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The Bar Codes ( Download Full Seminar Report )
Post: #1

Article about what the bar code really is, how it is calculated and what it hides, so ingeniously. The numbers are represented by vertical lines and bars, with variable width, either black (which you easily see) or white (some of them you don't, like those at the margins). Those codes are said to make the work much easier, as there are used optical detectors to read the numbers. Each number is generated function of a product code.

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Post: #2
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Example take a seller, before inventing barcodes, he uses a price list for knowing the details of item. But it is very consuming for both searching and preparing the price list. Later this retail outlet is computerized .In these details of items were already kept in database. Using the code number of the item the seller access the details of the item. But here also some problems arise. We must remember the code number of each item and whenever the price changes, we must update the entire database. If new product comes into existence, then we have to give new code to that product. It is risky process.
If we use barcodes, there is no such problem. We get online information without giving any data to the computer. If the manufacturing company produces large quantity of products, then these barcodes are very useful.
The idea was come in 1932.But it implement take many years. The actual usage of barcodes was started in 1970.From last 15 years usage of barcodes increases rapidly.
First barcode product is Wrengly’s checking sum and it is scanned at marsh’s super market around 25 years ago. Then the little barcode has increased and multitude and today one can see barcodes printed on every item in retail’s stores throughout the world.
Now we are observing these barcodes in every item that we come across. This is useful for both manufacturer and seller.
What is barcode? It consists of parallel and adjacent bars. It also consists of some narrow bars and some wide bars. The width and height of bars are specified according to the numbers or characters given to it. But the actual data kept on the bars. These numbers are only for references.
Structure of barcodes? The basic structure of barcodes consists of a start and stop characters. And one or more data characters and a check sum character.
Start and stop characters are useful for barcode readers for knowing where the barcode is started and where it is ended. The data character consists of batch number, price of the item, country name, item code etc. The check sum character is used for knowing whether the barcode reader scan the barcode correctly or not.
We are using three types of barcodes. They are-
1.Numeric-only barcodes.
2.Alpha- numeric barcodes.
3.Two-dimentional barcodes.
1.Numeric-only barcodes:
This type of barcodes represents only numbers. These numeric only barcodes are mostly used in retail market and manufacturing industry. Symbolagies used in numeric-only barcodes are-
These barcode standard is used by all over the world except America and Canada. This is mainly used in retail sales. It consists of 13 numbers. First 2 or 3 number represents country name where the product is manufactured and next 4 or 5 numbers represents code. Next 5 numbers represents product and last number represents check sum.
Check sum is used to know whether the barcode is scanned correctly or not. It is prepared using before 12 numbers. The check sum is prepared based on modulo10 calculation. First it takes the even number sum and multiplied it with 3.Then add odd number sum and subtract this value from the nearest 10 multiple. Then the value is equal to last digit of the barcode.
When the product is scanned, then it calculates the check sum. If it matches then we can identify that the barcode is scanned correctly.
This is similar to Ean-13. The only difference is, EAN-13 uses 13 numbers where as EAN-8 uses 8 numbers. If only less space available for a product or to represent less data then this symbol is used. It is a compressed version.
America and Canada use this barcodes. The products manufactured sold by America and Canada use this barcode. When any other countries want to sell their products to America and Canada these type of barcodes are must.
It consists of 12 numbers. First number represents for which the product is used and the next 5 numbers represents the manufactured ID and next 5 numbers represents the code of that product and the last number represents check sum.
The check sum calculation is similar to calculation in EAN. But the method used for even and odd numbers is different. In EAN, we multiply even number sum with 3 but here, we multiply the odd number sum with Remaining is same as EAN.
2.Alpha- numeric barcodes:
In this barcodes, both numbers and characters. The sybologies used in this type of barcodes are-
CODE 39:
It is used in all factories and government organization in all over the world. This symbol is also called as UDP-3 or 3of9.This recognized by ANSI. The bars in code represents 0 to 9 digits, A-Z characters and special characters. Each barcode consists of start and stop character. Each character consists of 15 barcode elements. It doesn’t consist of check sum.
CODE 93:
It is similar to CODE 39.But only difference is , in CODE 39 , each character represents 15 elements where as in CODE 93 ,each character represents 13 elements. So, this is small version of CODE 39.
CODE 128:
This barcode is used in all the fields. Here we can use both upper and lower case letters and digits from 0 to 9 and symbols and codes. These codes are divided into 3 subsets namely A, B, C.This is because to use more number of codes. Each subset is starts with separate code. It has the facility to change from one subset to another at the middle of the code. By adding a control character, we can change from one subset to another. They are-
Subset-A: ASCII symbols, capitals, control characters.
Subset-B: ASCII symbols, small letter.
Subset-C: Here compressed characters are used. i.e. two
Characters are compressed to form a character
Post: #3
can you please send me the abstract and pdf . very urgent
Post: #4
to get information about the topic The Bar Codes fullreport,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

to get information about the topic The Bar Codes fullreport,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
Post: #5


A barcode represents the line of numbers printed underneath it with a pattern of black and
white bars. Barcodes are designed for computers to read quickly by scanning red LED or laser
light across them. They help in keeping tack of all the stock of products and are very easy to
use and understand.

2 Literature Survey
Barcodes these days are widely used all over the world for varoius commercial puposes and
in many elds for applications of great commercial value. Barcodes contains characters and
symbols with explicit information and keys encoded in it.
One new technology that's emerging these days is the 3D barcode technology. Ningzhong
Liu et al state that the three-dimensional bar code combines the variety of widths, the variety
of colors and a vertical array to provide signi cantly more information content. They describe
a method of designing and analysing 3D barodes easily, starting with basic 1D barcodes. This
gives us great indepth information about Barcodes in general.
Kongqiao Wang et al mention ways to read a barcode using Nokia phone cameras which
helps us to understand more in detail about the structure of the all the Barcodes in general.
Ender Tekin et all propose a Bayesian Algorithm that can be used to read distorted Barcodes
that might have been tampered with. This paper also gives a detailed overview about the basic
structure of Barcodes includind the UPC-A code.

3.1 Why do we need Barcodes?
Using barcode technology in stores can help to solve all a lot of problems. It lets you keep a
centralized record on a computer system that tracks products, prices, and stock levels. The
prices can be changed at anytime without having to put new price tags on all the bottles and
boxes. We can instantly see when stock levels of certain items are running low and reorder.
Because barcode technology is so accurate, we can be reasonably con dent that any items that
are missing (and don't appear to have been sold) have probably been stolen-and maybe move
them to a more secure part of the store or protect them with RFID tags.

3.2 What is Barcode based stock system?
A barcode-based stock system has three main parts. First, there's a central computer running
a database (record system) that keeps a tally of all the products you're selling, who makes it,
what each one costs, and how many you have in stock. Second there are the barcodes that are
printed on products. Finally, there's one or more checkout scanners that can read the barcodes.

3.3 How Barcodes represent the numbers 0-9?
The Uniform Code Council (UCC) generates bar codes known as Universal Product Codes
(UPCs) for product identi cation. Bar codes keep track of inventory and pricing. Manually
reading bar codes is possible when you understand what the numbers represent.
A barcode is a really simple idea: give every item that you want to classify its own, unique
number and then simply print the number on the item so an electronic scanning device can
read it. We could simply print the number itself, but the trouble with decimal numbers is that
they're easy to confuse (a misprinted eight could look like a three to a computer, while six is
identical to nine if you turn it upside down-which could cause all sorts of chaos at the checkout
if you scanned your corn
akes the wrong way up). What is really need is a completely reliable
way of printing numbers so that they can be read very accurately at high speeds. That's the
problem that barcodes solve.

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