTMF receiver IC which converts a DTMF input signal in to its binary equivalent. This binary signal is decoded and displayed as its decimal equivalent through the decimal display unit. At the same time it provides a sound alerting signal which informs the people that a number is displayed.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DECIMAL
'--'""'""Ã‚Â¦Ã‚Â¦""--p DISPLAY
UNIT
DTMF BINARY DISPLAY UNIT
DTMF receiver convert the DTMF signal which is generated at the key pad of the telephone hand set in to its binary equivalent. That is at DTMF receiver a high frequency signal is converted in to its corresponding binary format. The DTMF signals generated by multiplying two signal frequencies which corresponding to the respective row and column frequencies of the signal to be dialed. This frequency is given as DTMF receiver input this signal is converted in the receiver and we obtain the output as the binary equivalent of the dialed number.
DECIMAL DISPLAY UNIT
This unit converted the binary formatted DTMF receiver output to a human readable output. The output from the DTMF receiver is fed to the binary to seven segment decoder IC which produces the equivalent decoded signal which is then given to the seven segment display.
BINARY DISPLAY UNIT
The output of DTMF receiver is also fed to the binary display unit. It is nothing but a combination of 4 LED's. According to the DTMF receiver output the LED glows and hence the binary code is also visible.
The output of DTMF receiver is also fed to the alert sound unit. This block provides an alert sound for each binary output. The first stage of alert sound unit is a combination of NAND gate and whose output is high if DTMF receivers show any number. This drives the sound generating IC and here we use UM66 to generate tone. This signal is amplified and is given to the loud speaker.
Block Diagram
>*rJ-H '-*'<5'''
ewwi WMF
'iii'M!'*'.* "J
iâ€t r^nnt
Ã‚Â£&tirÃ‚Â«! Circuit

+
DTMF receiver converts the DTMF signal in to its corresponding decimal equivalent. A DTMF receiver consists of signal generating section and the signal separating section. The DTMF signal is the multiplication of two signals. The signal separating section converts the single frequency in to two frequencies which are horizontal component and vertical component frequencies. These signals are fed to the decoder section. The decoder converts this signals to their corresponding coded form by compare this frequency to the internally generated signal frequency. This coded form is converted to binary equivalent by the code modulator section. This signal is fed to output.
DECIMAL DISPLAY UNIT
vcc
GNO
In decimal display unit, the output of DTMF receiver is converted into its equivalent 7-segment decimal format. IC 7447 is used for decoding into decimal format. IC7447 is a binary to decimal converter. The output of is given to FND display system. Here the resisters are used to limit the current through the FND.
Vcc=5 Vd=1.5v Id=10mA R = [Vcc-Vd] /Id R = [5-1.5]/10*10"3 R= 350 Q Use 330 Q
BINARY DISPLAY UNIT
AO ^.v^L
Al
A2 A3
This section consists of a series combination of resistors and LEDs. The input signal is fed from the DTMF receiver output. According to this signal the LED glows. Here the resistors are used to limit the current through LED.
Vcc=5v Ic=15mA
R = Vcc / Ic R=5v/15mA
R= 330Q
The output of DTMF is fed to the audio section. It consists of a primary driving circuit and an audio generating section.
The output of DTMF receiver is a binary coded signal. Its value varies from 0000 to 1001. If any of the output is high, the output of the driving circuit is also high. The driving circuit is a combination of NAND gate.
It is connected to UM 66 which is a tone generating IC. According to the output of the driving circuit, UM66 generate the required tone. Transistor T2&T3 get sufficient amplification to the circuit.
To reset the audio section we made the output of DTMF receiver is 0000
THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD
The first step in assembling is to procure a printed circuit board. The success of a circuit also depends on the PCB. When cost is concerned more than 25% of the total cost is gone for the printed circuit board design and fabrication.
The board is designed using a personal computer. Using the software ORCAD, the layout is drawn. It is then printed on a butter sheet using a laser printer. The layout is transferred to the copper clad sheet using the screen print procedure. First, with the help of a professional screen printer, a negative screen of the layout is prepared. Then the copper clad sheet is kept under this screen. The screen printing ink is poured on the screen as brushed through the top of the screen. For few hours, the printed board is kept under shade till the ink become dry. The etching medium is prepared by mixing anhydrous ferric chloride and water. The printed board is kept in this solution till the exposed copper dissolves in the solution fully. After that the board is taken under a tap and rinsed in flowing water. With the help of a thinner, the ink is removed and the board is coated with solder in order to prevent oxidation.
Another screen which contains component side layout is prepared and the same is printed on the component side of the board. A paper epoxy laminate is used as the board.
PCB LAYOUT
0
-T H11 H
-QP3J--I U14I-
1* 1C3 If

D
PCB FABRICATION PROCESS
The materials that are used for the fabrication of the pcb are
> Mechanical hand drill
> Drill bits (.8mm & 1mm)
> Hacksaw
> Sand paper
> Paint or permanent ink
> Ferric chloride solution
The different steps involved in the fabrication process are: Designing of PCB
In the project work we need a printed circuit board for pcb manufacturing. It starts with drawing on copper clad sheets either by hand or screen printing on the pcb.
Selection of PCB
Paper phenolic is preferred material for common applications because it is very cheap and reliable. For professional stability and reliability pcb epoxy glass is the suitable material. The thickness of the copper clad sheet is specified according to the current carrying capacity of the circuit.
Etching
It is the process of removing unwanted copper from the processed board using etching solutions. In order to do this, the pcb is dipped into the etching solution which is ferric chloride solution. Once the unwanted copper has been displaced into the solution the pcb is taken out and dried.
Drilling
The holes of mounting components are drilled using a mechanical hand drill. The holes of IC pins are drilled with .8mm drill bit and all other holes are drilled with 1mm drill bit.
COMPONENTS LIST
COMPONENTS SPECIFICATION QUANTITY
DECODER IC LS7447 1
7 SEGMENT DISPLAY LTS 542 1
OR GATE IC 7432 1
TONE GENERATOR UM66 1
TRANSISTOR BC 548 2N2222
CRYSTAL 3.578MHz 1
ZENER DIODE 3.3V.5W 1
DIODE 1N4001 1
LED 1
INHIBIT SWITCH
SPEAKER 4Q, .5 w 1
CAPACITOR .1UF 2
RESISTORS
CONCLUSION
We were successful in completing the project of "Telephone Operated Calling System". It was a wonderful experience as we attained the basic knowledge on different steps in circuit manufacturing such as PCB fabrication, soldering components, circuit testing and debugging which will surely help us in our career in electronics field.
BIBLOGRAPHY
1. Electronics for You (Magazine)
2. http://www.alldatasheets.com
3. http://www.datasheetcatalog.com
4. Circuit Designer (Software)
7447 - BCD to 7-Segment Decoder/Driver with (15V) Open Collector Output
Pin Layout
Features
LI-CE' I-
mi
tiÃ‚Â¬ll
LI Ã‚Â¥
i
I Output Drive Capability -10 LSTTL Loads
Outputs Directly Interface to CMOS, NMOS and TTL
| large Operating Voltage Range I Low Input Current High Noise Immunity
74-47
BCD ta 7-Seqment Decoder/Driver wiih (15V) Open Collector Ouiput
in Description,
Pin Number
Description
l BCD B Input
2 BCD C Input
3 Lamp Test
4 RB Output
5 RB Input
6 BCD D Input
7
i BCD A Input
i
o n Ã‚Â« A
1615 14 13 12 1110 9
19.94
r 5.08
g Ground lÃ‚Â§I5.Hill21110 9
9 7-Segment e Output p J 1 1 l_l L_l 1â€1 I_J 1 1â€1_
10 7-Segment d Output

6 DU
1 1
11 7-Segment c Output 12 3 4 5 6 7 8
12 7-Segment b Output 19.94
13 7-Segment a Output nnnnnnrm
14 7-Segment g Output

2,54
15 7-Segment f Output

16 Positive Supply 16-Pin DIP

hnical Data
jlol LOW Level Output Current 16 mA |
Ta Free Air Operating Temperature | 0 "WT^oci
Electrical Characteristics
Symbol Parameter Conditions MinTyp Max Units
Vi Input Clamp Vcc=Min,Ii=-12mA Voltage -1.5 V
; â€žÂ¢_
Voh HIGH Level Output Voltage Vcc=Min,Ioh=MAX,Vil=MAX 2.4 3.4 V
Vol LOW Level Output Voltage Vcc=Min,Iol=MAX,Vih=MAX 0.2 0.4 V
Ii Input
[email protected] Input Voltage Vcc=Max,Vi=5.5V 1 mA
Iih HIGH Level Input Current Vcc=Max,Vi=2.4V 40 uA
Iil LOW Level Input Current Vcc=Max,Vi=0.4V -1.6 mA
los Short Circuit Output Current Vcc=Max -18 -55 mA
lech Supply Current with Outputs HIGH Vcc=Max 4 8 mA
Iccl Supply Current with Outputs LOW Vcc=Max 12 22 mA
Switching Characteristics
at Vcc=5V,Ta=25oC
Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Max Units
tplh Propogation Delay Time LOW-to-HIGH Level Output Cl=15pF R1=400R 22 nS
,tphl Propogation Delay Time HIGH-to-LOW Level Output
15 nS
HOLTEK
Features
Operating voltage: 2.5V-5.5V
Minimal external components
No external filter is required
Low standby current (on power down mode)
Excellent performance
Tristate data output for \iC interface 3.58MHz crystal or ceramic resonator 1633Hz can be inhibited by the INH pin HT9170B: 18-pin DIP package HT9170D: 18-pin SOP package
General Description
The HT9170 series are Dual Tone Multi FreÃ‚Â¬quency (DTMF) receivers integrated with digiÃ‚Â¬tal decoder and bandsplit filter functions. The HT9170B and HT9170D types supply power-down mode and inhibit mode operations. All types of the HT9170 series use digital countÃ‚Â¬ing techniques to detect and decode all the 16
DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code output.
Highly accurate switched capacitor filters are employed to divide tone (DTMF) signals into low and high group signals. A built-in dial tone rejection circuit is provided to eliminate the need for pre-filtering.
Selection Table
^Function Operating osc Tristate Power 1633Hz DV DVB Package
Part No.\ Voltage Frequency Data Output Down Inhibit

HT9170B 2.5V-5.5V 3.58MHz V V V V â€ 18 DIP
HT9170D 2.5V-5.5V 3.58MHz V V V â€ 18 SOP
December 20, 1999
Block Diagram
T
VREF
â€o
RT/GT EST DV
O O O
DVB
Oâ€
X10-*
3.58MHz Crystal Oscillator
Bias Circuit
Vref Generator
Steering Control Circuit
Low Group Filter
High Group Filter
Hi.
Frequency Detector
Code Detector
Latch &
Output Buffer
6 DO
6DI
6 03
I- i.
INH
OE
Pin Assignment
VPC 1 VNC 2 GS C 3 VREF C 4 INH C 5 PWDN C 6 X1C 7 X2 C B VSS C g
18 P VDD
RT/GT
EST
DV
D3
D2
D1
DO
OE
VP c
VN C GS C VREF C INH C PWDN C X1C 7 X2 C 8 VSS C G
18 VDD 17 RT/GT 16 EST 15 DV 14 D3 13 D2 12 D1 11 DO 10 OE
HT9170B -18 DIP
HT9170D -18 SOP
DECEMBER 20, 1999
Pin Description
Pin Name I/O Internal Connection Description
VP I OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Operational amplifier non-inverting input
VN I Operational amplifier inverting input
GS 0
Operational amplifier output terminal
VREF 0 VREF Reference voltage output, normally VDD/2
XI I OSCILLATOR The system oscillator consists of an inverter, a bias resistor and the necessary load capacitor on chip. A standard 3.579545MHz crystal connected to XI and X2 terÃ‚Â¬minals implements the oscillator function.
X2 0

PWDN I CMOS IN Pull-low Active high. This enables the device to go into power down mode and inhibits the oscillator. This pin input is internally pulled down.
INH I CMOS IN Pull-low Logic high. This inhibits the detection of tones representing characters A, B, C and D. This pin input is internally pulled down.
vss â€ â€ Negative power supply
OE I CMOS IN Pull-high D0-D3 output enable, high active
D0-D3 0 CMOS OUT Tristate Receiving data output terminals OE="H": Output enable OE="L": High impedance
DV 0 CMOS OUT Data valid output
When the chip receives a valid tone (DTMF) signal, the DV goes high; otherwise it remains low.
EST 0 CMOS OUT Early steering output (see Functional Description)
RT/GT I/O CMOS IN/OUT Tone acquisition time and release time can be set through connection with external resistor and capacitor.
VDD â€ Positive power supply, 2.5V-5.5V for normal operation
DVB 0 CMOS OUT One-shot type data valid output, normal high, when the chip receives a valid time (DTMF) signal, the DVB goes low for 10ms.
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December 20, 1999
Approximate internal connection circuits
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
VNDâ€(V^\ _ 11 VREF OPA>-i-n OSCILLATOR X1 p. X2
CHpPx>--pn
iâ€VA <
20pF^10M ijllOpF CMOS IN Pull-high
i-t>^.... CMOS OUT Tristate
EN 1
CMOS OUT CMOS IN/OUT CMOS IN Pull-low
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage -0.3V to 6V Storage Temperature -50Ã‚Â°C to 125Ã‚Â°C
Input Voltage VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V Operating Temperature -20Ã‚Â°C to 75Ã‚Â°C
Note: These are stress ratings only. Stresses exceeding the range specified under "Absolute MaxiÃ‚Â¬mum Ratings" may cause substantial damage to the device. Functional operation of this device at other conditions beyond those listed in the specification is not implied and prolonged expoÃ‚Â¬sure to extreme conditions may affect device reliability.
D.C. Characteristics Ta=25Ã‚Â°C
Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Unit

VDD Conditions

VDD Operating Voltage â€ â€ 2.5 5 5.5 V
IDD Operating Current 5V â€ â€ 3.0 7 mA
!STB Standby Current 5V PWDN=5V â€ 10 25 uA
VlL "Low" Input Voltage 5V â€ â€ â€ 1.0 V
Vm "High" Input Voltage 5V â€ 4.0 â€ â€ V
In, "Low" Input Current 5V VVP=VVN=0V â€ â€ 0.1 uA
Ira "High" Input Current 5V VVP=VVN=5V â€ â€ 0.1 UA
ROE Pull-high Resistance (OE) 5V VOE=0V 60 100 150 ko
RIN Input Impedance (VN, VP) 5V â€ â€ 10 â€ Mn
December 20, 1999
Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Unit

VDD Conditions

IfJH Source Current (D0-D3, EST, DV) 5V VOUT=4.5V -0.4 -0.8 â€ mA
IOL Sink Current (D0-D3, EST, DV) 5V VOUT=0.5V 1.0 2.5 â€ mA
fosc System Frequency 5V Crystal=3.5795MHz 3.5759 3.5795 3.5831 MHz
A.C. Characteristics f0SC=3.5795MHz, Ta=25Ã‚Â°C
Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Unit

VDD Conditions

DTMF Signal
Input Signal Level 3V -36 â€ -6 dBm

5V -29 â€ 1
Twist Accept Limit (Positive) 5V â€ 10 â€ dB
Twist Accept Limit (Negative) 5V â€ 10 â€ dB
Ã‚Â¦Dial Tone Tolerance 5V â€ 18 â€ dB
Noise Tolerance 5V â€ -12 â€ dB
Third Tone Tolerance 5V â€ -16 â€ dB
Frequency Deviation Acceptance 5V â€ â€ Ã‚Â±1.5 %
Frequency Deviation Rejection 5V Ã‚Â±3.5 â€ â€ %
Power Up Time (tprj) (See Figure 4.) 5V â€ 30 â€ ms
Gain Setting Amplifier
RTN Input Resistance 5V â€ â€ 10 â€ MO.
!lN Input Leakage Current 5V VSS<(VVP,VVN)<VDD â€ 0.1 â€ uA
Vos Offset Voltage 5V â€ â€ +25 â€ mV
PsRR Power Supply Rejection 5V 100 Hz
-3V<VIN<3V â€ 60 â€ dB
CMRR Common Mode Rejection 5V
â€ 60 â€ dB
AVo Open Loop Gain 5V
â€ 65 â€ dB
fT Gain Band Width 5V â€ â€ 1.5 â€ MHz
VOUT Output Voltage Swing 5V RL>100kn â€ 4.5 â€ VPP
5
December 20, 1999
Vdd
17
Tone 100kf!
cH hvw-tâ€
O.LNF L-AA/V
ESTflS^WV-l 15 300kf!
14
13. 12. 11 10
VP VN GS
VREF DV
3.579545MHz
(INH) D3
(PWDN) D2p2-
X1 D1
X2 DO
VSS OE
20PF-P -p20pF | | 777" 777" VSS 777" |
HT9170/B/D
Figure 1. Test circuit
6
December 20, 1999
Functional Description
Overview
The HT9170 series tone decoders consist of three band pass filters and two digital decode circuits to convert a tone (DTMF) signal into digital code output.
An operational amplifier is built-in to adjust the input signal (refer to Figure 2).
C R1
HT9170 I Series
V.CH Hvw
C R1
VM Oâ€| l-^AV v.2 oâ€| pWV
C R2
HT9170 Series
(a) Standard input circuit
(b) Differential input circuit
The pre-filter is a band rejection filter which re-duces the dialing tone from 350Hz to 400Hz.
The low group filter filters low group frequency signal output whereas the high group filter filÃ‚Â¬ters high group frequency signal output.
Each filter output is followed by a zero-crossing detector with hysteresis. When each signal am-plitude at the output exceeds the specified level, it is transferred to full swing logic signal.
When input signals are recognized to be effecÃ‚Â¬tive, DV becomes high, and the correct tone code (DTMF) digit is transferred.
Steering control circuit
The steering control circuit is used for measurÃ‚Â¬ing the effective signal duration and for protectÃ‚Â¬ing against drop out of valid signals. It employs the analog delay by external RC time-constant controlled by EST.
The timing is shown in Figure 3. The EST pin is normally low and draws the RT/GT pin to keep low through discharge of external RC. When a valid tone input is detected, EST goes high to charge RT/GT through RC.
When the voltage of RT/GT changes from 0 to VXRT (2.35V for 5V supply), the input signal is effective, and the correct code will be created by the code detector. After D0-D3 are completely latched, DV output becomes high. When the voltage of RT/GT falls down from VDD to VTRT (i.e.., when there is no input tone), DV output becomes low, and D0-D3 keeps data until a next valid tone input is produced.
By selecting adequate external RC value, the min-imum acceptable input tone duration (t^cc) and the minimum acceptable inter-tone rejection (tr^) can be set. External components (R, C) are chosen by the formula (refer to Figure 5.):
tACC=tDP+tGTP; tlR=tDA+tGTA;
where t^cc1 Tone duration acceptable time
top: EST output delay time ("L"->"H") tQTP: Tone present time tiR: Inter-digit pause rejection time tnA: EST output delay time ("H"->"L") tcTA: Tone absent time
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December 20, 1999
Post: #2
ANY ONE PROVIDE ME THE PCB LAYOUT OF THE CIRCUIT ATTACHED
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